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North Kosovo

North Kosovo

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North or Northern Kosovo refers to a region in the northern part of Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

with an ethnic Serb
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the disputed territory, which has an ethnic Albanian
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

 majority. Ibarian Kolashin , a toponym that pre-dates the political partition, is also used to refer to the area. Neither the name nor the boundary has any official status in either Kosovar Albanian or Serbian designation: to Pristina
Pristina
Pristina, also spelled Prishtina and Priština is the capital and largest city of Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous municipality and district....

, the borders mark a land which is left alone to function independently; to Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

, the entire Kosovan region remains subject to the terms of the Kumanovo Treaty.

Kosovo is subject to a contested constitutional status
Constitutional status of Kosovo
The political status of Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian government and Kosovo's largely ethnic-Albanian population, stemming from the breakup of Yugoslavia at the end of the 20th century, and the ensuing Yugoslav wars...

: it had been defined by UNSCR 1244
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, adopted on June 10, 1999, after recalling resolutions 1160 , 1199 , 1203 and 1239 , authorised an international civil and military presence in Kosovo ) and established the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo .Resolution...

, in the interim, as part of the FRY
Fry
-Food and cooking:* Frying, the act of cooking food in oil or fat** Pan frying, frying food in a flat pan** Stir frying, frying food in a wok and stirring it while it cooks* Full breakfast, a traditional cooked meal, also called a fry-up or Ulster fry...

 (being an autonomous province of the constituent republic of Serbia) under United Nations international administration, but its provisional government
Provisional Institutions of Self-Government
The Provisional Institutions of Self-Government or 'PISG' are the local administrative bodies in Kosovo established by the United Nations administration in that province under the terms of UNSCR 1244...

 declared unilateral independence on 18 February 2008 http://geography.about.com/b/2008/02/17/kosovo-declares-independence-from-serbia.htm and has since received partial recognition. Most Serb institutions in Kosovo refuse to acknowledge and recognize this, continuing to consider the territory an integral part of Serbia. The Kosovan institutions
Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo , officially the Republic of Kosovo is a partially recognised state and a disputed territory in the Balkans...

, in turn, claim the entirety of the territory and oppose any kind of parallel government for Serbs in Kosovo. The entirety of Kosovo is under the effective control of the NATO forces which provide security from external and internal threats http://www.nato.int/issues/kfor/index.html

North Kosovo is by far the largest of the Serb-dominated areas within Kosovo
Kosovo Serb enclaves
Kosovo Serb Enclaves are the areas of Kosovo where Serbs form a majority, except for North Kosovo. While North Kosovo is connected to the rest of Serbia and mostly functions as a part of it, the enclaves are surrounded with areas of Albanian majority....

, and unlike the others, directly borders Central Serbia
Central Serbia
Central Serbia , also referred to as Serbia proper , was the region of Serbia from 1945 to 2009. It included central parts of Serbia outside of the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. The region of Central Serbia was not an administrative division of Serbia as such; it was under the...

. This has facilitated its ability to govern itself almost completely independently of the Kosovo institutions in a de facto state of partition
Partition (politics)
In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community. That change is done primarily by diplomatic means, and use of military force is negligible....

; the authorities in turn choose to observe Belgrade
Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

's direct rule which they believe to be the legal authority over Kosovo as a whole. However, despite the region being contiguous with Central Serbia, its location within Kosovo and the subsequent conditions of the Kumanovo Treaty
Kumanovo Treaty
The Military Technical Agreement between the International Security Force and the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia, often known as simply the Military Technical Agreement or MTA or as the Kumanovo Agreement, was an agreement concluded on 9 June 1999. It...

 in 1999 mean that access to and from Central Serbia is subject to passing a border transit administered and staffed by UNMIK. This renders the relationship between North Kosovo and Belgrade closer to that of an exclave (an island with its main region). Before the unilateral declaration of independence by the Kosovo authorities, it had been speculated that Kosovo might be partitioned
Partition of Kosovo
Partition of Kosovo is hypothetical future partition of the territory of Kosovo between Republic of Serbia and Republic of Kosovo. Partition was proposed several times, as the final solution for Kosovo status process...

 with North Kosovo remaining part of Serbia. The complexity of the region is on the agenda of the 2011 Pristina-Belgrade Talks.

Geography


North Kosovo consists of the region's three northernmost municipalities, Leposavić
Leposavic
Leposavić is a town and [Municipalities of Kosovo|municipality]] in the district of Kosovska Mitrovica of northern Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with at least 98%ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo...

, Zvečan
Zvecan
Zvečan is a town and municipality in the Kosovska Mitrovica district of Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo and Metohija. The municipality covers an area of , and...

 and Zubin Potok
Zubin Potok
Zubin Potok is a town and municipality in the Kosovska Mitrovica district of northern Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo...

, plus a relatively small portion of Kosovska Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica , is a city and municipality in northern Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous district....

 municipality (North Kosovska Mitrovica
North Kosovska Mitrovica
North Kosovska Mitrovica is the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica, which the river Ibar divides from the rest of the city. It is a part and de facto capital of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the...

). The latter includes those parts of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica proper that are on the north bank of the Ibar River
Ibar River
The Ibar is a river that flows through eastern Montenegro and Serbia, with a total length of . The river begins in the Hajla mountain, eastern Montenegro, passes through Kosovo and flows into the West Morava river, Central Serbia, near Kraljevo....

. It covers around 1,200 km², or 11% of Kosovo's land area. Owing to its border with Serbia proper, North Kosovo is not, strictly speaking, a "Serb enclave" or "Serb exclave".

North Kosovo is rich in mineral resources, once known for the Trepča mining complex
Trepca Mines
The Trepča Mines was a huge industrial complex in Serbia, located in the Kosovska Mitrovica Municipality.With up to 23,000 employees, Trepča was once one of the biggest companies in socialist Yugoslavia. In the 1930s, a British company gained the rights to exploit the Stari Trg mine close to...

.

Parts of North Kosovo are:
  • Leposavić
    Leposavic
    Leposavić is a town and [Municipalities of Kosovo|municipality]] in the district of Kosovska Mitrovica of northern Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with at least 98%ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo...

  • Zvečan
    Zvecan
    Zvečan is a town and municipality in the Kosovska Mitrovica district of Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo and Metohija. The municipality covers an area of , and...

  • Zubin Potok
    Zubin Potok
    Zubin Potok is a town and municipality in the Kosovska Mitrovica district of northern Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo...

  • North Kosovska Mitrovica
    North Kosovska Mitrovica
    North Kosovska Mitrovica is the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica, which the river Ibar divides from the rest of the city. It is a part and de facto capital of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the...


Demographics


Before the 1999 Kosovo War
Kosovo War
The term Kosovo War or Kosovo conflict was two sequential, and at times parallel, armed conflicts in Kosovo province, then part of FR Yugoslav Republic of Serbia; from early 1998 to 1999, there was an armed conflict initiated by the ethnic Albanian "Kosovo Liberation Army" , who sought independence...

 the area was predominately inhabited by Serbs, with a substantial Albanian
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

 minority and smaller populations of Muslims
Muslims by nationality
Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as an official designation of nationality of Slavic Muslims. They were one of the constitutive groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 (Gorani
Gorani
Gorani may refer to:In culture:* Gorani people, a Balkan ethnic groupIn geography:* Gorani, a village in Uda Commune, Argeş County, Romania* Gorani, a village in Odăile Commune, Buzău County, Romania...

 and other Slavic Muslims
Slavic Muslims
Slavic Muslims are ethnic groups or sub-ethnic groups of Slavs who observe the Islamic faith, such as:* Bosniaks * Gorani * Pomaks * Torbeš See also: Muslims by nationality...

), Roma and Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

. The Yugoslav census of 1991 recorded a population of some 50,500 people in the municipalities of Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok, of whom most were Serbs, with some Albanians and other small minorities, though the Statistical Office of Kosovo regards the accuracy of this census as "questionable" given that most Albanians boycotted it. The population of Kosovska Mitrovica municipality was predominantly Albanian, with the town itself and two of the nearby villages being ethnically mixed.

The war resulted in major population changes brought about by ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic orreligious group from certain geographic areas....

 and refugees fleeing the fighting elsewhere in Kosovo. The number of Serbs rose with the arrival of people driven out from other Serbian communities elsewhere in Kosovo. In 2006, the OSCE estimated that the population of the municipalities of Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok had increased to around 46,000 people, of whom 95.5% were Serbs, 3% Albanians and 1.5% others. Kosovska Mitrovica was split between Serbs and Albanians at the end of the war, with the Ibar River
Ibar River
The Ibar is a river that flows through eastern Montenegro and Serbia, with a total length of . The river begins in the Hajla mountain, eastern Montenegro, passes through Kosovo and flows into the West Morava river, Central Serbia, near Kraljevo....

 marking the dividing line. The north of Kosovska Mitrovica is now home to approximately 19,000 Serbs and 3,000 members of other minorities. Most of the Roma population was displaced to the north, while small numbers of Turks and Goranis continue to live on both sides of the river. The OSCE has, however, been unable to estimate accurately the population of the municipality.
Such figures would total to an approximate North Kosovo population of 68,000, of which slightly more than 95% is ethnically Serb. Based on a PISG estimate of a total Kosovan Serb population of 112,700, 60% of all Kosovo's Serbs live in North Kosovo. A special bus service operates in parts of North Kosovo to facilitate the movement of non-Serb residents around the territory. The bus operates with an accompanying security presence to ensure the safety of the passengers and permits those residents to more safely enter and leave the North Kosovo area.

Economy


The economy of the region was devastated by the war - by 2006, the unemployment rate had reached 77% in Kosovska Mitrovica municipality. The largest employer was the Trepča mining complex
Trepca Mines
The Trepča Mines was a huge industrial complex in Serbia, located in the Kosovska Mitrovica Municipality.With up to 23,000 employees, Trepča was once one of the biggest companies in socialist Yugoslavia. In the 1930s, a British company gained the rights to exploit the Stari Trg mine close to...

 in Zvečan which employed 4,000 people at the height of its operations. However, it was shut down in August 2000 due to the severe pollution which it was producing. The economic situation has deteriorated significantly in recent years due to a lack of capital investment, exacerbated by the uncertainty caused by the political dispute over the region's future. The region uses the Serbian dinar
Serbian dinar
The dinar is the currency of Serbia. An earlier currency also called dinar was used in Serbia between 1868 and 1918. The earliest use of the dinar date to 1214. Today's Serbian dinar is a continuation of the last Yugoslav dinar...

 rather than the euro
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

 used elsewhere in Kosovo. Smuggling of goods such as alcohol have become a business in North Kosovo where the customs authorities of the Kosovo authorities are unable to enforce the customs regulations of the Kosovo authorities. The Kosovo customs authorities do, however, attempt to curtail the flow of illegal goods from North Kosovo into the rest of Kosovo and have an elaborate network of surveillance cameras in place in that regard. The smugglers smuggle goods over the porous frontier between Central Serbia
Central Serbia
Central Serbia , also referred to as Serbia proper , was the region of Serbia from 1945 to 2009. It included central parts of Serbia outside of the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. The region of Central Serbia was not an administrative division of Serbia as such; it was under the...

 and North Kosovo.

Politics


Since 1999, the Serb-inhabited north of Kosovo has been governed as de facto independent from the Albanian-dominated government in Pristina
Pristina
Pristina, also spelled Prishtina and Priština is the capital and largest city of Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous municipality and district....

. It uses Serbian national symbols and participates in Serbian national elections, which are boycotted in the rest of Kosovo; and in turn, it boycotts Kosovo's elections. The municipalities of Leposavić
Leposavic
Leposavić is a town and [Municipalities of Kosovo|municipality]] in the district of Kosovska Mitrovica of northern Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with at least 98%ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo...

, Zvečan
Zvecan
Zvečan is a town and municipality in the Kosovska Mitrovica district of Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo and Metohija. The municipality covers an area of , and...

 and Zubin Potok
Zubin Potok
Zubin Potok is a town and municipality in the Kosovska Mitrovica district of northern Kosovo. It is a part of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the ethnic-Albanian-majority Kosovo...

 are run by local Serbs, while the Kosovska Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica
Kosovska Mitrovica , is a city and municipality in northern Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous district....

 municipality had rival Serb and Albanian governments until a compromise was agreed in November 2002, whereby the city has one mayor.

The region has united into a community, the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija established in February 2008 by Serbian delegates meeting in Kosovska Mitrovica, which has since served as North Kosovo's capital. The Union's President is Dragan Velić
Dragan Velić
Dragan Velić is a Kosovar politician. Born in Sušica, in the municipality of Priština, Velić was Prefect of the Kosovo District, the name of Kosovo Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija , from December 6, 2001 to September 28, 2004...

. This union is not recognised by Kosovo authorities, or by UNMIK.

There is also a central governing body, the Serbian National Council for Kosovo and Metohija (SNV). The President of SNV in North Kosovo is Dr Milan Ivanović, while the head of its Executive Council is Rada Trajković.

Local politics are dominated by the Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija
Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija
The Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija is a Serbian political party in Kosovo....

. The Serbian List is led by Oliver Ivanović, an engineer from Kosovska Mitrovica.

Government



The principal issue facing the region is its future relationship with Serbia and independent Kosovo. The North Kosovo Serbs have taken a consistently hard line, refusing to cooperate with the government in Pristina or to take up their seats in the Assembly of Kosovo
Assembly of Kosovo
The Assembly of Kosovo was originally established by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 2001 to provide 'provisional, democratic self-government'....

. Their stance has been encouraged by the Serbian government of Vojislav Koštunica
Vojislav Koštunica
Vojislav Koštunica is a Serbian politician, statesman and the president of the Democratic Party of Serbia. He was the last President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, succeeding Slobodan Milošević and serving from 2000 to 2003...

 & they remain in control of this area of Kosovo with parallel Serbian structures.

However, Ivanović and other Kosovo Serb leaders have expressed increasing frustration at Belgrade's approach and have voiced their support for a more moderate stance, speaking openly of rejoining the Assembly of Kosovo
Assembly of Kosovo
The Assembly of Kosovo was originally established by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 2001 to provide 'provisional, democratic self-government'....

 and taking part in its government. This line has proved highly controversial, as many Kosovo Serbs reject any compromise; in February 2004, Ivanović's car was destroyed by a bomb explosion outside his home in Kosovska Mitrovica.

The Serbian government, the Serbian List, the Government of Kosovo
Government of Kosovo
The Cabinet of Kosovo is the collection of Kosovo institutions that exercises executive authority in Kosovo. It is headed by the Prime Minister of Kosovo, and also includes the deputy prime ministers as well as various ministers.The Prime Minister is elected by the Assembly of the Republic...

 and the United Nations all officially oppose the separation of North Kosovo from the rest of the province. However, many Serbs in the region are adamantly opposed to living under the rule of an Albanian-majority provincial government and reject an independent Kosovo. Ivanović has spoken out against partition
Partition of Kosovo
Partition of Kosovo is hypothetical future partition of the territory of Kosovo between Republic of Serbia and Republic of Kosovo. Partition was proposed several times, as the final solution for Kosovo status process...

, pointing out that more than 60,000 (50%) of the Serb population of Kosovo lives south of the Ibar
Ibar River
The Ibar is a river that flows through eastern Montenegro and Serbia, with a total length of . The river begins in the Hajla mountain, eastern Montenegro, passes through Kosovo and flows into the West Morava river, Central Serbia, near Kraljevo....

, and that all of the important cultural and economic assets of the Kosovo Serbs
Serbs of Kosovo
Kosovo Serbs are the second largest ethnic group in Kosovo. By the 12th century, the cultural, diplomatic and religious core of the Serbian Kingdom was located in Kosovo. This became essential to the Serbian Empire of the 14th century....

 are in the south of Kosovo.

Most inhabitants of North Kosovo have boycotted the elections for the provisional institutions
Kosovan parliamentary election, 2007
Parliamentary elections to the unicameral Assembly of Kosovo were held on 17 November 2007, together with municipal elections. The Assembly of Kosovo is the legislative branch of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government that the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo ...

 held in November 2007 upon advice from Belgrade, putting themselves in an awkward situation, as ethnic Albanian parties are leading on all local elections in North Kosovo.

In February 2007 the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo has transformed into the Serbian Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija presided by Marko Jakšić
Marko Jakšić
Marko Jakšić is a Serbian football striker who recently played for Corgoň Liga club MFK Ružomberok.-External sources:* * * at Utakmica.rs-References:...

. The Assembly strongly criticized the independence moves of the Kosovo Assembly and demanded unity of the Serb people in Kosovo, boycott of EULEX and announced massive protests in "support of Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo." On 18 February 2008, a day after Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence, the Assembly declared it null and void in an open assembly together with the presence of the pro-Serb opposition from Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

.

In June, 2008 the Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija
Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija
The Assembly of the Community of Municipalities of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija , is the assembly of the association of local governments created by the municipal authorities in Kosovo elected in the May 11, 2008 municipal elections called by the Government of Serbia...

 was gathered to coordinate the efforts of the Serbian community in North Kosovo.

In 2011, former President of Kosovo Behgjet Pacolli
Behgjet Pacolli
Behgjet Isa Pacolli is a former President of the Republic of Kosovo, and is now First Deputy Prime Minister serving in the cabinet of Hashim Thaçi...

 crossed into the Northern part of Kosovska Mitrovica
North Kosovska Mitrovica
North Kosovska Mitrovica is the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica, which the river Ibar divides from the rest of the city. It is a part and de facto capital of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the...

 in a sign of unity. It marked the first time that a high ranking Republic of Kosovo
Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo , officially the Republic of Kosovo is a partially recognised state and a disputed territory in the Balkans...

 official visited Northern Kosovo. Such a symbolic gesture was accompanied by a heavy security presence.

Rule of Law


Law enforcement and green border checkpoints are carried out by KFOR
KFOR
The Kosovo Force is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.KFOR entered Kosovo on 12 June 1999 under a United Nations mandate, two days after the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1244...

, EULEX and Kosovo Police. According to an International Crisis Group
International Crisis Group
The International Crisis Group is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization whose mission is to prevent and resolve deadly conflicts around the world through field-based analyses and high-level advocacy.-History:...

 report, covert agents of Serbian police also operate in the area. North Kosovska Mitrovica
North Kosovska Mitrovica
North Kosovska Mitrovica is the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica, which the river Ibar divides from the rest of the city. It is a part and de facto capital of North Kosovo, a region with an ethnic Serb majority that functions largely autonomously from the remainder of the...

 in particular continues to remain a hot spot for organized crime.

Notable Inhabitants

  • Milan Biševac
    Milan Biševac
    Milan Biševac is a Serbian footballer who plays for French side Paris Saint-Germain.- Career :...

     - football player
  • Miloš Krasić
    Miloš Krasic
    Miloš Krasić is a Serbian professional footballer who plays for Juventus and the Serbian national team.-Playing style:...

     - football player
  • Stevan Stojanović
    Stevan Stojanovic
    Stevan Stojanović is a retired Serbian football goalkeeper who played for Red Star Belgrade....

    , Former Football player. Won the European Cup
    UEFA Champions League
    The UEFA Champions League, known simply the Champions League and originally known as the European Champion Clubs' Cup or European Cup, is an annual international club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations since 1955 for the top football clubs in Europe. It...

     in 1991 with Red Star Belgrade
    Red Star Belgrade
    Red Star Belgrade is a football club from Belgrade, Serbia. The club is a part of the Red Star Sports Society.Red Star Belgrade is the most successful Serbian club, with a record of 25 national championships and 23 national cups in both Serbian and ex-Yugoslav competitions...

    .

External links