Overview
A numeric keypad, numpad or tenkey for short, is the small, palm-sized, seventeen key section of a computer keyboard
Computer keyboard
In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches...

, usually on the very far right. The numeric keypad features digits 0 to 9, addition
Addition is a mathematical operation that represents combining collections of objects together into a larger collection. It is signified by the plus sign . For example, in the picture on the right, there are 3 + 2 apples—meaning three apples and two other apples—which is the same as five apples....

(+), subtraction
Subtraction
In arithmetic, subtraction is one of the four basic binary operations; it is the inverse of addition, meaning that if we start with any number and add any number and then subtract the same number we added, we return to the number we started with...

(−), multiplication
Multiplication
Multiplication is the mathematical operation of scaling one number by another. It is one of the four basic operations in elementary arithmetic ....

(*) and division
Division (mathematics)
right|thumb|200px|20 \div 4=5In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation.Specifically, if c times b equals a, written:c \times b = a\,...

(/) symbols, a decimal point (.) and Num Lock
Num lock
Num Lock is a key on the numeric keypad of most computer keyboards. It is a toggle key, like Caps Lock and Scroll Lock. Its state is commonly represented by an LED light built into the keyboard....

and Enter
Enter key
In computer keyboards, the enter key in most cases causes a command line, window form, or dialog box to operate its default function...

keys. Laptop
Laptop
A laptop, also called a notebook, is a personal computer for mobile use. A laptop integrates most of the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device and speakers into a single unit...

keyboards often do not have a numpad, but may provide numpad input by holding a modifier key (typically labelled "Fn") and operating keys on the standard keyboard. Particularly large laptops (typically those with a 17 inch screen or larger) may have space for a real numpad, and many companies sell separate numpads which connect to the host laptop by a USB connection (many of these also add an additional spacebar off to the side of the number zero where the thumb is located, as well as an additional 00
00
00, a double zero, may refer to:* 00 Agent, an agent with a license to kill in the James Bond media* 00 gauge, a standard of model railways* Mobile Suit Gundam 00, an anime series** 00 Gundam, a mobile suit featured in Mobile Suit Gundam 00...

key typical of modern adding machine
An adding machine was a class of mechanical calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations.In the United States, the earliest adding machines were usually built to read in dollars and cents. Adding machines were ubiquitous office equipment until they were phased out in favor of...

s and cash register
Cash register
A cash register or till is a mechanical or electronic device for calculating and recording sales transactions, and an attached cash drawer for storing cash...

s). It also provides a calculator-style keyboard for efficient entering of numbers.
Discussion

Encyclopedia
A numeric keypad, numpad or tenkey for short, is the small, palm-sized, seventeen key section of a computer keyboard
Computer keyboard
In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches...

, usually on the very far right. The numeric keypad features digits 0 to 9, addition
Addition is a mathematical operation that represents combining collections of objects together into a larger collection. It is signified by the plus sign . For example, in the picture on the right, there are 3 + 2 apples—meaning three apples and two other apples—which is the same as five apples....

(+), subtraction
Subtraction
In arithmetic, subtraction is one of the four basic binary operations; it is the inverse of addition, meaning that if we start with any number and add any number and then subtract the same number we added, we return to the number we started with...

(−), multiplication
Multiplication
Multiplication is the mathematical operation of scaling one number by another. It is one of the four basic operations in elementary arithmetic ....

(*) and division
Division (mathematics)
right|thumb|200px|20 \div 4=5In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation.Specifically, if c times b equals a, written:c \times b = a\,...

(/) symbols, a decimal point (.) and Num Lock
Num lock
Num Lock is a key on the numeric keypad of most computer keyboards. It is a toggle key, like Caps Lock and Scroll Lock. Its state is commonly represented by an LED light built into the keyboard....

and Enter
Enter key
In computer keyboards, the enter key in most cases causes a command line, window form, or dialog box to operate its default function...

keys. Laptop
Laptop
A laptop, also called a notebook, is a personal computer for mobile use. A laptop integrates most of the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device and speakers into a single unit...

keyboards often do not have a numpad, but may provide numpad input by holding a modifier key (typically labelled "Fn") and operating keys on the standard keyboard. Particularly large laptops (typically those with a 17 inch screen or larger) may have space for a real numpad, and many companies sell separate numpads which connect to the host laptop by a USB connection (many of these also add an additional spacebar off to the side of the number zero where the thumb is located, as well as an additional 00
00
00, a double zero, may refer to:* 00 Agent, an agent with a license to kill in the James Bond media* 00 gauge, a standard of model railways* Mobile Suit Gundam 00, an anime series** 00 Gundam, a mobile suit featured in Mobile Suit Gundam 00...

key typical of modern adding machine
An adding machine was a class of mechanical calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations.In the United States, the earliest adding machines were usually built to read in dollars and cents. Adding machines were ubiquitous office equipment until they were phased out in favor of...

s and cash register
Cash register
A cash register or till is a mechanical or electronic device for calculating and recording sales transactions, and an attached cash drawer for storing cash...

s). It also provides a calculator-style keyboard for efficient entering of numbers.

Numeric keypads usually operate in two modes: when Num Lock is off, keys 8, 6, 2, 4 act like arrow keys and 7, 9, 3, 1 act like Home
Home key
The home key is a key commonly found on computer keyboards. The key has the opposite effect of the end key. In limited-size keyboards where the home key is missing the same functionality can be reached via the key combination of -Microsoft Windows:...

, PgUp
Page Up and Page Down keys
The Page Up and Page Down keys are two keys commonly found on computer keyboards.The two keys are primarily used to scroll up or down in documents, but the scrolling distance varies between different applications...

, PgDn
Page Up and Page Down keys
The Page Up and Page Down keys are two keys commonly found on computer keyboards.The two keys are primarily used to scroll up or down in documents, but the scrolling distance varies between different applications...

and End
End key
The end key is a key commonly found on computer keyboards. The key has the opposite effect of the home key. In limited-size keyboards where the end key is missing the same functionality can be reached via the key combination of -Microsoft Windows:...

; when Num Lock is on, digits keys produce corresponding digits. On Apple Computer
Apple Computer
Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products include the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad...

Macintosh
Macintosh
The Macintosh , or Mac, is a series of several lines of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple's then-chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a...

computers, which lack a Num Lock key, the numeric keypad always produces only numbers. The num lock key is replaced by the clear key
Apple keyboard
The Apple Keyboard is a keyboard designed by Apple first for the Apple line, then the Macintosh line of computers. It is available in both wired and Bluetooth models.- Layout :...

.

The arrangement of digits on numeric keypads is different from that of telephone “Touch-Tone” keypads
A telephone keypad is a keypad that appears on a "Touch Tone" telephone. It was standardised when the dual-tone multi-frequency system in the new push-button telephone was introduced in the 1960s, which gradually replaced the rotary dial....

, which have the 1-2-3 keys on top and 7-8-9 keys on the third row, instead of the reverse used on a numeric keypad. This layout, which matches most modern calculator
Calculator
An electronic calculator is a small, portable, usually inexpensive electronic device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic. Modern calculators are more portable than most computers, though most PDAs are comparable in size to handheld calculators.The first solid-state electronic...

s and cash register
Cash register
A cash register or till is a mechanical or electronic device for calculating and recording sales transactions, and an attached cash drawer for storing cash...

s, may be confusing for those who use one of these arrangements more often.

Numeric keypads are useful for entering long sequences of numbers quickly, for example in spreadsheet
A spreadsheet is a computer application that simulates a paper accounting worksheet. It displays multiple cells usually in a two-dimensional matrix or grid consisting of rows and columns. Each cell contains alphanumeric text, numeric values or formulas...

s, financial/accounting programs, and calculators. Input in this style is similar to that of a calculator or adding machine
An adding machine was a class of mechanical calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations.In the United States, the earliest adding machines were usually built to read in dollars and cents. Adding machines were ubiquitous office equipment until they were phased out in favor of...

.

## Chinese input methods

The numeric keypad is used by some systems for input of Chinese characters
Chinese input methods for computers
Hundreds of Chinese input methods are available for entry of Chinese characters into computers, but most keyboard-based methods rely on either pinyin phonetic readings or root shapes in Chinese characters...

, for example CKC Chinese Input System
CKC Chinese Input System
The CKC Chinese Input System is a Chinese input method for computers that uses the four corner method to encode characters.The encoding uses a maximum of 4 digits to represent a Chinese character. All possible shapes of strokes that forms any given Chinese character are classified into 10 groups,...

and Q9 input method
Q9 input method
The Q9 input method , invented by Qcode Information Technology Ltd. of Hong Kong, is an input method that uses only the number keys on a numeric keypad to input Chinese characters into a digital device. It is considered an easy method to use even though it is a "structural" input method...

.

## Computer games

Numeric keypads are also used for playing some computer games where the player must control a character, for example roguelike
Roguelike
The roguelike is a sub-genre of role-playing video games, characterized by randomization for replayability, permanent death, and turn-based movement. Most roguelikes feature ASCII graphics, with newer ones increasingly offering tile-based graphics. Games are typically dungeon crawls, with many...

s. Unlike arrow keys, the numeric keypad allows diagonal movement. For keyboards without a numeric keypad, some games provide alternative movement keys, such as classic Rogue
Rogue (computer game)
Rogue is a dungeon crawling video game first developed by Michael Toy and Glenn Wichman around 1980. It was a favorite on college Unix systems in the early to mid-1980s, in part due to the procedural generation of game content. Rogue popularized dungeon crawling as a video game trope, leading...

's
HJKL keys.

The numeric keypad can also be an alternative for navigation in computer gaming from the WASD keys. The mouse
Mouse (computing)
In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons...

would be used in the left hand instead of the right.