Oda Nobunaga

Oda Nobunaga

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was the initiator of the unification of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 under the shogunate in the late 16th century, which ruled Japan until the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

 in 1868. He was also a major daimyo
Daimyo
is a generic term referring to the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings...

 during the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
The or Warring States period in Japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. The name "Sengoku" was adopted by Japanese historians in reference...

 of Japanese history
History of Japan
The history of Japan encompasses the history of the islands of Japan and the Japanese people, spanning the ancient history of the region to the modern history of Japan as a nation state. Following the last ice age, around 12,000 BC, the rich ecosystem of the Japanese Archipelago fostered human...

. His opus was continued, completed and finalized by his successors Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
was a daimyo warrior, general and politician of the Sengoku period. He unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle...

 and Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
 was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan , which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara  in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but...

. He was the second son of Oda Nobuhide
Oda Nobuhide
was a warlord and magistrate of lower Owari Province during the Sengoku period of Japan. His father was Oda Nobusada and Nobuhide was the father of Oda Nobunaga.-Ruling the clan:...

, a deputy shugo
Shugo
was a title, commonly translated as "Governor," given to certain officials in feudal Japan. They were each appointed by the shogun to oversee one or more of the provinces of Japan...

(military governor) with land holdings in Owari Province
Owari Province
was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of present day Aichi Prefecture, including much of modern Nagoya. Its abbreviation is Bishū .-History:The province was created in 646....

. Nobunaga lived a life of continuous military conquest, eventually conquering a third of Japanese daimyo before his death in 1582. His successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a loyal Oda supporter, would eventually become the first man to conquer all of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and the first ruler of all Japan since the Ōnin War
Onin War
The ' was a civil war that lasted 10 years during the Muromachi period in Japan. A dispute between Hosokawa Katsumoto and Yamana Sōzen escalated into a nationwide war involving the Ashikaga shogunate and a number of daimyo in many regions of Japan....

.

Biography


Oda Nobunaga was born on June 23, 1534, and was given the childhood name of . He was the second son of Oda Nobuhide
Oda Nobuhide
was a warlord and magistrate of lower Owari Province during the Sengoku period of Japan. His father was Oda Nobusada and Nobuhide was the father of Oda Nobunaga.-Ruling the clan:...

. Through his childhood and early teenage years, he was well known for his bizarre behavior and received the name of . With the introduction of firearms into Japan, though, he became known for his fondness of Tanegashima
Tanegashima
is an island lying to the south of Kyushu, in southern Japan, and is part of Kagoshima Prefecture. The island is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands....

 firearms. He was also known to run around with other youths from the area, without any regard to his own rank in society. He is said to be born in Nagoya Castle
Nagoya Castle
is a Japanese castle located in Nagoya, central Japan. During the Edo period, Nagoya Castle was the center of one of the most important castle towns in Japan—Nagoya-juku— and it included the most important stops along the Minoji, which linked the Tōkaidō with the Nakasendō.-History:In...

, although this is subject to debate. It is however certain that he was born in the Owari domain. In 1574 Nobunaga accepted the title of Kuge(or Court Noble), then in 1577 he was given the title of Udaijin (or Minister of the Right), the third highest position in the Imperial court.

Unification of Owari Province



In 1551, Oda Nobuhide died unexpectedly and, during his funeral, Nobunaga was said to have acted outrageously, throwing the ceremonial incense at the altar. This act alienated many Oda retainers, convincing them of Nobunaga's mediocrity and lack of discipline and they began to side with his more soft-spoken and well-mannered brother, Nobuyuki
Oda Nobuyuki
was the son of Oda Nobuhide, and younger brother of Oda Nobunaga in the earlier years of the Sengoku period of the 16th century of Japan.Nobuyuki conspired against his brother Nobunaga with the Hayashi and Shibata families. Nobuyuki's Suemori Castle was reduced by Ikeda Nobuteru. Though Hayashi and...

. Hirate Masahide
Hirate Masahide
was a Japanese samurai who served the Oda clan for two generations. His original name was .Masahide first served Oda Nobuhide.He was talented not only as a samurai but also in various arts like sado and waka, and this helped him to act as a skilled diplomat, dealing with Ashikaga shogunate and...

, who was a valuable mentor and retainer to Nobunaga, was ashamed by Nobunaga's behavior and performed seppuku
Seppuku
is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for samurai. Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was either used voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies , or as a form of capital punishment...

. This had a huge effect on Nobunaga, who later built a temple to honor Masahide.

Though Nobunaga was Nobuhide's legitimate successor, the Oda clan
Oda clan
The was a family of Japanese daimyo who were to become an important political force in the unification of Japan in the mid-16th century. Though they had the climax of their fame under Oda Nobunaga and fell from the spotlight soon after, several branches of the family would continue on as daimyo...

 was divided into many factions. Furthermore, the entire clan was technically under the control of Owari's shugo
Shugo
was a title, commonly translated as "Governor," given to certain officials in feudal Japan. They were each appointed by the shogun to oversee one or more of the provinces of Japan...

, Shiba Yoshimune
Shiba Yoshimune
was the final head of the Shiba clan and lived during the latter half of the Sengoku period of Feudal Japan. Nominally, Yoshimune was the governor of Owari province and resided at Kiyosu castle. Though he was governor the head of the Iwakura Oda clan of Owari and the deputy governor of Yoshimune,...

. Thus Oda Nobutomo
Oda Nobutomo
was a Japanese warlord during the Sengoku period. He was head of the Iwakura Oda faction of the Oda clan, and ruled the four southern districts of Owari Province as shugodai...

, as the brother to the deceased Nobuhide and deputy to the shugo, used the powerless Yoshimune as his puppet and challenged Nobunaga's place as Owari's new ruler. Nobutomo murdered Yoshimune when it was discovered that he supported and attempted to aid Nobunaga.

To increase his power, Nobunaga persuaded Oda Nobumitsu, a younger brother of Nobuhide, to join his side and, with Nobumitsu's help, slew Nobutomo in Kiyosu Castle
Kiyosu Castle
is a castle that acted as a base of operations for Oda Nobunaga during the latter half of the Sengoku period of feudal Japan. It is located in the city of Kiyosu, Aichi Prefecture, Japan....

, which later became Nobunaga's place of residence for over ten years. Taking advantage of the position of Shiba Yoshikane, Yoshimune's son, as the rightful shugo, Nobunaga forged an alliance with the Imagawa clan
Imagawa clan
The was a Japanese clan that claimed descent from Emperor Seiwa . It was a branch of the Minamoto clan by the Ashikaga clan.-Origins:Ashikaga Kuniuji, grandson of Ashikaga Yoshiuji, established himself in the 13th century at Imagawa and took its name.Imagawa Norikuni received from his cousin the...

 of Suruga Province
Suruga Province
was an old province in the area that is today the central part of Shizuoka prefecture. It was sometimes called . Suruga bordered on Izu, Kai, Sagami, Shinano, and Tōtōmi provinces; and had access to the Pacific Ocean through Suruga Bay.-History:...

 and the Kira clan
Kira clan
The Kira clan was a Japanese clan, descended from Emperor Seiwa , and was a cadet branch of the Ashikaga family from the Minamoto clan .Ashikaga Mitsuuji, grandson of Ashikaga Yoshiuji was the first to take the name of Kira....

 of Mikawa Province
Mikawa Province
is an old province in the area that today forms the eastern half of Aichi Prefecture. It was sometimes called . Mikawa bordered on Owari, Mino, Shinano, and Tōtōmi Provinces....

, as both clans had the same shugo and would have no excuse to decline. Additionally, this also ensured that the Imagawa clan would have to stop attacking Owari's borders.

Even though Nobuyuki and his supporters were still at large, Nobunaga decided to bring an army to Mino Province
Mino Province
, one of the old provinces of Japan, encompassed part of modern-day Gifu Prefecture. It was sometimes called . Mino Province bordered Echizen, Hida, Ise, Mikawa, Ōmi, Owari, and Shinano Provinces....

 to aid Saitō Dōsan
Saito Dosan
was a daimyo who dramatically rose and also fell from power in Sengoku period Japan. He was also known as the for his ruthless tactics.-Life:Originally a wealthy merchant from Yamashiro Province , he entered the service of Nagai Nagahiro of Mino Province , assuming the name Nishimura Kankurô.He...

 after Dōsan's son, Saitō Yoshitatsu, turned against him. The campaign failed, however, as Dōsan was killed and Yoshitatsu became the new master of Mino in 1556.

A few months later, Nobuyuki, with the support of Shibata Katsuie
Shibata Katsuie
or was a Japanese military commander during the Sengoku Period who served Oda Nobunaga.-Biography:Katsuie was born in the Shibata family, a branch of the Shiba clan . Note the differences between , , and the .Katsuie was the retainer of Oda Nobukatsu...

 and Hayashi Hidesada
Hayashi Hidesada
was a Japanese samurai and retainer of Oda clan, who lived during the Sengoku period. He was also known as . His tsūshō was , and his court title was Sado no Kami.-Biography:...

, rebelled against Nobunaga. The three conspirators were defeated at the Battle of Inō, but they were pardoned after the intervention of Tsuchida Gozen
Tsuchida Gozen
was married to Oda Nobuhide and was the mother of Oda Nobunaga, a major feudal warlord in the Sengoku period of Japan. She was also the mother of three of his brothers, Nobuyuki, Nobukane and Hidetaka; and two of his sisters, Oinu and Oichi. It is assumed that she is the daughter of Tsuchida...

, the birth mother of both Nobunaga and Nobuyuki. The next year, however, Nobuyuki again planned to rebel. When Nobunaga was informed of this by Shibata Katsuie, he faked illness to get close to Nobuyuki and assassinated him in Kiyosu Castle.

By 1559, Nobunaga had eliminated all opposition within the clan and throughout Owari Province
Owari Province
was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of present day Aichi Prefecture, including much of modern Nagoya. Its abbreviation is Bishū .-History:The province was created in 646....

. He continued to use Shiba Yoshikane as an excuse to make peace with other daimyo, although it was later discovered that Yoshikane had secretly corresponded with the Kira and Imagawa clans, trying to oust Nobunaga and restore the Shiba clan
Shiba clan
The was a Japanese clan claiming descent from the Minamoto clan of the Heian era that held influence and territory in the provinces of Echizen province and Owari province to which they were governors during the Sengoku era. However, they were unable to make a transition to Sengoku-daimyo and lost...

's place. Nobunaga eventually cast him out, making alliances created in the Shiba clan's name void.

Battle of Okehazama



In 1560, Imagawa Yoshimoto
Imagawa Yoshimoto
was one of the leading daimyo in the Sengoku period Japan. Based in Suruga Province, he was one of the three daimyo that dominated the Tōkaidō region. He was one of the dominant daimyo in Japan for a time, until his death in 1560....

 gathered an army of 25,000 men and started his march toward Kyoto
Kyoto
is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.-History:...

, with the excuse of aiding the frail Ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga shogunate
The , also known as the , was a Japanese feudal military regime, ruled by the shoguns of the Ashikaga clan.This period is also known as the Muromachi period and gets its name from Muromachi Street of Kyoto where the third shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu established his residence...

. The Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira clan
The was a Japanese samurai clan that claimed descent from the Minamoto clan. It first originated in and took its name from Matsudaira village, in Mikawa Province . Over the course of its history, the clan produced many branches, most of which also centered around Mikawa Province...

 of Mikawa Province was also to join Yoshimoto's forces. In comparison, the Oda clan could rally an army of only 1,800, and the forces would also have to be split up to defend various forts at the border. Under such dire circumstances, Nobunaga was said to have performed his favorite Atsumori dance at Kiyosu Castle
Kiyosu Castle
is a castle that acted as a base of operations for Oda Nobunaga during the latter half of the Sengoku period of feudal Japan. It is located in the city of Kiyosu, Aichi Prefecture, Japan....

, before riding off with only a few attendants to pray in a shrine. The Oda clan's generals did not believe that they would survive the attack from Imagawa Yoshimoto's army. Only the night before, Shibata Katsuie had tried in vain to change Oda Nobunaga's mind about a frontal attack; he kept reminding Nobunaga of the joint army's complete lack of manpower compared to the Imagawa soldiers, who, according to rumors, numbered 40,000 men. Hayashi Sado no Kami Hidesada
Hayashi Hidesada
was a Japanese samurai and retainer of Oda clan, who lived during the Sengoku period. He was also known as . His tsūshō was , and his court title was Sado no Kami.-Biography:...

, the remaining advisor from Nobuhide's days, even argued for surrender without fighting, using the same reasoning as Katsuie.

Nobunaga's scouts reported that Yoshimoto was resting his troops at a place called Dengaku-hazama, near a small village called Okehazama. Nobunaga knew the countryside well. Dengaku-hazama was a narrow gorge, an ideal place for a surprise attack if the conditions were right. The scouts added that the Imagawa army were celebrating their victories with food and drink while Yoshimoto viewed the heads. Nobunaga moved up towards Imagawa's camp, and set up a position some distance away. An array of flags and dummy troops made of straw and spare helmets gave the impression of a large host, while the real Oda army hurried round in a rapid march to get behind Yoshimoto's camp. Fortune and weather favored Nobunaga, for about mid-day the stifling heat gave way to a terrific thunderstorm. As the Imagawa samurai sheltered from the rain Nobunaga deployed his troops, and when the storm ceased they charged down upon the enemy in the gorge. So sudden was the attack that Yoshimoto thought a brawl had broken out among his men. He realized it was an attack when two samurai (Mōri Shinsuke and Hattori Koheita) charged up. One aimed a spear at him, which Yoshimoto deflected with his sword, but the second swung his blade and cut off Imagawa's head.

Rapidly weakening, the Imagawa clan no longer exerted control over the Matsudaira clan. In 1561, an alliance was forged between Oda Nobunaga and Matsudaira Motoyasu (who would become Tokugawa Ieyasu), despite the decades-old hostility between the two clans. Tradition dates this battle as the time that Nobunaga first noticed the talents of the sandal bearer who would eventually become Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Tenka Fubu


In Mino, Saitō Yoshitatsu died suddenly of illness in 1561, and was succeeded by his son, Saitō Tatsuoki
Saito Tatsuoki
was a daimyo in Mino Province during the Sengoku period and the third generation lord of the Saitō clan. He was a son of Saitō Yoshitatsu, and a grandson of Saitō Dōsan. He was also a nephew of Oda Nobunaga's first wife, Nōhime, herself a daughter of Saitō Dōsan....

. Tatsuoki, however, was young and much less effective as a ruler and military strategist compared to his father and grandfather. Taking advantage of this situation, Nobunaga moved his base to Komaki Castle and started his campaign in Mino. By convincing Saitō retainers to abandon their incompetent and foolish master, Nobunaga weakened the Saitō clan
Saito clan
The was a Japanese clan in Mino Province during the Sengoku period in the 16th century. According to records, the Saitō clan descended from the Fujiwara clan...

 significantly, eventually mounting a final attack in 1567. Nobunaga captured Inabayama Castle
Gifu Castle
is a castle located in the city of Gifu, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Along with Mount Kinka and the Nagara River, it is one of the main symbols of the city.-History:Gifu Castle was first built by the Nikaidō clan between 1201 and 1204 during the Kamakura Period....

 and sent Tatsuoki into exile.

After taking possession of the castle, Nobunaga changed the name of both the castle
Gifu Castle
is a castle located in the city of Gifu, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Along with Mount Kinka and the Nagara River, it is one of the main symbols of the city.-History:Gifu Castle was first built by the Nikaidō clan between 1201 and 1204 during the Kamakura Period....

 and the surrounding town to Gifu
Gifu, Gifu
is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture, Japan, and serves as the prefectural capital. The city has played an important role in Japan's history because of its location in the middle of the country. During the Sengoku period, various warlords, including Oda Nobunaga, used...

. Remains of Nobunaga's residence in Gifu can be found today in Gifu Park
Gifu Park
is a public park located at the base of Mount Kinka in the city of Gifu, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Inside the park, there are many attractions, including Gifu Castle, Mount Kinka, the Mt. Kinka Ropeway, the Gifu City Museum of History, the Eizō & Tōichi Katō Memorial Art Museum, and the Nawa Insect...

. Naming it after the legendary Mount Qi (岐山 Qi in Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or Putonghua, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China , and is one of the four official languages of Singapore....

) in China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, on which the Zhou dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
The Zhou Dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as...

 started, Nobunaga revealed his ambition to conquer the whole of Japan. He also started using a new personal seal
Seal (device)
A seal can be a figure impressed in wax, clay, or some other medium, or embossed on paper, with the purpose of authenticating a document ; but the term can also mean the device for making such impressions, being essentially a mould with the mirror image of the design carved in sunken- relief or...

 that read Tenka Fubu (天下布武), which means "Spread the militarism over the whole land", or literally "... under the sky" (see all under heaven
All under heaven
Tianxia is a phrase in the Chinese language and an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty.In ancient China, tianxia denoted the lands, space, and area divinely...

). In 1564, Nobunaga had his sister, Oichi
Oichi
or a female historical figure in the late Sengoku period. She is known primarily as the mother of three daughters who married well -- Yodo-dono, Ohatsu and Oeyo....

, marry Azai Nagamasa
Azai Nagamasa
was a Daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japan. His clan, the Azai, were located in northern Ōmi Province, east of Lake Biwa. He was both the brother-in-law of Oda Nobunaga, starting in 1564, and one of Nobunaga's enemies from 1570-1573. Nagamasa and his clan were utterly destroyed by Oda...

, a daimyo in northern Ōmi Province
Omi Province
is an old province of Japan, which today comprises Shiga Prefecture. It was one of the provinces that made up the Tōsandō circuit. It is nicknamed as .Lake Biwa, Japan's largest lake, is located at the center of the province...

. This would later help pave the way to Kyoto.

In 1568, Ashikaga Yoshiaki
Ashikaga Yoshiaki
was the 15th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate in Japan who reigned from 1568 to 1573. His father, Ashikaga Yoshiharu was the twelfth shogun, and his brother, Ashikaga Yoshiteru was the thirteenth shogun....

 went to Gifu to ask Nobunaga to start a campaign toward Kyoto. Yoshiaki was the brother of the murdered thirteenth shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate, Yoshiteru
Ashikaga Yoshiteru
, also known as Yoshifushi or Yoshifuji, was the 13th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1546 to 1565 during the late Muromachi period of Japan. He was the eldest son of the 12th shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiharu; and his mother was a daughter of Konoe Taneie...

, and wanted revenge against the killers who had already set up a puppet shogun, Ashikaga Yoshihide
Ashikaga Yoshihide
was the 14th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who held nominal power for a few months in 1568 during the Muromachi period of Japan. When he became shogun, he changed his name to Yoshinaga, but he is more conventionally recognized today by the name Yoshihide....

. Nobunaga agreed to install Yoshiaki as the new shogun and, grasping the opportunity to enter Kyoto, started his campaign. An obstacle in southern Ōmi Province, however, was the Rokkaku clan
Rokkaku clan
The was a Japanese samurai clan which wielded considerable power in the Muromachi period under the Ashikaga shogunate.-Rise and Fall:Founded by Sasaki Yasutsuna of Ōmi province in the 13th century, the name Rokkaku was taken from their residence within Kyoto; however, many members of this family...

. Led by Rokkaku Yoshikata, the clan refused to recognize Yoshiaki as shogun and was ready to go to war. In response, Nobunaga launched a rapid attack, driving the Rokkaku clan out of their castles.

Within a short amount of time, Nobunaga had reached Kyoto and driven the Miyoshi clan
Miyoshi clan
The Miyoshi clan is a Japanese family descended from Emperor Seiwa and the Minamoto clan . They were a cadet branch of the Ogasawara clan and the Takeda clan....

 out of the city. Yoshiaki was made the 15th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. Nobunaga refused the post of Kanrei
Kanrei
or, more rarely, kanryō, was a high political post in feudal Japan; it is usually translated as Shogun's Deputy. After 1349, there were actually two Kanrei, the Kyoto Kanrei and the Kantō Kanrei....

 and eventually began to restrict the powers of the shogun, making it clear that he intended to use him as a puppet to justify his future conquests. Yoshiaki, however, was not pleased about being a puppet and secretly corresponded with various daimyo, forging an anti-Nobunaga alliance.

The Asakura clan was particularly disdainful of the Oda clan's increasing power because, historically, the Oda clan had been subordinate to the Asakura clan. Furthermore, Asakura Yoshikage
Asakura Yoshikage
) was a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period, who ruled a part of Echizen Province.Born in Ichijodani Echizen, Yoshikage ascended to the head of the Asakura clan in 1548. He proved to be adept at political and diplomatic management, markedly demonstrated by the Asakura negotiations with the...

 had also protected Ashikaga Yoshiaki, but had not been willing to march toward Kyoto. Thus, the Asakura clan also despised Nobunaga the most for his success.

When Nobunaga launched a campaign into the Asakura clan's domain, Azai Nagamasa, to whom Oichi was married, broke the alliance with Oda to honor the Azai-Asakura alliance which had lasted for generations. With the help of Ikko rebels
Ikko-ikki
', literally "Ikkoshū Uprising", were mobs of peasant farmers, Buddhist monks, Shinto priests and local nobles, who rose up against samurai rule in 15th to 16th century Japan. They followed the beliefs of the Jōdo Shinshū sect of Buddhism which taught that all believers are equally saved by Amida...

, the anti-Nobunaga alliance sprang into full force, taking a heavy toll on the Oda clan. At the Battle of Anegawa
Battle of Anegawa
The 1570 came as a reaction to Oda Nobunaga's sieges of the castles of Odani and Yokoyama, which belonged to the Azai and Asakura clans. It was also referred to as the Battle of Nomura by the Oda and Azai clans and the Battle of Mitamura by the Asakura clan.As warriors sallied forth from the...

, Tokugawa Ieyasu joined forces with Nobunaga and defeated the combined forces of the Asakura and Azai clans.

Nobunaga waged war even against Buddhists
Buddhism in Japan
The history of Buddhism in Japan can be roughly divided into three periods, namely the Nara period , the Heian period and the post-Heian period . Each period saw the introduction of new doctrines and upheavals in existing schools...

 when they armed themselves and did not obey him. The Enryaku-ji
Enryaku-ji
thumb|300px|Konpon Chū-dō , Enryaku-ji's main hall is a Tendai monastery located on Mount Hiei in Ōtsu, overlooking Kyoto. It was founded during the early Heian period. The temple complex was established by Saichō , also known as Dengyō Daishi, who introduced the Tendai sect of Mahayana Buddhism...

 monastery on Mt. Hiei, with its sōhei
Sohei
were Buddhist warrior monks of feudal Japan. At certain points of history they held considerable power, obliging the imperial and military governments to collaborate....

(warrior monks) of the Tendai
Tendai
is a Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school.Chappell frames the relevance of Tendai for a universal Buddhism:- History :...

 school who aided the anti-Nobunaga group by helping Azai-Asakura alliance, was a particular thorn in Nobunaga's side, residing as it did so close to his residence in Kyoto. Nobunaga attacked Enryaku-ji and burnt it to the ground in 1571, even though it had been admired as a significant cultural symbol at the time, and killed between 3,000 and 4,000 men, women and children in the process.

During the siege of Nagashima
Nagashima
' was a series of fortresses and fortifications controlled by the Ikkō-ikki, a sect of warrior monks in Japan's Sengoku period who opposed samurai rule. It was attacked and destroyed by Oda Nobunaga in the 1570s...

, Nobunaga suffered tremendous losses, including the death of a couple of his brothers, to the Ikkō-ikki
Ikko-ikki
', literally "Ikkoshū Uprising", were mobs of peasant farmers, Buddhist monks, Shinto priests and local nobles, who rose up against samurai rule in 15th to 16th century Japan. They followed the beliefs of the Jōdo Shinshū sect of Buddhism which taught that all believers are equally saved by Amida...

 resistance, a coalition of peasant farmers, monks, Shinto priests and local nobles that opposed samurai rule. The siege finally ended when Nobunaga surrounded the enemy complex and set fire to it, killing tens of thousands of non-combatants, including women and children. He later succeeded in taking their main stronghold at Ishiyama Hongan-ji
Ishiyama Hongan-ji
For other uses, see Ishiyama .The ' was the primary fortress of the Ikkō-ikki, mobs of warrior monks and peasants who opposed samurai rule. It was established in 1496, at the mouth of the Yodo River, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea. At the time, this was just outside of the remains of the...

 after an 11-year siege that ended with its surrender.

Through the years, Nobunaga was able to further consolidate his position and conquer his enemies through brutality.

One of the strongest rulers in the anti-Nobunaga alliance was Takeda Shingen
Takeda Shingen
, of Kai Province, was a preeminent daimyo in feudal Japan with exceptional military prestige in the late stage of the Sengoku period.-Name:Shingen was called "Tarō" or "Katsuchiyo" during his childhood...

, in spite of his generally peaceful relationship and a nominal alliance with the Oda clan. In 1572, at the urgings of the shogun, Shingen decided to make a drive for the capital starting with invading Tokugawa's territory. Tied down on the Western front, Nobunaga sent lackluster aid to Ieyasu, who suffered defeat at the Battle of Mikatagahara
Battle of Mikatagahara
The ' was one of the most famous battles of Takeda Shingen's campaigns, and one of the best demonstrations of his cavalry-based tactics.-Background:...

 in 1573. However, after the battle, Tokugawa's forces launched night raids and convinced Takeda of an imminent counter-attack, thus saving the vulnerable Tokugawa with the bluff. This would play a pivotal role in Tokugawa's philosophy of strategic patience in his campaigns with Oda Nobunaga. Shortly thereafter, the Takeda forces retreated after Shingen died of illness in 1573. This was a relief for Nobunaga because he could now focus on Yoshiaki, who had openly declared hostility more than once, despite the imperial court's intervention. Nobunaga was able to defeat Yoshiaki's weak forces and send him into exile, bringing the Ashikaga shogunate to an end in the same year.

Also in 1573, Nobunaga successfully destroyed the Asakura and Azai clans, leading Azai Nagamasa to send Oichi back to Nobunaga and commit suicide. With Nagashima's destruction in 1574, the only threat to Nobunaga was the Takeda clan, now led by Takeda Katsuyori
Takeda Katsuyori
was a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku Period, who was famed as the head of the Takeda clan and the successor to the legendary warlord Takeda Shingen. He was the son of Shingen by the , the daughter of Suwa Yorishige...

.

At the decisive Battle of Nagashino
Battle of Nagashino
The ' took place in 1575 near Nagashino Castle on the plain of Shitaragahara in the Mikawa province of Japan. Forces under Takeda Katsuyori had besieged the castle since the 17th of June; Okudaira Sadamasa , a Tokugawa vassal, commanded the defending force...

, the combined forces of Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu devastated the Takeda clan with the strategic use of arquebuses. Nobunaga compensated for the arquebus' slow reloading time by arranging the arquebusiers in three lines. After each line fired, it would duck and reload as the next line fired. The bullets were able to pierce the Takeda cavalry armor, causing chaos among the Takeda cavalry, who were pushed back and killed by incoming fire. From there, Nobunaga continued his expansion, sending Shibata Katsuie
Shibata Katsuie
or was a Japanese military commander during the Sengoku Period who served Oda Nobunaga.-Biography:Katsuie was born in the Shibata family, a branch of the Shiba clan . Note the differences between , , and the .Katsuie was the retainer of Oda Nobukatsu...

 and Maeda Toshiie
Maeda Toshiie
was one of the leading generals of Oda Nobunaga following the Sengoku period of the 16th century extending to the Azuchi-Momoyama period. His father was Maeda Toshimasa. He was the fourth of seven brothers. His childhood name was "Inuchiyo" . His preferred weapon was a yari and he was known as...

 to the north and Akechi Mitsuhide
Akechi Mitsuhide
, nicknamed Jūbei or called from his clan name and title, was a samurai who lived during the Sengoku period of Feudal Japan.Mitsuhide was a general under daimyo Oda Nobunaga, although he became infamous for his betrayal in 1582, which led to Nobunaga's death at Honno-ji...

 to Tamba Province
Tamba Province
was an old province of Japan. The ambit of its borders encompassed both the central part of modern Kyoto Prefecture and the east-central part of Hyōgo Prefecture. It was sometimes called , with Tango Province...

.

The Oda clan's siege of Ishiyama Hongan-ji
Ishiyama Hongan-ji
For other uses, see Ishiyama .The ' was the primary fortress of the Ikkō-ikki, mobs of warrior monks and peasants who opposed samurai rule. It was established in 1496, at the mouth of the Yodo River, on the coast of the Seto Inland Sea. At the time, this was just outside of the remains of the...

 in Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

 made some progress, but the Mori clan of the Chūgoku region
Chugoku region
The , also known as the , is the westernmost region of Honshū, the largest island of Japan. It consists of the prefectures of Hiroshima, Okayama, Shimane, Tottori and Yamaguchi. It has a population of about 7.8 million.- History :...

 broke the naval blockade and started sending supplies into the strongly fortified complex by sea. As a result, in 1577, Hashiba Hideyoshi was ordered to expand west to confront the Mori clan.

However, Uesugi Kenshin
Uesugi Kenshin
was a daimyo who ruled Echigo province in the Sengoku period of Japan.He was one of the most powerful lords of the Sengoku period. While chiefly remembered for his prowess on the battlefield, Kenshin is also regarded as an extremely skillful administrator who fostered the growth of local industries...

, said to be the greatest general of his time since the demise of Takeda Shingen, took part in the second anti-Nobunaga alliance. Following his conquest of neighboring forces, the two sides clashed during the Battle of Tedorigawa
Battle of Tedorigawa
The took place near the Tedori River in Japan's Kaga Province in 1577. The battle site is in the modern-day Ishikawa Prefecture.- Background :The Tedorigawa Campaign was precipitated by Uesugi intervention inside the domain of the Hatakeyama clan, an Oda Client state...

 which resulted in a decisive Uesugi victory. It was around this time that Uesugi forces began preparations to march on Kyoto.

Due to his defeat, Nobunaga's expansion in Noto, Kaga, and Etchū Province area was stagnant for a while. But Kenshin, who prepared to move his armies again after the battle, died from a possible cerebral hemorrhage before moving them. After Kenshin's death and much confusion among his successors, Nobunaga started his campaign on this area again.

Nobunaga forced the Ishiyama Hongan-ji to surrender in 1580 and destroyed the Takeda clan in 1582. Nobunaga's administration was at its height of power and he was about to launch invasions into Echigo Province
Echigo Province
was an old province in north-central Japan, on the shores of the Sea of Japan. It was sometimes called , with Echizen and Etchū Provinces. Today the area is part of Niigata Prefecture, which also includes the island which was the old Sado Province. This province was the northernmost part of the...

 and Shikoku
Shikoku
is the smallest and least populous of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshū and east of the island of Kyūshū. Its ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima , Iyo-shima , and Futana-shima...

.

Incident at Honnō-ji



In 1582, his former sandal bearer Hashiba Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
was a daimyo warrior, general and politician of the Sengoku period. He unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle...

 invaded Bichu Province, laying siege to Takamatsu Castle. However, the castle was vital to the Mori clan, and losing it would leave the Mori home domain vulnerable. Led by Mōri Terumoto
Mori Terumoto
Mōri Terumoto , son of Mōri Takamoto and grandson and successor of the great warlord Mōri Motonari, fought against Toyotomi Hideyoshi but was eventually overcome, participated in the Kyūshū campaign on Hideyoshi's side and built Hiroshima Castle, thus essentially founding Hiroshima.Terumoto was a...

, reinforcements arrived outside Takamatsu Castle, and the two sides came to a standstill. Hashiba asked for reinforcements from Nobunaga.

It has often been argued that Hideyoshi had no need for reinforcements, but asked Nobunaga anyway for various reasons. Most believe that Hideyoshi, envied and hated by fellow generals for his swift rise from a lowly footman to a top general under Oda Nobunaga, wanted to give the credit for taking Takamatsu to Nobunaga so as to humble himself in front of other Oda vassals.

In any case, Nobunaga ordered Niwa Nagahide
Niwa Nagahide
, also known as Gorōzaemon , was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku through Azuchi-Momoyama periods of the 16th century. He served as a retainer to the Oda clan, and was eventually a daimyo in his own right....

 to prepare for an invasion of Shikoku
Shikoku
is the smallest and least populous of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshū and east of the island of Kyūshū. Its ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima , Iyo-shima , and Futana-shima...

, and Akechi Mitsuhide to assist Hideyoshi. En route to Chūgoku region
Chugoku region
The , also known as the , is the westernmost region of Honshū, the largest island of Japan. It consists of the prefectures of Hiroshima, Okayama, Shimane, Tottori and Yamaguchi. It has a population of about 7.8 million.- History :...

, Nobunaga stayed at Honnō-ji
Honno-ji
is a temple of the Nichiren branch of Buddhism located in Kyoto, Japan. Its honzon is mandara-honzon from Nam Myoho Renge Kyo.-History:...

, a temple in Kyoto. Since Nobunaga would not expect an attack in the middle of his firmly-controlled territories, he was guarded by only a few dozen personal servants and bodyguards.

Mitsuhide chose this time to take a unit of his men and quickly surround the Honnō-ji while sending another unit of Akechi troops to assault Nijō Castle
Nijo Castle
is a flatland castle located in Kyoto, Japan. The castle consists of two concentric rings of fortifications, the Ninomaru Palace, the ruins of the Honmaru Palace, various support buildings and several gardens...

, initiating a full coup d'état
Coup d'état
A coup d'état state, literally: strike/blow of state)—also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extrajudicial deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either...

. At Honnō-ji, Nobunaga's small entourage was soon overwhelmed and as the Akechi troops closed in on the burning temple where Nobunaga had been residing, he decided to commit seppuku
Seppuku
is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for samurai. Part of the samurai bushido honor code, seppuku was either used voluntarily by samurai to die with honor rather than fall into the hands of their enemies , or as a form of capital punishment...

 in one of the inner rooms. Nobunaga's son died in the fighting before the temple, and only Nobunaga's young page, Mori Ranmaru
Mori Ranmaru
, born Mori Nagasada , was the son of Mori Yoshinari, and had 5 brothers in total, from the province of Mino. He was a member of the Mori Clan, descendants of the Seiwa Genji....

, remained at his master's side. The young page had served Nobunaga for many years, and was still in his teens at the time of the attack. Ranmaru's loyalty and devotion to his lord were widely known and praised during the Edo period. He attended to Nobunaga as he sought a moment of peace to carry out his last act, then Ranmaru likewise killed himself in the same way.

The cause of Mitsuhide's betrayal has been actively debated for centuries. It has been proposed that Mitsuhide may have heard a rumor that Nobunaga would transfer Mitsuhide's fief to the page, Mori Ranmaru, with whom Nobunaga is alleged to have been in a ritualized homosexual relationship, a form of patronage, known as shudō. Other motives include revenge for Nobunaga's numerous insults and derisive treatment of Mitsuhide, or Mitsuhide's jealousy as Nobunaga had shown greater favor toward another vassal, Hashiba Hideyoshi.

Just eleven days after the coup at Honnō-ji, Mitsuhide was killed at the Battle of Yamazaki
Battle of Yamazaki
The was fought in 1582 in Yamazaki, Japan, located in current day Kyoto Prefecture. This battle is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Mt. Tennō ....

 and his army was defeated by Hashiba Hideyoshi, who eventually became heir to Nobunaga's legacy. He is more widely known as Toyotomi Hideyoshi. At the time of Nobunaga's death, he controlled more than half of the provinces in Japan. The majority of these Provinces were in the Kyoto region.

Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu


Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who unified Japan in 1590, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who founded the Tokugawa Shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the , was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo, after the name was...

 in 1603, were loyal followers of Nobunaga. These two were gifted with Nobunaga's previous achievements on which they could build a unified Japan. There was a saying: "Nobunaga pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it."

Hideyoshi was brought up from a nameless peasant to be one of Nobunaga's top generals. When he became a grand minister in 1586, he created a law that the samurai
Samurai
is the term for the military nobility of pre-industrial Japan. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was originally a verb meaning to wait upon or accompany a person in the upper ranks of society, and this is also true of the original term in Japanese, saburau...

 caste became codified as permanent and heritable, and that non-samurai were forbidden to carry weapons, thereby ending the social mobility of Japan from which he himself had benefited. These restrictions lasted until the dissolution of the Edo Shogunate by the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

 revolutionaries. Hideyoshi secured his claim as the rightful successor of Nobunaga by defeating Akechi Mitsuhide within a month of Nobunaga's death.

It is important to note that the distinction between samurai and non-samurai was so obscure that during the 16th century, most male adults in any social class (even small farmers) belonged to at least one military organization of their own and served in wars before and during Hideyoshi's rule. It can be said that an "all against all" situation continued for a century. The authorized samurai families after the 17th century were those that chose to follow Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu. Large battles occurred during the change between regimes and a number of defeated samurai were destroyed, became ronin
Ronin
A or rounin was a Bushi with no lord or master during the feudal period of Japan. A samurai became masterless from the death or fall of his master, or after the loss of his master's favor or privilege....

 or were absorbed into the general populace.

Ieyasu had shared his childhood with Nobunaga as a hostage of the Oda clan. Though there were a number of battles between Ieyasu and the Oda clan, Ieyasu eventually switched sides and became one of Nobunaga's strongest allies.

Policies


Militarily, Nobunaga's revolutionary vision not only changed the way war was fought in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, but also in turn made one of the most modernized forces in the world at that time. He developed, implemented, and expanded the use of long pike
Pike (weapon)
A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear used extensively by infantry both for attacks on enemy foot soldiers and as a counter-measure against cavalry assaults. Unlike many similar weapons, the pike is not intended to be thrown. Pikes were used regularly in European warfare from the...

s, firearm
Firearm
A firearm is a weapon that launches one, or many, projectile at high velocity through confined burning of a propellant. This subsonic burning process is technically known as deflagration, as opposed to supersonic combustion known as a detonation. In older firearms, the propellant was typically...

s and castle
Castle
A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble...

 fortifications in accordance with the expanded mass battles of the period. The firearms that were introduced by the Portuguese, had allowed the establishment of firearm brigades in the army. Once the two important musket factories in Sakai City and Omi province were conquered, it gave Nobunaga superior firepower over his enemies. Nobunaga also instituted a specialized warrior class system and appointed his retainers and subjects to positions based on ability, not wholly based on name, rank, or family relationship as in prior periods. Retainers were also given land on the basis of rice output, not land size. Nobunaga's organizational system in particular was later used and extensively developed by his ally Tokugawa Ieyasu in the forming of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the , was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo, after the name was...

 in Edo
Edo
, also romanized as Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo, and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868...

.

Nobunaga's dominance and brilliance was not restricted to the battlefield, for he also was a keen businessman and understood the principles of microeconomics
Microeconomics
Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of how the individual modern household and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources. Typically, it applies to markets where goods or services are being bought and sold...

 and macroeconomics. First, in order to modernize the economy from an agricultural base to a manufacture and service base, castle towns were developed as the center and basis of local economies. Roads were also made within his domain between castle towns to not only facilitate trade
Trade
Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

, but also to move armies great distances in short timespans. International trade
International trade
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product...

 was also expanded beyond China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and the Korea
Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

n peninsula, while nanban
Nanban trade
The or the in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.- Etymology :...

(southern barbarian) trade with Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, Siam
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, and Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 was also started.

Nobunaga also instituted policies as a way to stimulate business and the overall economy
Economics
Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek from + , hence "rules of the house"...

 through the use of a free market system. These policies abolished and prohibited monopolies
Monopoly
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity...

 and opened once closed and privileged unions, associations, and guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

s, which he saw as impediments to commerce
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

. Even though these policies provided a major boost to the economy, it was still heavily dependent on daimyos' support. Copies of his original proclamations can be found in Entoku-ji in the city of Gifu
Gifu, Gifu
is a city located in the south-central portion of Gifu Prefecture, Japan, and serves as the prefectural capital. The city has played an important role in Japan's history because of its location in the middle of the country. During the Sengoku period, various warlords, including Oda Nobunaga, used...

. He also developed tax
Tax
To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Taxes are also imposed by many subnational entities...

 exemptions and established laws to regulate and ease the borrowing of debt.

Culture


As Nobunaga conquered Japan and amassed a great amount of wealth, he progressively supported the arts
ARts
aRts, which stands for analog Real time synthesizer, is an audio framework that is no longer under development. It is best known for previously being used in KDE to simulate an analog synthesizer....

 for which he always had an interest, but which he later and gradually more importantly used as a display of his power and prestige. He built extensive gardens and castles which were themselves great works of art. Azuchi Castle
Azuchi Castle
' was one of the primary castles of Oda Nobunaga. It was built from 1576 to 1579, on the shores of Lake Biwa, in Ōmi Province. Nobunaga intentionally built it close enough to Kyoto that he could watch over and guard the approaches to the capital, but, being outside the city, his fortress would be...

 on the shores of Lake Biwa
Lake Biwa
is the largest freshwater lake in Japan, located in Shiga Prefecture , northeast of the former capital city of Kyoto. Because of its proximity to the ancient capital, references to Lake Biwa appear frequently in Japanese literature, particularly in poetry and in historical accounts of battles.-...

 is said to have been the greatest castle in the history of Japan
History of Japan
The history of Japan encompasses the history of the islands of Japan and the Japanese people, spanning the ancient history of the region to the modern history of Japan as a nation state. Following the last ice age, around 12,000 BC, the rich ecosystem of the Japanese Archipelago fostered human...

, covered with gold and statues on the outside and decorated with standing screen, sliding door, wall, and ceiling paintings made by his subject Kano Eitoku
Kano Eitoku
was a Japanese painter who lived during the Azuchi–Momoyama period of Japanese history and one of the most prominent patriarchs of the Kanō school of Japanese painting...

 on the inside. During this time, Nobunaga's subject and tea master Sen no Rikyu
Sen no Rikyu
, is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on chanoyu, the Japanese "Way of Tea", particularly the tradition of wabi-cha...

 established the Japanese tea ceremony
Japanese tea ceremony
The Japanese tea ceremony, also called the Way of Tea, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea. In Japanese, it is called . The manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, is called...

 which Nobunaga popularized and used originally as a way to talk politics and business. The beginnings of modern kabuki
Kabuki
is classical Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers.The individual kanji characters, from left to right, mean sing , dance , and skill...

 were started and later fully developed in the early Edo period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

.

Additionally, Nobunaga was very interested in European culture which was still very new to Japan. He collected pieces of Western art as well as arms and armor, and he is considered to be among the first Japanese people in recorded history to wear European clothes. He also became the patron of the Jesuit
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 missionaries in Japan and supported the establishment of the first Christian church in Kyoto in 1576, although he never converted to Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

. During a visit by the Jesuits in March of 1581, Nobunaga's interest was piqued by a slave in the service of a Jesuit inspector of missions, and it was requested that he be left in Nobunaga's service. This slave, later called by the Japanese name Yasuke
Yasuke
Yasuke is a Japanese name used to refer to a black slave who for a short time was in the service of the Japanese warlord Oda Nobunaga...

, was highly favored by Nobunaga and fought in the final battle at Honnō-ji. During that time, the persecution of Buddhists was motivated mostly by separating politics from religion. Though it was not fully realized under Nobunaga's rule, he attempted to create a public, rational political authority. The concepts brought up during this change had the potential to radically change society in Japan. The new ideas that came forth were either incorporated into common discourses without changing it fundamentally, built upon at a later time, or opened up new options in the later Tokugawa era that were expanded on.

Legacy


Nobunaga is remembered in Japan as one of the most brutal figures of the Sengoku period. Nobunaga was the first of three unifiers during the Sengoku period. These unifiers were (in order) Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (also called Hashiba Hideyoshi above) and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Oda Nobunaga was well on his way to the complete conquest and unification of Japan when Akechi Mitsuhide, one of his generals, forced Nobunaga into committing suicide in Honnō-ji in Kyoto. Akechi then proceeded to declare himself master over Nobunaga's domains, but was quickly defeated by Hideyoshi.

Family


Depending upon the source, Oda Nobunaga and the entire Oda clan are descendents of either the Fujiwara clan or the Taira clan
Taira clan
The was a major Japanese clan of samurai in historical Japan.In reference to Japanese history, along with Minamoto, Taira was a hereditary clan name bestowed by the emperors of the Heian Period to certain ex-members of the imperial family when they became subjects...

 (specifically, Taira no Shigemori
Taira no Shigemori
was the eldest son of the Taira clan patriarch, Taira no Kiyomori. He took part in the Hōgen and Heiji rebellions. He died of illness in 1179....

's branch). His lineage can be directly traced to his great-great-grandfather, Oda Hisanaga, who was followed by Oda Toshisada, Oda Nobusada, Oda Nobuhide
Oda Nobuhide
was a warlord and magistrate of lower Owari Province during the Sengoku period of Japan. His father was Oda Nobusada and Nobuhide was the father of Oda Nobunaga.-Ruling the clan:...

 and Nobunaga himself.

Immediate family


Nobunaga was the eldest legitimate son of Nobuhide, a minor warlord from Owari Province, and Tsuchida Gozen
Tsuchida Gozen
was married to Oda Nobuhide and was the mother of Oda Nobunaga, a major feudal warlord in the Sengoku period of Japan. She was also the mother of three of his brothers, Nobuyuki, Nobukane and Hidetaka; and two of his sisters, Oinu and Oichi. It is assumed that she is the daughter of Tsuchida...

, who was also the mother to three of his brothers (Nobuyuki
Oda Nobuyuki
was the son of Oda Nobuhide, and younger brother of Oda Nobunaga in the earlier years of the Sengoku period of the 16th century of Japan.Nobuyuki conspired against his brother Nobunaga with the Hayashi and Shibata families. Nobuyuki's Suemori Castle was reduced by Ikeda Nobuteru. Though Hayashi and...

, Nobukane
Oda Nobukane
was a Japanese samurai, the younger brother of the supremely famous warlord, Oda Nobunaga following the Sengoku period of the 16th century. Following the year of 1568, Nobukane was destined to be adopted into the Nagao. Nobukane afterwards shaved his head following the year of 1594 and enjoyed his...

 and Hidetaka
Oda Hidetaka
was a Sengoku period warrior in 16th century Japan. He was the eighth son of warlord Oda Nobuhide and his wife, Tsuchida Gozen. His mother also gave birth to three of his older brothers: Oda Nobunaga, Oda Nobuyuki and Oda Nobukane....

) and two of his sisters (Oinu and Oichi). His brothers are listed as follows:
  • Oda Nobuhiro
    Oda Nobuhiro
    was the eldest son of Oda Nobuhide. After Nobuhiro's father took Anjo Castle in Mikawa Province in 1540, the castle was given to Nobuhiro. During 1549, Nobuhiro was trapped by the Imagawa clan, but was saved when the Oda clan handed over one of their hostages—Matsudaira Takechiyo, later known...

     (an illegitimate older brother)
  • Oda Nobuyuki
    Oda Nobuyuki
    was the son of Oda Nobuhide, and younger brother of Oda Nobunaga in the earlier years of the Sengoku period of the 16th century of Japan.Nobuyuki conspired against his brother Nobunaga with the Hayashi and Shibata families. Nobuyuki's Suemori Castle was reduced by Ikeda Nobuteru. Though Hayashi and...

  • Oda Nobukane
    Oda Nobukane
    was a Japanese samurai, the younger brother of the supremely famous warlord, Oda Nobunaga following the Sengoku period of the 16th century. Following the year of 1568, Nobukane was destined to be adopted into the Nagao. Nobukane afterwards shaved his head following the year of 1594 and enjoyed his...

  • Oda Nobuharu
    Oda Nobuharu
    was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period, who served the Oda clan. Nobuharu was the younger brother of Oda Nobunaga. Nobunaga granted him Nobu Castle and its surroundings as a private fief...

  • Oda Nobutoki
    Oda Nobutoki
    was born the sixth son of Oda Nobuhide, a feudal warlord in Owari Province, Japan, during the Sengoku period. He was the half-brother of Oda Nobunaga and the full brother of Oda Nobuhiro, with all three having the same father...

  • Oda Nobuoki
  • Oda Hidetaka
    Oda Hidetaka
    was a Sengoku period warrior in 16th century Japan. He was the eighth son of warlord Oda Nobuhide and his wife, Tsuchida Gozen. His mother also gave birth to three of his older brothers: Oda Nobunaga, Oda Nobuyuki and Oda Nobukane....

  • Oda Hidenari
  • Oda Nobuteru
  • Oda Nagamasu
    Oda Nagamasu
    was a Japanese daimyo who lived from the late Sengoku period through the early Edo period. Also known as Urakusai , he was a brother of Oda Nobunaga. Nagamasu converted to Christianity in 1588 and took the baptismal name of John....

  • Oda Nagatoshi

Descendants


Nobunaga married Nōhime
Nohime
also Kichō or Lady Noh, was the wife of Oda Nobunaga, a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. Her proper name was Kichō, but since she came from Mino Province, she is most commonly referred to as Nōhime . She was renowned for her beauty and cleverness.Nōhime's father was the...

, the daughter of Saitō Dōsan, as a matter of political strategy; however, she bore him no children and was considered to be barren. It was his concubines Kitsuno
Kitsuno
was a concubine of Japanese daimyo, Oda Nobunaga during the Warring-states era in Japanese history. She was born into the third generation of the prosperous and influential Ikoma family in 1538 and her father was known as Iemune....

 and Lady Saka who bore him his children. It was Kitsuno who gave birth to Nobunaga's eldest son, Nobutada
Oda Nobutada
was the eldest son of Oda Nobunaga, and a samurai who fought in many battles during the Sengoku period. He commanded armies under his father in battles against Matsunaga Hisahide and against the Takeda clan....

. Nobutada's son, Oda Hidenobu
Oda Hidenobu
was the son of Oda Nobutada and lived during the Azuchi-Momoyama period in the late-16th century. His other name was Sanpōshi .-Succession dispute:...

, became ruler of the Oda clan after the deaths of Nobunaga and Nobutada.
  • Sons
    • Oda Nobutada
      Oda Nobutada
      was the eldest son of Oda Nobunaga, and a samurai who fought in many battles during the Sengoku period. He commanded armies under his father in battles against Matsunaga Hisahide and against the Takeda clan....

       (1557–1582)
    • Oda Nobukatsu
      Oda Nobukatsu
      was a Japanese samurai of the Azuchi-Momoyama period. He was the second son of Oda Nobunaga. He survived the decline of the Oda clan from political prominence, becoming a daimyo in the early Edo period.-Kitabatake clan:...

       (1558–1630)
    • Oda Nobutaka
      Oda Nobutaka
      was a samurai and member of Oda clan. He was adopted as the head of Kanbe clan that ruled the middle region of Ise Province and was also called Kanbe Nobutaka ....

       (1558–1583)
    • Hashiba Hidekatsu (1567–1585)
    • Oda Katsunaga
      Oda Katsunaga
      was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period through early Azuchi-Momoyama Period, who was the fifth son of Oda Nobunaga. Though he was a potential heir for Oda family headship, Katsunaga was ordered to be taken in by his aunt at Iwamura Castle at an exceedingly young age...

       (died 1582)
    • Oda Nobuhide (1571–1596)
    • Oda Nobutaka (1576–1602)
    • Oda Nobuyoshi (1573–1615)
    • Oda Nobusada (1574–1624)
    • Oda Nobuyoshi (died 1609)
    • Oda Nagatsugu (died 1600)
    • Oda Nobumasa (1554–1647, illegitimate child)
  • Daughters
    • Tokuhime
      Tokuhime
      , or Princess Toku was born the daughter of Japanese daimyo Oda Nobunaga and later married Matsudaira Nobuyasu, the first son of Tokugawa Ieyasu...

       (1559–1636), married Matsudaira Nobuyasu
    • Fuyuhime (1561–1641), married Gamō Ujisato
      Gamo Ujisato
      was a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku and Azuchi-Momoyama periods. The heir and son of Gamō Katahide, lord of Hino Castle in Ōmi Province, he later held Matsusaka and finally Aizuwakamatsu Castle in Mutsu Province...

    • Hideko (died 1632), married Tsutsui Sadatsugu
      Tsutsui Sadatsugu
      was a cousin and adopted son of Tsutsui Junkei, a feudal lord of the Yamato province.At the death of Junkei in 1584, he was relocated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi to Iga Province, where he built the Iga Ueno Castle. In 1608, however, he was removed from his position by the Tokugawa shogunate, in an...

    • Eihime (1574–1623), married Maeda Toshinaga
      Maeda Toshinaga
      ' was a Japanese daimyo who was the second head of the Kaga Domain. He was the eldest son of Maeda Toshiie and married one of Oda Nobunaga's daughters, Ei-hime....

    • Hōonin, married Niwa Nagashige
      Niwa Nagashige
      was a Japanese daimyo who served the Oda clan. Nagashige was the eldest son of Niwa Nagahide and married an adopted daughter of Oda Nobunaga. He took part in his first campaign in 1583, assisting his father in the battles against Shibata Katsuie...

    • Sannomarudono (died 1603), concubine to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, married Nijō Akizane
      Nijo Akizane
      , son of regent Nijō Haruyoshi, was a Japanese kugyō of the Azuchi-Momoyama period and the early Edo period. He held a regent position kampaku two times, once in 1585, and again from 1615 to 1619. He married a daughter of daimyo Oda Nobunaga and the couple adopted Kujō Yukiie's son, who became...

    • Tsuruhime, married Nakagawa Hidemasa
      Nakagawa Hidemasa
      was a samurai commander in the Azuchi-Momoyama period.He was the eldest son of Nakagawa Kiyohide.His young brother was Nakagawa Hidenari.His wife was Tsuruhime who was the daughter of Oda Nobunaga....


Other relatives


One of Nobunaga's younger sisters, Oichi, gave birth to three daughters. These three nieces of Nobunaga became involved with important historical figures. Chacha
Yodo-Dono
or was a prominently-placed figure in late-Sengoku period. She was a concubine and second wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who was then the most powerful man in Japan. She also became the mother of his son and successor, Hideyori. She was also known as Lady Chacha...

 (also known as Lady Yodo), the eldest, became the mistress of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. O-Hatsu
O-Hatsu
or was a prominently placed figure in the late Sengoku period. After her husband's death in 1609, Ohatsu remained active in the political intrigues of her day....

 married Kyōgoku Takatsugu
Kyōgoku Takatsugu
was a daimyo of Omi Province and Wakasa Province during the late-Sengoku Period of Japan's history.Takatsugu is recognized as the founder of the modern Kyōgoku clan. His forebears had been powerful since the 13th century, but their fortunes had waned after the Ōnin War...

. The youngest, O-go, married the son of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tokugawa Hidetada
Tokugawa Hidetada
was the second shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1605 until his abdication in 1623. He was the third son of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate.-Early life :...

 (the second shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the , was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo, after the name was...

). O-go's daughter Senhime
Senhime
Senhime or Lady Sen was the eldest daughter of the shogun Tokugawa Hidetada and his wife Oeyo. She was born during the warring-states period of Japanese history...

 married her cousin Toyotomi Hideyori, Lady Yodo's son.

Nobunaga's nephew was Tsuda Nobusumi, the son of Nobuyuki. Nobusumi married Akechi Mitsuhide's daughter, and was killed after the Incident at Honnō-ji by Nobunaga's third son, Nobutaka, who suspected him of being involved in the plot.

Later descendants


Nobunari Oda
Nobunari Oda
is a Japanese figure skater. He is the 2006 Four Continents Champion, the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 Grand Prix Final silver medalist, the 2005 World Junior Champion and the 2008 Japanese National Champion.- Personal life :...

, a competitive figure skater in Japan, is the 17th direct descendant of Nobunaga. The Japanese ex-monk celebrity Mudō Oda also claims descent from the Sengoku period warlord, but his claims have not been verified.

In popular culture


Oda Nobunaga appears frequently within fiction and continues to be portrayed in many other anime, manga, video games, and cinematic films. Many depictions show him as villainous or even demonic in nature, though some portray him in a more positive light.

The latter type of works include Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
was a Japanese film director, producer, screenwriter and editor. Regarded as one of the most important and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema, Kurosawa directed 30 filmsIn 1946, Kurosawa co-directed, with Hideo Sekigawa and Kajiro Yamamoto, the feature Those Who Make Tomorrow ;...

's film Kagemusha
Kagemusha
is a 1980 film by Akira Kurosawa. The title is a term used for an impersonator. It is set in the Warring States era of Japanese history and tells the story of a lower-class criminal who is taught to impersonate a dying warlord in order to dissuade opposing lords from attacking the newly vulnerable...

, which portrays Nobunaga as energetic, athletic and respectful towards his enemies. The film Goemon
Goemon (film)
Goemon is a 2009 Japanese historical fantasy film written and directed by Kazuaki Kiriya. It is loosely based on the story of Ishikawa Goemon, a legendary outlaw hero who stole valuables from the rich and gave them to the poor...

portrays him as a saintly mentor of Ishikawa Goemon
Ishikawa Goemon
was a semi-legendary Japanese outlaw hero who stole gold and valuables and gave them to the poor. Goemon is notable for being boiled alive along with his son in public after a failed assassination attempt on the civil war-era warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. A large iron kettle-shaped bathtub is now...

. Nobunaga is a central character in Eiji Yoshikawa
Eiji Yoshikawa
was a Japanese historical novelist, probably one of the best and most famous authors in the genre. Among his most well-known novels, most are revisions of past works. He was mainly influenced by classics such as The Tale of the Heike, Tale of Genji, Outlaws of the Marsh, and Romance of the Three...

's historical novel Taiko Ki, where he is a firm but benevolent lord. Nobunaga is also a good character in the first Samurai Cat
Samurai Cat
Samurai Cat is the main character in a series of books by Mark Rogers. To accompany the anachronistic satire, almost every page in each book has a picture painted by Rogers, depicting the events described on that page. Each chapter is a bizarre parody of some historical or pop culture event, but...

book. Nobunaga is portrayed in a heroic light in the video games Kessen III
Kessen III
is a PlayStation 2 video-game produced by Koei and is based on the life of Oda Nobunaga.-Historical background:The game's time frame is roughly between the years 1550 to 1590...

, Ninja Gaiden II, and the Warriors Orochi
Warriors Orochi
, is a PlayStation 2 and Xbox 360 hack and slash video game developed by Koei and Omega Force. It is a crossover of two of Koei's popular video game series, Dynasty Warriors and Samurai Warriors...

series.

By contrast, the novel and anime series Yōtōden
Yotoden
is a Japanese historical fantasy novel by Takeshi Narumi. In 1987 the novel was adapted into a 3-episode original video animation by J.C.Staff. In 1989, Yotoden was re-edited into the feature film titled Wrath of the Ninja for English-speaking regions...

portrays Nobunaga as a literal demon posing as a power-mad warlord. In The Samurai's Tale by Erik Christian Haugaard, he is portrayed as an antagonist "known for his merciless cruelty". He is portrayed as evil or megalomaniacal in the anime/manga Samurai Deeper Kyo
Samurai Deeper Kyo
is a manga series written and illustrated by Akimine Kamijyo. The manga was serialized from October 15, 1999 to May 10, 2006 in Kodansha's Weekly Shōnen Magazine, and collected over 38 volumes....

and Flame of Recca
Flame of Recca
is a manga series written and illustrated by Nobuyuki Anzai, which was adapted into an anime series spanning forty-two episodes by Studio Pierrot. The series has also been adapted into two video games; Flame of Recca for the Game Boy Advance and Flame of Recca Final Burning for the PlayStation...

. Nobunaga is portrayed as evil, villainous, bloodthirsty, and/or demonic in the video games: Ninja Master's, Sengoku, Inindo: Way of the Ninja
Inindo: Way of the Ninja
Inindo: Way of the Ninja is a role-playing video game developed by Koei...

, Atlantica Online
Atlantica Online
Atlantica Online is a free to play 3D massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed by NDOORS Corporation. The game is set in an alternate history Earth, with the game map consisting of large parts of the northern hemisphere...

, Sengoku Basara
Sengoku Basara
is a series of video games developed and published by Capcom, as well as a bigger media franchise based on it, including two anime series and an animated film...

(and anime),, and the two video game series Onimusha and Samurai Warriors
Samurai Warriors
is the first title in the series of video games created by Koei's Omega Force team based loosely around the Sengoku period of Japanese history and it is a spinoff of the Dynasty Warriors series...

.

There are also numerous examples of his portrayal in a more neutral or historic framework, especially in the Taiga drama
Taiga drama
is the name NHK gives to the annual, year-long historical fiction television series it broadcasts in Japan. Beginning in 1963 with the black-and-white Hana no Shōgai, starring kabuki actor Onoe Shōroku and Takarazuka star Awashima Chikage, the network has hired a producer, director, writer, music...

s shown on television in Japan. Oda Nobunaga appears in the manga series Tail of the Moon
Tail of the Moon
is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Rinko Ueda. The series began serialization in Margaret magazine in 2002 and ran until 2007. The individual chapters have been collected into fifteen tankōbon volumes by Shueisha; the first on March 25, 2003 and the last on August 24, 2007...

, Kacchu no Senshi Gamu
Kacchu no Senshi Gamu
is a Japanese manga series by Yoshihiro Takahashi, which was serialized in the magazine Monthly Shōnen Jump.-Protagonist Dogs:Gamu - 雅武: The son of the legendary Honoo and the present leader of the Kagero Ninja Dogs. When growing up, he befriended the wolf named Vermond and the two shared a strong...

, and Tsuji Kunio
Tsuji Kunio
was a Japanese author, novelist, and scholar of French literature.Tsuji was born in Tokyo, attended Matsumoto High School with Kita Morio, and studied French literature at the University of Tokyo. After graduation he became an instructor at Gakushūin University and a literary critic. He spent the...

's historical fiction The Signore: Shogun of the Warring States. Historical representations in video games include: Nobunaga's Ambition: Iron Triangle, Shogun: Total War
Shogun: Total War
Shogun: Total War is a turn-based strategy and real-time tactics computer game developed by The Creative Assembly and published by Electronic Arts. Released in June 2000, the game is the debut title in The Creative Assembly's Total War series...

and Total War: Shogun 2, Throne of Darkness
Throne of Darkness
Throne of Darkness is a Japanese-themed action-oriented computer role-playing game released in 2001 by Sierra Entertainment, a subsidiary of Vivendi Universal. Players control up to four different samurai at a time...

and the eponymous Nobunaga's Ambition
Nobunaga's Ambition
is a series of turn-based grand strategy role-playing simulation video games, first released in 1983 by the Japanese video game developer Koei.Games in the franchise have been released on a variety of gaming platforms, including the Nintendo Entertainment System, Nintendo Game Boy, Sega Mega Drive,...

series, as well as Civilization V
Civilization V
Sid Meier's Civilization V is a turn-based strategy, 4X computer game developed by Firaxis, released on Microsoft Windows in September 2010 and on Mac OS X on November 23, 2010...

and Age of Empires II: The Conquerors
Age of Empires II: The Conquerors
Age of Empires II: The Conquerors Expansion is the expansion pack to the 1999 real-time strategy game Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings. The Conquerors is the fourth installment in the Age of Empires series by Microsoft Game Studios and Ensemble Studios...

.

There are also more fictive portrayals, in which the figure of Nobunaga influences a story or inspires a characterization. In James Clavell's novel Shōgun, the character Goroda is a pastiche
Pastiche
A pastiche is a literary or other artistic genre or technique that is a "hodge-podge" or imitation. The word is also a linguistic term used to describe an early stage in the development of a pidgin language.-Hodge-podge:...

 of Nobunaga. In the film Sengoku Jieitai 1549
Sengoku Jieitai 1549
or Samurai Commando Mission 1549 is a feature-length film and manga series focusing on the adventures of a modern day Japan Ground Self-Defense Force element that accidentally travels through time to the Warring States period of Japanese history.Both the film and manga are based on Sengoku Jieitai...

Nobunaga is killed by time-travellers. Nobunaga was the inspiration for characterizations in the manga Tenka Musō and Perfect Girl Evolution
The Wallflower (manga)
, a.k.a Perfect Girl Evolution, is a manga series written by Tomoko Hayakawa. The individual chapters have been serialized in Bessatsu Friend since its premiere in 2000, and in 27 tankōbon volumes in Japan by Kodansha...

. Nobunaga also appears as a major character in in the eroge
Eroge
An or Ero-ga is a Japanese video or computer game that features erotic content, usually in the form of anime-style artwork. Eroge originated from galge, but unlike galge, they feature erotic/pornographic content.-History:...

 Sengoku Rance. In the anime Sengoku Otome: Momoiro Paradox
Sengoku Otome: Momoiro Paradox
, also known as Battle Girls: Time Paradox, is a 2011 Japanese anime television series based on a Pachinko game developed by Heiwa. Produced by TMS Entertainment under the direction of Hideki Okamoto, the anime series aired on TV Tokyo between April 4, 2011 and June 27, 2011.- Plot :Yoshino Hide,...

he is even depicted as a female character.

Kamenashi Kazuya of the Japanese pop group KAT-TUN
KAT-TUN
KAT-TUN is a Japanese boy band formed by Johnny & Associates in 2001. The group's name is an acronym based on the first letter of each member's family name until the departure of Jin Akanishi in 2010. As of 2010, KAT-TUN stands for Kazuya KAmenashi, Junnosuke Taguchi, Koki Tanaka, Tatsuya Ueda,...

 wrote and performed a song titled "1582" which is allegedly written from the perspective of Mori Ranmaru at the Incident at Honnouji.

External links