Novo Nordisk

Novo Nordisk

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Novo Nordisk manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services. Created in 1989 through a merger of two Danish companies dating back to the 1920s, it has become one of the world's leading companies in diabetes care, where Novo Nordisk pursues research into pulmonary delivery systems; other companies, such as Medtronic, have expanded into insulin pump
Insulin pump
The insulin pump is a medical device used for the administration of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, also known as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy.The device includes:...

 systems. Novo Nordisk also commands large sectors of the markets in haemostasis management, growth hormone
Growth hormone
Growth hormone is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored, and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior...

 therapy and hormone replacement therapy
Hormone replacement therapy (menopause)
Hormone replacement therapy is a system of medical treatment for surgically menopausal, perimenopausal and to a lesser extent postmenopausal women...

.

With headquarters in Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, Novo Nordisk has international production facilities in seven countries, with affiliates or offices in 76 countries. Novo Nordisk employs approximately 29,000 people globally (as of Q4 2009), and markets its products in 179 countries.

Novo Nordisk is a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations
European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations is a Brussels-based trade union founded in 1978 representing the research-based pharmaceutical industry operating in Europe....

 (EFPIA).

Novo Nordisk has been ranked 25 among 100 Best companies to work for 2010 by Fortune.

Toxicogenomics


In addition to internal research and development activities Novo Nordisk is also involved in publicly funded collaborative research projects, with other industrial and academic partners. One example in the area of non-clinical
Pre-clinical development
In drug development, pre-clinical development is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data is collected....

 safety assessment is the InnoMed PredTox. The company is expanding its activities in joint research projects within the framework of the Innovative Medicines Initiative
Innovative Medicines Initiative
The Innovative Medicines Initiative is a European initiative to improve the competitive situation of the European Union in the field of pharmaceutical research...

 of EFPIA and the European Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

.

Diabetes


Novo Nordisk founded the World Diabetes foundation to save the lives of those affected by diabetes in developing countries and were instrumental in achieving a UN resolution to fight diabetes, making diabetes the only other disease alongside HIV
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive...

 / AIDS
AIDS
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus...

 to have a commitment to combat at a UN level.

Levemir


Levemir is the company brand name for insulin detemir [recombinant DNA origin]. It is a long-acting insulin analog with a subsitited Lys-(N-tetra decanoyl) for B28, the 28th amino acid on the B chain of insulin. It is a soluble insulin analog for injection. Levemir is used to treat adult patients with diabetes for the control of high blood sugar.

NovoLog/NovoRapid


NovoLog is the company brand name for insulin aspart, a rapid-acting soluble insulin for injection. It has a substituted aspartic acid for proline on B28 .

NovoLog Mix 70/30


Novolog mix is a 70% insulin aspart protamine suspension and 30% insulin aspart for injection.

NovoSeven


NovoSeven is a recombinant factor VII
Factor VII
Factor VII is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade. It is an enzyme of the serine protease class. A recombinant form of human factor VIIa has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for uncontrolled bleeding in hemophilia patients...

. It is a vitamin K
Vitamin K
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat soluble vitamins that are needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation and in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. They are 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives...

-dependent gycosylated serine protease proenzyme. It is used in the treatment of hemophilia in cases of bleeding episodes or prevention of bleeding in surgical intervention. NovoSeven is intended for intravenous bolus injection.

Norditropin


Norditropin is a brand name for somatropin, a polypeptide hormone of recombinant DNA origin. It contains the identical sequence of 191 amino acids in naturally occurring pituitary human growth hormone (hGH).

Logo


The Novo Nordisk logo since the year after the company’s foundation is the Apis bull, one of the sacred animals of ancient Egypt. The Apis bull was worshipped as the incarnation of Ptah
Ptah
In Ancient Egyptian Religion, Ptah was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen , meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land, though Tatenen was a god in his...

, creator of the universe, city god of Memphis
Memphis, Egypt
Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Helwan, south of Cairo.According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes around 3000 BC. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an...

 and the patron deity of craftsmen. The logo is a stylised reproduction of an Egyptian statuette dating from circa 664–323 BC. It is richly ornamented with symbols representing, among other things, the eternal dualities of life, day and night, life and death. The choice of the logo follows an old European chemist's tradition of identifying pharmacies by an animal symbol.

Unite for Diabetes


Novo Nordisk have sponsored the International Diabetes Federation
International Diabetes Federation
The International Diabetes Federation is a worldwide alliance of some 200 diabetes associations in more than 160 countries, who have come together to enhance the lives of people with diabetes everywhere. For over 50 years, IDF has been at the vanguard of global diabetes advocacy...

's Unite for Diabetes campaign — one of many campaigns that helped to successfully pass UN
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 Resolution 61/225, making November 14 World Diabetes Day
World Diabetes Day
World Diabetes Day is the primary global awareness campaign of the diabetes mellitus world and is held on November 14 of each year. It was introduced in 1991 by the International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization in response to the alarming rise of diabetes around the world...

.

The company has also launched the Novo Nordisk Changing Diabetes World Tour — a truck that folds out into an educational and awareness-developing bus. The vehicle was launched in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

 in September 2005 and has visited Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

 and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The bus journey culminated in being stationed in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 for the inaugural World Diabetes Day
World Diabetes Day
World Diabetes Day is the primary global awareness campaign of the diabetes mellitus world and is held on November 14 of each year. It was introduced in 1991 by the International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization in response to the alarming rise of diabetes around the world...

 on November 14, 2007.

Victoza controversy


In 2010 Novo Nordisk breached the ABPIs
Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry
The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry is the trade association for 150 companies in the UK producing prescription medicines for humans...

 code of conduct by failing to provide information about side-effects of Victoza and by promoting Victoza prior to being granted market authorization.

Timeline


Novo Nordisk was created in 1989 through a merger between two Danish companies – Novo Industri A/S and Nordisk Gentofte A/S.
  • 1923 Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium (later Nordisk Gentofte) founded by Hans Christian Hagedorn
    Hans Christian Hagedorn
    Hans Christian Hagedorn was the creator of NPH insulin and Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium.-Biography:Hagedorn and August Krogh obtained the rights for insulin from Banting and Best in Toronto. In 1923 they formed Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, and in 1926 with August Krogh he obtained a Danish Royal...

    .
  • 1925 Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium (later Novo Industri) founded.
  • 1932 Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium founds the Steno Memorial Hospital.
  • 1938 Novo founds Hvidøre Diabetes Sanatorium.
  • 1941 Novo launches its first enzyme, trypsin, extracted from the pancreas of animals and used for bating leather before tanning.
  • 1946 Nordisk develops isophane insulin, branded as Neutral Protamine Haegdorn or NPH insulin
    NPH insulin
    NPH insulin , is an intermediate-acting insulin given to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes...

    , a neutral insulin with prolonged action.
  • 1947 Penicillin Novo is launched – Novo's first product to be manufactured through fermentation.
  • 1953 Lente – a long-acting insulin zinc suspension – is launched.
  • 1963 Alcalase – Novo's first detergent enzyme produced by fermentation.
  • 1973 Nordisk Gentofte markets Nanormon growth hormone for the treatment of growth hormone insufficiency. The growth hormone is extracted from human pituitary glands.
  • 1973 Monocomponent (MC) insulin is introduced – the purest insulin available at the time.
  • 1974 Novo's B shares are quoted on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange.
  • 1977 Trisequens – sequential combined oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for peri-menopausal women – is marketed.
  • 1977 Novo enters the U.S. insulin market, but based on market share data, the company was a very marginal player.
  • 1978 In an effort to alleviate its product and quality problems in the U.S. insulin market, E.R. Squibb & Sons contracts with Novo. Novo becomes the single bulk supplier of insulin for Squibb.
  • 1981 Novo becomes the first company in Scandinavia to be quoted on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • 1982 Novo enters into a 50/50 U.S. joint venture with E.R. Squibb & Sons, known as Squibb-Novo, based in Princeton, NJ. Squibb-Novo became the distributor for Novo insulin sold in the U.S. market, with Novo focused on producing insulin, and Squibb focused on distributing and selling the product. The joint venture is able to significantly increase Novo's U.S. market share.
  • 1982 'Human' Monocomponent insulin is launched in the U.S. – the world's first insulin preparation which is structurally identical to human insulin. It is extracted from the pancreas of pigs and converted to human insulin chemically.
  • 1983 Novo Industri A/S enters a joint venture with Canada's Connaught Laboratories, considered to be the birthplace of insulin. Under the terms of the agreement, Novo agreed to manufacture insulin in Canada for distribution by Connaught. Novo Laboratories Ltd. agreed to lease, modernize and operate Connaught's insulin production facilities. Another subsidiary company, Connaught-Novo, was jointly owned by both parent companies. Connought Laboratories was privatized by the Mulroney government in 1985.
  • 1985 NovoPen – an injection system similar in appearance to a fountain pen, with replaceable insulin cartridges – is launched.
  • 1987 Novo starts production of biosynthetic human insulin with the help of genetically engineered yeast cells using recombinant DNA
    Recombinant DNA
    Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA sequences that result from the use of laboratory methods to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological organisms...

     technology.
  • 1988 Nordisk Gentofte markets Norditropin genetically engineered human growth hormone.
  • 1989 Novo Industri A/S and Nordisk Gentofte A/S merge to become Novo Nordisk A/S, the world's leading producer of insulin.
  • 1989 Following the merger of Novo and Nordisk, and the merger of Bristol-Myers and E.R. Squibb & Sons in the U.S., the Squibb-Novo joint venture in the U.S. market was dissolved. Novo purchased Squibb's 50% share and all rights to the joint U.S. diabetes care business.
  • 1989 NovoLet – the world's first prefilled insulin syringe – is marketed.
  • 1992 The Steno Memorial Hospital and Hvidøre Hospital merge to form the Steno Diabetes Center
    Steno Diabetes Center
    Steno Diabetes Center is a hospital, research and teaching center dedicated to treating and managing diabetes, located in Gentofte, Denmark. It is named after Nicolas Steno . The Center was established in 1991 as a result of the merge of the Niels Steensen hospital and Hvidøre Hospital. The Niels...

    .
  • 1994 Novo Nordisk Canada Inc. and Connaught Laboratories Ltd. announced a distribution agreement, which replaced their joint venture which was known as Connaught Novo Nordisk Inc. Under the terms of the agreement, Connaught received a financial consideration and a percentage fee for distribution services related to Novo Nordisk Canada's diabetes care products. Connaught continued to distribute Novo Nordisk Canada's diabetes products in Canada and Bermuda.
  • 1996 NovoSeven – for the treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitor reaction – is launched.
  • 1998 NovoNorm/Prandin
    Repaglinide
    Repaglinide is for the treatment of type II diabetes. It is supplied by Novo Nordisk...

    , a new oral treatment for type 2 diabetes, is launched in the US and a number of European countries.
  • 1998 Activelle – the first low-dose continuous combined oral HRT for post-menopausal women – is introduced.
  • 1999 Novo Nordisk publishes its first social report.
  • 1999 Christian Karsten Hansen
    Christian Karsten Hansen
    Christian Karsten Hansen, PhD is a Danish biotechnology entrepreneur and inventor, with work in new drugs, molecular biology and biochemistry.- Personal background :...

     and Jan Møller Mikkelsen leave Novo Nordisk to found Profound Pharma
    Profound Pharma
    Profound Pharma A/S was a Danish company that discovered and developed 2nd generation biopharmaceuticals.- History :Created in Denmark in 1999 by Christian Karsten Hansen and Jan Møller Mikkelsen, formerly of Novo Nordisk, the company was funded by venture capital and a loan from Vækstfonden...

     A/S which is acquired by Maxygen
    Maxygen
    Maxygen Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing improved versions of protein drugs using DNA shuffling and other protein modification technologies...

     in 2000.
  • 1999 Innovo, the world's first insulin doser with a built-in electronic memory, is launched in Europe.
  • 1999 Novorapid (Novolog in the U.S.) – a rapid-acting insulin analogue – is marketed.
  • 1999 Norditropin SimpleXx – the world’s first liquid growth hormone in a dedicated pen system – is launched.
  • 2000 Novofem, a low-dose sequential combined oral HRT, is marketed in Germany. Two years later it is launched in several other European countries.
  • 2000 Novo Nordisk is split into three separate companies operating under the umbrella of the Novo Group: Novo Nordisk A/S, Novozymes A/S
    Novozymes
    Novozymes is a biotech-based company, headquartered in Denmark and employing approximately 5,400 people in 30 countries. Novozymes A/S’ B shares are listed on the NASDAQ OMX Nordic.-Business areas:...

     and Novo A/S.
  • 2001 InnoLet – the first insulin delivery system specially designed to suit the needs of insulin users with poor eyesight and reduced dexterity – is launched.
  • 2001 InDuo – the world's first combined blood glucose monitor and insulin injection system – is introduced.
  • 2001 NovoRapid/Novolog FlexPen and Insulatard (NPH) FlexPen are marketed. FlexPen is a new disposable, prefilled insulin pen dosage device.
  • 2001 Novo Nordisk acquires the controlling interest in the Brazilian pharmaceutical company Biobrás, the dominant insulin manufacturer in Brazil.
  • 2002 NovoMix 30 FlexPen and NovoMix Penfill are introduced. NovoMix 30 is a dual-release insulin analogue.
  • 2004 Levemir – a long-acting insulin analogue – is launched.
  • 2005 Novo Nordisk announced that the company had moved into a leadership position in the U.S. insulin market for the first time ever based on the most recent data on total insulin volume.
  • 2008 Novo Nordisk Canada Inc. was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers
    Greater Toronto's Top Employers
    Greater Toronto's Top Employers is an annual competition that recognizes the best places to work in the Greater Toronto Area...

     by Mediacorp Canada Inc. in October, which was announced by the Toronto Star
    Toronto Star
    The Toronto Star is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper, based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Its print edition is distributed almost entirely within the province of Ontario...

     newspaper.
  • 2009 Novo Nordisk was named as an ethical leader of international business by think-tank Ethisphere.
  • 2009 Novo Nordisk agrees to pay a $9 Million fine in connection with the payment of $1.4 million in kickbacks through the United Nations Oil-for-food Program.
  • 2010 Victoza - the first once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1
    Glucagon-like peptide-1
    Glucagon-like peptide-1 is derived from the transcription product of the proglucagon gene. The major source of GLP-1 in the body is the intestinal L cell that secretes GLP-1 as a gut hormone. The biologically active forms of GLP-1 are: GLP-1- and GLP-1-NH2...

     (GLP-1) analog for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is approved for distribution in the US.
  • 2010 Novo Nordisk pulls medicine from Greece due to price cuts triggered by the financial crisis in the country. The act caused uproar among diabetics and relatives.
  • 2010 Novo Nordisk agreed to pay $25 million to the US government for illegally promoting its haemostasis management drug, NovoSeven.
  • 2011 The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry reprimands Novo Nordisk for poor management due to breaching industry codes concerning various promotional efforts for its Victoza diabetes medicine.

External links