Odrysian kingdom

Odrysian kingdom

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The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian
Thracians
The ancient Thracians were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting areas including Thrace in Southeastern Europe. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family...

 tribes that endured between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC. It consisted largely of present-day Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, spreading to parts of Northern Dobruja
Northern Dobruja
Northern Dobruja is the part of Dobruja within the borders of Romania. It lies between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, bordered in south by Bulgarian Southern Dobruja.-Geography:...

, parts of Northern Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 and modern-day European Turkey
European Turkey
European Turkey may refer to:*Eastern Thrace, the European portion of Turkey*Rumelia, the historical Ottoman territories in Europe*the suggested Accession of Turkey to the European Union...

. King Seuthes III
Seuthes III
Seuthes III was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 331 BC to ca. 300 BC, at first tributary to Alexander the Great of Macedon....

 later moved the capital to Seuthopolis
Seuthopolis
Seuthopolis was an ancient hellenistic-type city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes III, and the capital of the Odrysian kingdom. The city was founded sometime from 325 BC to 315 BC...

.

The Odrysians


The Odrysians (Odrysae or Odrusai, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th–6th centuries BC, , c. 5th–4th centuries BC , and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek...

: "Οδρύσαι") were one of the most powerful Thracian tribes that dwelled in the plain of the Hebrus river. This would place the tribe in modern European Turkey
European Turkey
European Turkey may refer to:*Eastern Thrace, the European portion of Turkey*Rumelia, the historical Ottoman territories in Europe*the suggested Accession of Turkey to the European Union...

 close to Edirne
Edirne
Edirne is a city in Eastern Thrace, the northwestern part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1365 to 1453, before Constantinople became the empire's new capital. At present, Edirne is the capital of the Edirne...

. The river Artescus
Arda River (Maritsa)
The Arda is a river whose source lies in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains near the town of Smolyan, flowing 290 kilometres eastward past Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad and through Greece in the northern portion of the Evros prefecture including Kastanies. It then enters the Maritsa just west of Edirne,...

 passed through their land as well. Xenophon
Xenophon
Xenophon , son of Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens, also known as Xenophon of Athens, was a Greek historian, soldier, mercenary, philosopher and a contemporary and admirer of Socrates...

 writes that the Odrysians held horse races and drunk large amounts of wine after the burial of their dead warriors. Thucydides
Thucydides
Thucydides was a Greek historian and author from Alimos. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC...

 writes on their custom, practised by most Thracians, of giving gifts for getting things done. Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria and lived in the 5th century BC . He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a...

 is the first that mentions the Odrysae.

The Odrysian kingdom


Thrace had nominally been part of the Persian empire since 516 BC and was re-subjugated by Mardonius
Mardonius
Mardonius was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC.-Early years:Mardonius was the son of Gobryas, a Persian nobleman who had assisted the Achaemenid prince Darius when he claimed the throne...

 in 492 BC
492 BC
Year 492 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Macerinus and Augurinus...

.
The Odrysian state was the first Thracian kingdom that acquired power in the region, by the unification of many Thracian tribes under a single ruler, King Teres in the 5th century BC.

Extent and control


Initially, during the reign of Teres or Sitalces the state was at its zenith
Zenith
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere. "Above" means in the vertical direction opposite to the apparent gravitational force at that location. The opposite direction, i.e...

 and extended from the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

 to the east, Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 to the north, the region populated with the tribe called Triballi
Triballi
The Triballi were an ancient tribe whose dominion was around the plains of southern modern Serbia and west Bulgaria, at the Angrus and Brongus and the Iskur River, roughly centered where Serbia and Bulgaria are joined....

 to the north-west, and the basin of the river Strymon to the south-west and towards the Aegean
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

. Later its extent changed from present day Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, Turkish
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Thrace
Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

  and Greece between the Hebrus and the Strymon except for the coastal strip the Greek cities occupied. Sovereignty was never exercised over all of its lands as it varied in relation to tribal politics.

Historian Z.H. Archibald writes:


The Odrysians created the first state entity which superseded the tribal system in the east Balkan peninsula. Their kings were usually known to the outside world as kings of Thrace, although their power did not extend by any means to all Thracian tribes. Even within the confines of their kingdom the nature of royal power remained fluid, its definition subject to the dictates of geography, social relationships, and circumstance


This large territory was populated with a number of Thracian and Daco-Moesian tribes that united under the reign of a common ruler, and began to implement common internal and external policies. Those were favorable conditions for overcoming the tribal divisions which could lead gradually to the formation of a more stable ethnic community. This was not realised and the period of power of the Odrysian kingdom was brief. Despite the attempts of the Odrysian kings to bolster the central power, the separatist tendencies were very strong. Odrysian military strength was based on intra-tribal elites making the kingdom prone to fragmentation. Some tribes were rioting constantly and tried to separate while others remained outside the borders of the kingdom. At the end of the fifth and the beginning of the fourth century BC, as a result of conflicts the Odrysian kingdom split in three parts. The political and military decline continued, while Macedonia was rising as a dangerous and ambitious neighbour.

Historians


According to the Greek historians Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria and lived in the 5th century BC . He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them in a...

 and Thucydides
Thucydides
Thucydides was a Greek historian and author from Alimos. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC...

, a royal dynasty emerged from among the Odrysian tribe in Thrace
Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

 around the end of the 5th century BC, which came to dominate much of the area and peoples between the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 and the Aegean
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

 for the next century. Later writers, royal coin issues, and inscriptions indicate the survival of this dynasty into the early first century AD, although its overt political influence declined progressively first under Persian, Macedonian
Ancient Macedonians
The Macedonians originated from inhabitants of the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, in the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios...

, later Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

, encroachment. Despite their demise, the period of Odrysian rule was of decisive importance for the future character of south-eastern Europe, under the Roman Empire and beyond.

Teres' son, Sitalces, proved to be a good military leader, forcing the tribes that defected the alliance to acknowledge his sovereignty. The rich state that spread from the Danube to the Aegean built roads to develop trade and built a powerful army. In 429 BC
429 BC
Year 429 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Tricipitinus and Fidenas...

, Sitalces allied himself with the Athenians and organized a massive campaign against the Macedonians
Ancient Macedonians
The Macedonians originated from inhabitants of the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, in the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios...

, with a vast army from independent Thracian and Paeonian tribes. According to Thucydides it included as many as 150,000 men, but was obliged to retire through failure of provisions, and the coming winter.

In the 4th century BC, the kingdom split itself in three smaller kingdoms, of which one, with the capital at Seuthopolis
Seuthopolis
Seuthopolis was an ancient hellenistic-type city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes III, and the capital of the Odrysian kingdom. The city was founded sometime from 325 BC to 315 BC...

 survived the longest. During the Hellenistic era it was subject at various times to Alexander the Great, Lysimachus
Lysimachus
Lysimachus was a Macedonian officer and diadochus of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.-Early Life & Career:...

, Ptolemy II, and Philip V
Philip V of Macedon
Philip V was King of Macedon from 221 BC to 179 BC. Philip's reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of Rome. Philip was attractive and charismatic as a young man...

, and was at one time overrun by the Celts, but usually maintained its own kings. During the Roman era its Sapaean rulers were clients of Rome
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 until Thrace was annexed as a Roman province in 46 AD.

Hellenization


Under the Odrysians, Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 became the language of administrators and of the nobility, and the Greek alphabet was adopted. Greek customs and fashions contributed to the recasting of east Balkan society. The nobility adopted Greek fashions in dress, ornament and military equipment, spreading it to the other tribes. Thracian kings were among the first to be Hellenized.

Archaeology


Residences and temples of the Odrysian kingdom have been found, particularly around Starosel
Starosel
Starosel is a village in central Bulgaria, part of Hisarya municipality, Plovdiv Province. It lies at the foot of the Sredna Gora mountain range and the Pyasachnik River crosses it....

 in the Sredna Gora
Sredna Gora
Sredna Gora is a mountain range in central Bulgaria, situated south of and parallel to Balkan mountain range and extending from the river Iskar to the west and the elbow of Tundzha north of Yambol to the east. Sredna Gora is 285 km long, reaching 50 km at its greatest width...

 mountains. Archaeologists have uncovered the northeastern wall of the Thracian kings' residence, 13m in length and preserved up to 2m in height. They also found the names of Cleobulus and Anaxandros, Philip II of Macedon's generals who led the assault on the Odrysian kingdom.

List of Odrysian kings


The list below includes the known Odrysian or Astaean kings of Thrace, but much of it is conjectural. Various other Thracian kings (some of them perhaps Odrysian like Pleuratus) are included as well. Odrysian kings though called Kings of Thrace never exercised sovereignty over all of Thrace. Control varied according to tribal relationships.
  • Teres I, son of Odryses? 460 BC–445 BC
  • Sparatocos
    Sparatocos
    Sparatocos was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 450 BC to before 431 BC, succeeding his father, Teres I....

    , son of Teres I 450–431 BC
  • Sitalces or Sparatocos
    Sparatocos
    Sparatocos was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 450 BC to before 431 BC, succeeding his father, Teres I....

    , son of Teres I 431–424 BC
  • Seuthes I
    Seuthes I
    Seuthes I was king of the Odrysian Thracians from 424 BC until 410 BC. He was the nephew of Sitalces. He is infamous for the fact that he was bribed by Perdiccas II of Macedon, which directly lead to the end of Sitalces' campaign in Macedon. After he became king, Seuthes doubled the tribute of the...

    , son of Sparatokos 424–410 BC
  • Metokos (variously considered the father of or the same as Amadocus I), son of Stalkes
  • Amadocus I, son of Sitalkes
    Sitalkes
    Sitalces was one of the great kings of the Thracian Odrysian state. He was the son of Teres I, and on the sudden death of his father in 431 BC succeeded to the throne...

     or of Metokos 408–389 BC
  • Seuthes II
    Seuthes II
    Seuthes II was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from about 405 to 391 BC. His rule was contemporary with that of Amadocus I, who at the beginning of his own reign made him ruler of the kingdom's Aegean shore territory. Later Seuthes apparently revolted; Aristotle mentions a King Amadocus...

    , son of Maisades
    Maisades
    Maisades was a Thracian of the Odrysae and perhaps the father of Seuthes II.Xenophon in Anabasis mentions Maisades as the father of Seuthes....

     son of Sparatokos 405–387 BC
  • Hebryzelmis
    Hebryzelmis
    Hebryzelmis was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace, from 390 BC–384 BC.Hebrizelm Hill on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Hebryzelmis....

    , son of Seuthes I
    Seuthes I
    Seuthes I was king of the Odrysian Thracians from 424 BC until 410 BC. He was the nephew of Sitalces. He is infamous for the fact that he was bribed by Perdiccas II of Macedon, which directly lead to the end of Sitalces' campaign in Macedon. After he became king, Seuthes doubled the tribute of the...

     387–383 BC
  • Cotys I, son of Seuthes I
    Seuthes I
    Seuthes I was king of the Odrysian Thracians from 424 BC until 410 BC. He was the nephew of Sitalces. He is infamous for the fact that he was bribed by Perdiccas II of Macedon, which directly lead to the end of Sitalces' campaign in Macedon. After he became king, Seuthes doubled the tribute of the...

     or of Seuthes II
    Seuthes II
    Seuthes II was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from about 405 to 391 BC. His rule was contemporary with that of Amadocus I, who at the beginning of his own reign made him ruler of the kingdom's Aegean shore territory. Later Seuthes apparently revolted; Aristotle mentions a King Amadocus...

     384–359 BC
  • Cersobleptes
    Cersobleptes
    Cersobleptes was son of Cotys, king of Thrace, on whose death in 358 BC he inherited the kingdom in conjunction with Berisades and Amadocus II, who were probably his brothers. He was very young at the time, and the whole management of his affairs was assumed by the Euboean adventurer, Charidemus,...

    , son of Cotys I, in eastern Thrace, deposed, 359–341 BC
  • Berisades
    Berisades
    Berisades was a ruler in Thrace, who inherited, in conjunction with Amadocus II and Cersobleptes, the dominions of the Thracian king Cotys on the death of the latter in 358 BC...

    , thought to be a grandson of Seuthes I
    Seuthes I
    Seuthes I was king of the Odrysian Thracians from 424 BC until 410 BC. He was the nephew of Sitalces. He is infamous for the fact that he was bribed by Perdiccas II of Macedon, which directly lead to the end of Sitalces' campaign in Macedon. After he became king, Seuthes doubled the tribute of the...

    , in western Thrace, 359–352 BC
  • Amatokos II
    Amatokos II
    Amatokos II was a king of the Odrysians in middle Thrace from 359 BC to 351 BC. He was the son of Amatokos I. His son was Teres II....

    , son of Amatokos I, in central Thrace, 359–351 BC
  • Cetriporis
    Cetriporis
    Cetriporis was a was a king of the Odrysian kingdom in western Thrace from ca. 352 BC, in succession to his father Berisades, with whom he may already have been a co-ruler. He and his father had entered into an alliance with Athens and the Illyrians against Philip II of Macedonia in 358 BC...

    , son of Berisades
    Berisades
    Berisades was a ruler in Thrace, who inherited, in conjunction with Amadocus II and Cersobleptes, the dominions of the Thracian king Cotys on the death of the latter in 358 BC...

    , in western Thrace, 356–351 BC
  • Teres II
    Teres II
    Teres II was a king of the Odrysians in middle Thrace from 351 BC to 342 BC, succeeding his father, Amatokos II. His rule lasted until the region was taken over by the Macedonian king Philip II....

    , son of Amatokos II
    Amatokos II
    Amatokos II was a king of the Odrysians in middle Thrace from 359 BC to 351 BC. He was the son of Amatokos I. His son was Teres II....

    , in central Thrace, deposed, 351–341 BC
  • (Ruled by Macedon, 341-331 BC)
  • Seuthes III
    Seuthes III
    Seuthes III was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 331 BC to ca. 300 BC, at first tributary to Alexander the Great of Macedon....

    , son of [Cotys I (Odrysian)|Cotys I]] 331 BC–300 BC
  • Cotys II
    Cotys II (Odrysian)
    Cotys II was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 300 BC to ca. 280 BC, succeeding his father, Seuthes III....

    , son of Seuthes III
    Seuthes III
    Seuthes III was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 331 BC to ca. 300 BC, at first tributary to Alexander the Great of Macedon....

     300–280 BC]
  • Raizdos
    Raizdos
    Raizdos or Roigos was a king of the Odrysians of Thrace after ca. 280 BC. He was possibly the son of Cotys II...

     (possibly the same as Roigos, below), son of Cotys II
    Cotys II (Odrysian)
    Cotys II was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 300 BC to ca. 280 BC, succeeding his father, Seuthes III....

    ? 280 BC – ?
  • Cotys III
    Cotys III (Odrysian)
    Cotys III was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace in ca. 270 BC, succeeding his father, Raizdos....

    , son of Raizdos
    Raizdos
    Raizdos or Roigos was a king of the Odrysians of Thrace after ca. 280 BC. He was possibly the son of Cotys II...

     270 BC
  • Rhescuporis I
    Rhescuporis I (Odrysian)
    Rhescuporis I was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace in 240 BC - 215 BC, succeeding his father, Cotys III.....

    , son of Cotys III
    Cotys III (Odrysian)
    Cotys III was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace in ca. 270 BC, succeeding his father, Raizdos....

     240–215 BC
  • Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 215 BC to ca. 190 BC, succeeding his father, Rhescuporis I....

    , son of Rhescuporis I
    Rhescuporis I (Odrysian)
    Rhescuporis I was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace in 240 BC - 215 BC, succeeding his father, Cotys III.....

    , or of Teres III
    Teres III
    Teres III was a king of the Odrysians in Thrace in ca. 149 BC, the son of Cotys IV....

    > 215–190 BC
  • Pleuratus
    Pleuratus
    Pleuratus I was an Illyrian king of the Taulantii State. Pleuratus was the father of Glaucias...

     213–208 BC, a Thracian or Illyria
    Illyria
    In classical antiquity, Illyria was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians....

    n king that attacked Tylis
    Tylis
    Tylis or Tyle was a capital of a short-lived Balkan state mentioned by Polybius that was founded by Celts led by Comontorios in the 3rd century BC, after their invasion of Thrace and Greece in 279 BC. It was located near the eastern edge of the Haemus Mountains in what is now eastern Bulgaria...


Astaean line

  • Teres III
    Teres III
    Teres III was a king of the Odrysians in Thrace in ca. 149 BC, the son of Cotys IV....

    , son of Amatokos III, or of Seuthes III
    Seuthes III
    Seuthes III was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 331 BC to ca. 300 BC, at first tributary to Alexander the Great of Macedon....

    149 BC
  • Roigos (possibly the same as Raizdos
    Raizdos
    Raizdos or Roigos was a king of the Odrysians of Thrace after ca. 280 BC. He was possibly the son of Cotys II...

    , above), son of Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 215 BC to ca. 190 BC, succeeding his father, Rhescuporis I....

    ?
  • Amatokos III
    Amatokos III
    Amatokos III was king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace....

    , son of Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 215 BC to ca. 190 BC, succeeding his father, Rhescuporis I....

    , 184 BC
  • Cotys IV
    Cotys IV
    Cotys IV was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from in ca. 170-160 BC, succeeding his father, Seuthes IV....

    , son of Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV
    Seuthes IV was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 215 BC to ca. 190 BC, succeeding his father, Rhescuporis I....

     171–167 BC
  • Beithys
    Beithys
    Beithys or Bithyas was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace, who reigned from ca. 140 BC to ca. 120 BC. He was the son of Cotys IV....

    , son of Cotys IV
    Cotys IV
    Cotys IV was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from in ca. 170-160 BC, succeeding his father, Seuthes IV....

     ? – 120 BC
  • Cotys V
    Cotys V
    Cotys V was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from after ca. 120 BC, succeeding his possible father, Beithys....

    , son of Beithys 120 BC – ?
  • Sadalas I
    Sadalas I
    Sadalas I was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from before 87 BC to after 79 BC. He was the son of Cotys V.Sadala Point on Robert Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Sadalas I....

    , son of Cotys V 87–79 BC
  • Cotys VI, son of Sadalas I
    Sadalas I
    Sadalas I was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from before 87 BC to after 79 BC. He was the son of Cotys V.Sadala Point on Robert Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Sadalas I....

     57–48 BC
  • Sadalas ΙΙ
    Sadalas ΙΙ
    Sadalas II was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 48 BC to 42 BC. He was the son of Cotys VI....

    , son of Cotys VI 48–42 BC
  • Sadalas ΙΙΙ
    Sadalas ΙΙΙ
    Sadalas III was a king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 42 BC to 31 BC. He was possibly the son of Sadalas II....

    , son of Sadalas II 42–31 BC
  • Cotys VII, son of Sadalas II 31–18 BC
  • Rhescuporis II, son of Cotys VII, and Rhascus
    Rhascus
    Rhascus was one of the last Odrysian kins of Thrace, ruling from 18 BC to 11 BC....

      18–11 BC

Sapaean line

  • Cotys I
    Cotys I (Sapaean)
    Cotys I was a Sapaean client king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 57 BC to ca. 48 BC. He was the son of Rhoemetalces.Cotys was an ally of the Roman general Pompey, to whom he sent a body of auxiliaries under his son Rhescuporis I in 48 BC for use in the Roman civil war against Julius...

    , son of Roimetalkes
  • Rhescuporis I
    Rhescuporis I (Sapaean)
    Rhescuporis I was the Sapaean king of Thrace in 48-41 BC. He was the son of Cotys I.Raskuporis Cove on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Vineh of Bulgaria....

    , son of Cotys I
    Cotys I (Sapaean)
    Cotys I was a Sapaean client king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from ca. 57 BC to ca. 48 BC. He was the son of Rhoemetalces.Cotys was an ally of the Roman general Pompey, to whom he sent a body of auxiliaries under his son Rhescuporis I in 48 BC for use in the Roman civil war against Julius...

     48-42 BC
  • Cotys II
    Cotys II (Sapaean)
    Cotys II was a king of the Sapaean kingdom of Thrace from 42 to ca. 15 BC, succeeding his father, Rhescuporis I....

    , son of Rhescuporis I
    Rhescuporis I (Sapaean)
    Rhescuporis I was the Sapaean king of Thrace in 48-41 BC. He was the son of Cotys I.Raskuporis Cove on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Vineh of Bulgaria....

     42-31 BC
  • Rhoemetalces I
    Rhoemetalces I
    Rhoemetalces I was king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 12 BC to 12, in succession to his nephew Rhescuporis I.Rhoemetalces I was a loyal ally to the first Roman Emperor Augustus. He was a direct descendant of the Thracian King Cotys I, and the middle son of the earlier Thracian king Cotys VI...

    , son of Kotys II 31 BC-AD 12
  • Rhescuporis II
    Rhescuporis II
    Rhescuporis II was king of half of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 12 to 18, in succession to his brother Rhoemetalces I, and briefly ruler of the entire realm thereafter, usurping the other half from nephew Cotys VIII. He was a son of the earlier Thracian king Cotys VI and the younger brother...

    , son of Kotys II 12-19
  • Cotys VIII, son of Rhoemetalces I
    Rhoemetalces I
    Rhoemetalces I was king of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 12 BC to 12, in succession to his nephew Rhescuporis I.Rhoemetalces I was a loyal ally to the first Roman Emperor Augustus. He was a direct descendant of the Thracian King Cotys I, and the middle son of the earlier Thracian king Cotys VI...

     12-18
  • Rhoemetalces II
    Rhoemetalces II
    Rhoemetalces II was a Client Ruler in association with his mother Antonia Tryphaena of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under the Romans from 18 to 38. On coinage his royal title is in Greek:ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΑΣ or of King Rhoemetalces...

    , son of Rhescuporis II
    Rhescuporis II
    Rhescuporis II was king of half of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 12 to 18, in succession to his brother Rhoemetalces I, and briefly ruler of the entire realm thereafter, usurping the other half from nephew Cotys VIII. He was a son of the earlier Thracian king Cotys VI and the younger brother...

     19-38
  • Rhoemetalces III
    Rhoemetalces III
    Rhoemetalces III was a King of the Thracians. He was the son of the Monarch Rhescuporis II. He in association with his cousin-wife Pythodoris II were client rulers of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace under the Romans from 38 to 46, in succession to Pythodoris’ mother Tryphaena and her brother...

    , son of Cotys VIII 38-46

See also

  • Thracians
    Thracians
    The ancient Thracians were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting areas including Thrace in Southeastern Europe. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family...

  • Thrace
    Thrace
    Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

  • List of Thracian tribes
  • Thracian language
    Thracian language
    The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeastern Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks. The Thracian language exhibits satemization: it either belonged to the Satem group of Indo-European languages or it was strongly...

  • Thracian mythology
  • Thracian kings

External links