Olsberg, Switzerland

Olsberg, Switzerland

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Olsberg is a municipality
Municipalities of Switzerland
Communes , also known as municipalities, are the smallest government division in Switzerland, numbering 2,596 . While many have a population of a few hundred citizens, the largest cities such as Zürich or Geneva also have the legal status of municipalities...

 in the district of Rheinfelden
Rheinfelden (district)
Rheinfelden District lies in the northwest of the canton of Aargau in Switzerland, in the Fricktal region. Its capital is Rheinfelden. Around 88% of the population live in the conurbation of Basel. There are 14 municipalities, with a population of living in an area of 112.09 km²...

 in the canton
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the federal state of Switzerland. Each canton was a fully sovereign state with its own borders, army and currency from the Treaty of Westphalia until the establishment of the Swiss federal state in 1848...

 of Aargau
Aargau
Aargau is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. It comprises the lower course of the river Aare, which is why the canton is called Aar-gau .-History:...

 in Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

.

History


During the neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

 era there was a small settlement near Olsberg. There was also a Roman
Switzerland in the Roman era
The history of Switzerland in the Roman era encompasses the roughly six centuries during which the territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire...

 farm in the area during the 1st Century AD. The modern village of Olsberg is first mentioned in 1236 as Olsperg. The original settlement grew out from the courtyard of the convent
Convent
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns, or the building used by the community, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Communion...

. Until 1790, the convent held the low justice
High, middle and low justice
High, middle and low justices are notions dating from Western feudalism to indicate descending degrees of judiciary power to administer justice by the maximal punishment the holders could inflict upon their subjects and other dependents....

 rights as well as the ownership of the land. With some interruptions, the part of Olsberg to the right of the Violenbach stream belonged to the Austrian
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 district of Rheinfelden from 1330 until 1797. After 1797 it was a French protectorate and then went with the rest of the Fricktal to the newly formed Canton of Aargau in 1803. The left hand side of the stream belonged to the city of Basel from 1461 and later to Canton of Basel-Country (and now forms part of the municipality of Arisdorf
Arisdorf
Arisdorf is a municipality in the district of Liestal in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland.-Geography:Arisdorf has an area, , of . Of this area, or 56.3% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 34.1% is forested...

).

The Abbey Church was renovated between 1670-1707. It was originally a branch church
Chapel of ease
A chapel of ease is a church building other than the parish church, built within the bounds of a parish for the attendance of those who cannot reach the parish church conveniently....

 of the parish church
Parish church
A parish church , in Christianity, is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches....

 in Kaiseraugst
Kaiseraugst
Kaiseraugst is a municipality in the district of Rheinfelden in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. It is named for the Ancient Roman city of Augusta Raurica whose ruins are situated nearby...

. After 1786 it became the parish church of its own parish
Parish
A parish is a territorial unit historically under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of one parish priest, who might be assisted in his pastoral duties by a curate or curates - also priests but not the parish priest - from a more or less central parish church with its associated organization...

. In 1872 it became the first Christian Catholic
Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland
The Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland is the Swiss member church of the Union of Utrecht, also known as Old Catholic Church, originally founded by the jansenists, with a later influx of discontented Catholics following their disappointment with the First Vatican Council. It has 14,000...

 parish church in Switzerland.

Geography


Olsberg has an area, , of 4.62 square kilometres (1.8 sq mi). Of this area, 1.58 km² (0.610041410576205 sq mi) or 34.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.77 km² (1.1 sq mi) or 60.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.25 km² (0.0965255396481338 sq mi) or 5.4% is settled (buildings or roads), 0.01 km² (2.5 acre) or 0.2% is either rivers or lakes.

Of the built up area, housing and buildings made up 2.6% and transportation infrastructure made up 2.4%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 10.6% is used for growing crops and 18.2% is pastures, while 5.4% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is in rivers and streams.

The municipality is located in the Rheinfelden district, in the lower Fricktal
Fricktal
The Fricktal region is the northwest finger extending from the Swiss canton of Aargau. It is situated in Northwestern Switzerland east of Basel, between the High Rhine forming the border with Germany in the north and the Jura Mountains in the south. The Fricktal contains the districts of...

 (Frick river valley). In 1882 Olsberg merged with Arisdorf.

Coat of arms


The blazon
Blazon
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image...

 of the municipal coat of arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 is Vert a Rose Argent and a Chief counter-compony Gules and Argent.

Demographics


Olsberg has a population of , 7.7% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (1997–2007) the population has changed at a rate of 7.6%. Most of the population speaks German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

(96.3%), with French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 being second most common ( 1.6%) and Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

 being third ( 0.5%).

The age distribution, , in Olsberg is; 23 children or 6.3% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 37 teenagers or 10.2% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 31 people or 8.5% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 48 people or 13.2% are between 30 and 39, 57 people or 15.7% are between 40 and 49, and 62 people or 17.1% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 77 people or 21.2% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 17 people or 4.7% are between 70 and 79, there are 8 people or 2.2% who are between 80 and 89,and there are 3 people or 0.8% who are 90 and older.

the average number of residents per living room was 0.54 which is about equal to the cantonal average of 0.57 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least 4 m² (43.1 sq ft) as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, kitchens and habitable cellars and attics. About 76.7% of the total households were owner occupied, or in other words did not pay rent (though they may have a mortgage
Mortgage loan
A mortgage loan is a loan secured by real property through the use of a mortgage note which evidences the existence of the loan and the encumbrance of that realty through the granting of a mortgage which secures the loan...

 or a rent-to-own agreement).

, there were 8 homes with 1 or 2 persons in the household, 48 homes with 3 or 4 persons in the household, and 73 homes with 5 or more persons in the household. , there were 134 private households (homes and apartments) in the municipality, and an average of 2.6 persons per household. there were 92 single family homes (or 56.4% of the total) out of a total of 163 homes and apartments. There were a total of 0 empty apartments for a 0.0% vacancy rate. , the construction rate of new housing units was 5.6 new units per 1000 residents.

In the 2007 federal election
Swiss federal election, 2007
Elections to the Swiss Federal Assembly, the federal parliament of Switzerland, were held on Sunday, 21 October 2007. In a few cantons, a second round of the elections to the Council of States was held on 11 November, 18 November, and 25 November 2007...

 the most popular party was the SVP
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss People's Party , also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre , is a conservative political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Toni Brunner, but spearheaded by Christoph Blocher, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, with 58 members of the National Council and 6 of...

 which received 30.14% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland is the largest centre-left political party in Switzerland....

 (28.61%), the FDP
Free Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Free Democratic Party was a classical liberal political party in Switzerland. It was one of the major parties in Switzerland until its merger with the smaller classical liberal Liberal Party, to form FDP.The Liberals on 1 January 2009....

 (13.29%) and the CVP
Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland. It is the fourth-largest party in the National Council, with 31 seats, and the largest in the Council of States, with 15 seats. It has one seat, that of Doris Leuthard, on the Swiss...

 (10.72%). In the federal election, a total of 133 votes were cast, and the voter turnout
Voter turnout
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election . After increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1960s...

 was 48.0%.

The historical population is given in the following table:
year population
1768 128
1850 248
1900 259
1950 230
1990 300
2000 375

Heritage sites of national significance



The former Cistercians nun
Nun
A nun is a woman who has taken vows committing her to live a spiritual life. She may be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent...

s convent, church and outbuildings are listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance
Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance
The Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance is a register of some 8,300 items of cultural property in Switzerland...

.

Economy


, Olsberg had an unemployment rate of 0.75%. , there were 46 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 16 businesses involved in this sector. people are employed in the secondary sector and there are businesses in this sector. 52 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 10 businesses in this sector.

there were 200 workers who lived in the municipality. Of these, 149 or about 74.5% of the residents worked outside Olsberg while 74 people commuted into the municipality for work. There were a total of 125 jobs (of at least 6 hours per week) in the municipality. Of the working population, 11.1% used public transportation to get to work, and 54.1% used a private car.

Religion


From the , 86 or 22.9% were Roman Catholic, while 166 or 44.3% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church
Swiss Reformed Church
The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel , Bern , St...

. Of the rest of the population, there were 41 individuals (or about 10.93% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic faith.

Education


In Olsberg about 90.7% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule
Fachhochschule
A Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of tertiary education institution, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas . Fachhochschulen were founded in Germany and later adopted by Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Greece...

). Of the school age population , there are 26 students attending primary school in the municipality.

Olsberg is home to the Schul-u.Gde.Bibliothek Olsberg (school and municipal library of Olsberg).

Culture


The cellist Sol Gabetta
Sol Gabetta
Sol Gabetta is an Argentine cellist of French and Russian descent, now settled in Switzerland.- Biography :...

has since 2005 organized a chamber music festival in Olsberg called Solsberg,.