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Niagara Falls, New York

Niagara Falls, New York

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Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County
Niagara County, New York
Niagara County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 216,469. The county seat is Lockport. The county name is from the Iroquois word Onguiaahra; meaning the strait or thunder of waters. It is the location of Niagara Falls and Fort Niagara, and...

, New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 of 50,193, down from the 55,593 recorded in the 2000 census. It is across the Niagara River
Niagara River
The Niagara River flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the Province of Ontario in Canada and New York State in the United States. There are differing theories as to the origin of the name of the river...

 from Niagara Falls, Ontario
Niagara Falls, Ontario
Niagara Falls is a Canadian city on the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario. The municipality was incorporated on June 12, 1903...

 (also a city), both named after the famed Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
The Niagara Falls, located on the Niagara River draining Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, is the collective name for the Horseshoe Falls and the adjacent American Falls along with the comparatively small Bridal Veil Falls, which combined form the highest flow rate of any waterfalls in the world and has...

 which they share. It is part of both the Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area
Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area
The Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area, designated by the United States Census Bureau, encompassing two counties – Erie and Niagara – in Western New York, with a population, as of the 2010 census, of 1,135,509 inhabitants...

 and the Western New York
Western New York
Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York. It includes the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Niagara Falls, the surrounding suburbs, as well as the outlying rural areas of the Great Lakes lowlands, the Genesee Valley, and the Southern Tier. Some historians, scholars and others...

 region.

History



The Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an migration into the area began in the 17th century with missionaries and explorers. The first recorded European to visit the area was Frenchman Robert de la Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico...

, accompanied by Belgian priest
Priest
A priest is a person authorized to perform the sacred rites of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities...

 Louis Hennepin
Louis Hennepin
Father Louis Hennepin, O.F.M. baptized Antoine, was a Catholic priest and missionary of the Franciscan Recollect order and an explorer of the interior of North America....

, who was the first known European to see the falls. This influx of newcomers may have been a catalyst for already hostile native tribes to turn to open warfare in competition for the fur trade.

The City of Niagara Falls was incorporated on March 17, 1892 from the villages of Manchester and Suspension Bridge, which were parts of the Town of Niagara
Niagara, New York
Niagara is a town in Niagara County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 8,378. The town is named after the famous waterfall Niagara Falls....

. New York State Governor Roswell P. Flower
Roswell P. Flower
Roswell Pettibone Flower was Governor of New York from 1892 to 1894.-Biography:He was a son of Nathan Monroe Flower and Mary Ann Flower, the sixth of nine children....

 signed a bill into law forming the city. Thomas Vincent Welch
Thomas Vincent Welch
Thomas Vincent Welch was a New York State Assemblyman and served as the first Superintendent of the New York State Reservation at Niagara, holding the post for 18 years...

 who was a member of the charter committee and then a New York state assemblyman, but more importantly a second-generation Irishman, was there when the bill was signed, and responsible for asking Governor Flower to sign the bill on St. Patrick's Day. George W. Wright was elected the first mayor of Niagara Falls.

Historically, the city was built around factories that utilized the power of the falling water for energy. Now the downtown area borders a park (Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park is located in the City of Niagara Falls, New York in Niagara County. The park has the American Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls, and part of the Canadian Falls....

) affording a close-up view of the American, Horseshoe and Bridal Veil Falls.

By the end of the 19th century, the city was a heavy industrial area, due in no small part to the huge power potential offered by the swiftly flowing Niagara River
Niagara River
The Niagara River flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the Province of Ontario in Canada and New York State in the United States. There are differing theories as to the origin of the name of the river...

. There were many industries in Niagara Falls that used the power of the mighty Niagara River. Tourism was considered a secondary niche, while industry was the main producer of jobs and economic backbone.

In 1927, the city annexed the village of La Salle from the Town of Niagara
Niagara, New York
Niagara is a town in Niagara County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 8,378. The town is named after the famous waterfall Niagara Falls....

. The village was named for Robert de la Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico...

.

Ever since the early 1900s, the center of the tourist district was Falls Street, a vibrant and carnival-like street that ran into the main part of the city. Although Falls Street no longer exists in the capacity that it once did, efforts are currently being made by the government and private companies to revitalize and restore what is left of the historic thoroughfare.

The 1950s and early 1960s witnessed an economic boom, as several industries moved into the city to take advantage of the hydroelectric power offered, due to a higher demand for household and industrial products. Paper, rubber, plastics, petrochemicals and abrasives were among the major industries located in the city. This brief period of prosperity would end by the mid-1960s, as the locally owned Schoellkopf Power Project later collapsed into the Niagara River, ending an industrial era.

To take advantage of the hydroelectric power offered, New York City urban planner Robert Moses
Robert Moses
Robert Moses was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, and Westchester County, New York. As the shaper of a modern city, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, and is one of the most polarizing figures in the history of...

 built a new power plant in nearby Lewiston, New York
Lewiston, New York
Lewiston is a village in Niagara County, New York, United States. The population was 2,781 at the 2000 census. The village is named after Morgan Lewis, an early 19th-century governor of New York. It is part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area.The Village of Lewiston,...

. However, Niagara Falls did not get much of the power created; Most of it went downstate to fuel growing demands for New York City.

The neighborhood
Neighbourhood
A neighbourhood or neighborhood is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town or suburb. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members. "Researchers have not agreed on an exact definition...

 of Love Canal
Love Canal
Love Canal was a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, located in the white collar LaSalle section of the city. It officially covers 36 square blocks in the far southeastern corner of the city, along 99th Street and Read Avenue...

 gained national media attention in 1978 when United States President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office...

 declared a federal emergency there, and hundreds of residents were relocated. Starting in 1920, the area had been used as a landfill
Landfill
A landfill site , is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment...

 for chemical waste disposal (and later, industrial toxic waste
Toxic waste
Toxic waste is waste material that can cause death or injury to living creatures. It spreads quite easily and can contaminate lakes and rivers. The term is often used interchangeably with “hazardous waste”, or discarded material that can pose a long-term risk to health or environment.Toxic waste...

) before its development as a residential area. The Superfund
Superfund
Superfund is the common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 , a United States federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances...

 law, which protects people, families, communities and others from heavily contaminated toxic waste sites, was enacted in 1980 in response to the Love Canal situation.

The post-Love Canal Niagara Falls witnessed a reversal of fortunes, as what was once cheap to produce in Niagara Falls was now far cheaper to outsource to other countries. Several factories closed, and the population has since dropped by half, as blue-collar workers fled the city in search of jobs elsewhere. The city's economy plummeted downward when a failed Urban Renewal project took place resulting in the destruction of Falls Street and the tourist district.

In 1995, the city government was the defendent in NAACP v. City of Niagara Falls, which named, among others, then-Mayor Jacob Palillo; City Council Members, G. Tom Sottile, Barbara A. Geracitano, Andrew Walker, Henry Buchalski, Michael Gawel, Anthony Quaranto, John G. Accardo; and City Clerk, Elsie Paradise. NAACP charged that the city was violating Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. At the time, Niagara Falls' government consisted of a mayor, who acted as chief executive, and seven city council members elected at-large. The NAACP further argued that the city had not given enough representation to African Americans living in the city, which at that time comprised 15.58% of the city's population. The court ruled in favor of the city, which kept its system of government.

Currently, the city's main industry is tourism. In 2004, the Seneca Nation of Indians opened the Seneca Niagara Casino
Seneca Niagara Casino
Seneca Niagara Casino & Hotel is a casino located in Niagara Falls, New York and was built to compete with Casino Niagara and Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort in Niagara Falls, Ontario...

 in the former Niagara Falls Convention and Civic Center
Niagara Falls Convention and Civic Center
Niagara Falls Convention and Civic Center was an indoor multi-purpose venue, in Niagara Falls, New York, with a capacity of 10,000 people.The venue was built as part of an urban renewal project in the city. It actually was built in the center of a main thoroughfare, Falls Street, and blocked...

, thereby establishing sovereign Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 territory in the midst of the city. The city, however, continues to struggle economically.

In 2001, the entire corrupt leadership of Laborers Local 91
Laborers' International Union of North America
The Laborers' International Union of North America is an American and Canadian labor union formed in 1903. As of March 31, 2010, they have about 632,000 members, members, about 80,000 of which are in Canada.The current general president is Terence M...

 plead of were found guilty of extortion
Extortion
Extortion is a criminal offence which occurs when a person unlawfully obtains either money, property or services from a person, entity, or institution, through coercion. Refraining from doing harm is sometimes euphemistically called protection. Extortion is commonly practiced by organized crime...

, racketeering and other crimes following an exposé by Mike Hudson of the Niagara Falls Reporter
Niagara Falls Reporter
The Niagara Falls Reporter is a weekly newspaper published in Niagara Falls, New York. It was launched on June 28, 2000, by veteran journalist Mike Hudson, who had previously worked for newspapers in Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York City...

. However, union boss Michael "Butch" Quarcini died before trial began, although the rest of the union leadership was sentenced.

In early 2010, former Niagara Falls Mayor Vincent Anello was indicted on federal charges of corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

. Although not related to his political career, Anello, a master electrician by trade, was also sentenced to 13 months in jail for pension fraud regarding a pension from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers is a labor union which represents workers in the electrical industry in the United States, Canada, Panama and several Caribbean island nations; particularly electricians, or Inside Wiremen, in the construction industry and linemen and other...

, of which he is a member.

The decline of the city was given national exposure by Bloomberg Businessweek magazine in a cover story.

On November 30, 2010, the New York State Attorney General entered into an agreement with the city and its police department to create new policies to govern police practices in response to claims of excessive force and police misconduct. The city will create policies and procedures to prevent and respond to allegations of excessive force, and to ensure that police are properly trained and complaints are properly investigated. Prior claims filed by residents will be evaluated by an independent panel.

The city has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places. It also has three national historic district
Historic district (United States)
In the United States, a historic district is a group of buildings, properties, or sites that have been designated by one of several entities on different levels as historically or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures, objects and sites within a historic district are normally divided...

s including: Chilton Avenue-Orchard Parkway Historic District, Deveaux School Historic District
Deveaux School Historic District
Deveaux School Historic District is a national historic district located at Niagara Falls in Niagara County, New York.-Beginnings:The property was deeded in the mid 1850’s as “The DeVeaux College for Orphans and Destitute Children” by Judge Samuel DeVeaux and operated by the Episcopal Diocese of...

, and the Park Place Historic District
Park Place Historic District (Niagara Falls, New York)
Park Place Historic District is a national historic district located at Niagara Falls in Niagara County, New York. It encompasses 89 contributing buildings, one contributing site, one contributing structure, and one contributing object. It is principally a residential district built up between...

.

Economy





The economy for the city was originally based around the Falls itself, or at least the power generated by the massive waterfall. This cheap and abundant source of power was the driving force behind the rapid rise of area industry. Around the turn of the 20th century, thousands of immigrants from predominantly European nations such as Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 came to the area to work the chemical, steel, and manufacturing plants owned by present-day companies such as Occidental.

The area is subject to the migration of manufacturing jobs to developing countries common to the rust belt
Rust Belt
The Rust Belt is a term that gained currency in the 1980s as the informal description of an area straddling the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, in which local economies traditionally garnered an increased manufacturing sector to add jobs and corporate profits...

. Another major toll was suburban migration, a national trend. The city, which once boasted well over 100,000 people at its peak, has seen its population decline by some 50%, as industries shut down and people left for the employment opportunities of the South and West. The unemployment rate in the City of Niagara Falls was around 10 percent as of October 2010. Approximately 60 percent of residents in Niagara Falls receive public assistance such as food stamps, welfare
American welfare state
Social programs in the United States are those institutions, supported or managed by the U.S. government, that aim to ensure economic security, universal access to the resources for self-development and the reduction of social suffering, such as poverty and illness. The main guiding philosophy for...

, unemployment insurance and Medicaid
Medicaid
Medicaid is the United States health program for certain people and families with low incomes and resources. It is a means-tested program that is jointly funded by the state and federal governments, and is managed by the states. People served by Medicaid are U.S. citizens or legal permanent...

.

Also blamed for the economic decline is the presence of the New York Power Authority
New York Power Authority
The New York Power Authority , officially the Power Authority of the State of New York , is a New York State public benefit corporation and the largest state-owned power organization in the United States. NYPA provides some of the lowest-cost electricity in New York State, operating 17 generating...

, whom politicians, reporters and residents have blamed for charging the city high electric bills, rendering the draw of cheap power obsolete. The New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
The New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation operates :*168 state parks*35 state historic sites*76 developed beaches*53 water recreational facilities*27 golf courses*39 full service cottages*818 cabins...

, and especially the Niagara Frontier Parks Commission (a division of the department), has also been blamed for placing souvenir stands, parking lots and restaurants within Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park is located in the City of Niagara Falls, New York in Niagara County. The park has the American Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls, and part of the Canadian Falls....

, which may have resulted in tourists not patronizing businesses in the city. Recently, state officials have been negotiating with state park and NYPA officials, such as Assemblyman John Ceretto
John Ceretto
John D. Ceretto is an American politician and a Republican member of the New York State Assembly, representing the 138th Assembly District...

 of Lewiston asking the NYPA if they would nominate a resident of Niagara County to the Board of Directors, since the Robert Moses Niagara Power Project in Lewiston is the most profitable project undertaken by NYPA and generates the most power.

Local and state government officials have vowed to embrace the physical and cultural advantages that the Niagara region naturally possesses — whether speaking of the Niagara Gorge, burgeoning wine trail, historical landmarks, Little Italy Niagara or Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
The Niagara Falls, located on the Niagara River draining Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, is the collective name for the Horseshoe Falls and the adjacent American Falls along with the comparatively small Bridal Veil Falls, which combined form the highest flow rate of any waterfalls in the world and has...

 itself. This move away from the city's industrial past to embrace a tourism-based economy has led the city to reinvent itself in marketing in recent years. In late 2001, the State of New York established the USA Niagara Development Corporation, a subsidiary to the State's economic development agency, to focus specifically on facilitating development in downtown Niagara Falls, NY. However, the organization has been strongly criticized for doing little to improve Niagara Falls' economy and generating no significant progress since it was founded.

The Falls' current development strategy is focused on a pragmatic approach to revitalizing vacant and underutilized buildings in the downtown area as high profile catalyst projects with real economic impact. But the cost to demolish the city's many abandoned buildings may make it impossible to address all the eyesores, according to officials, but some have criticized the city of wasting funds elsewhere. The opening of the new Conference Center Niagara Falls in 2005; the redevelopment of the historic United Office Building
United Office Building
United Office Building is an art deco skyscraper located in Niagara Falls, New York at 220 Rainbow Boulevard.Designed by architect James A. Johnson. Completed in 1929 on the eve of the Great Depression, the building is one of the most important landmarks in downtown Niagara Falls...

 and the Hotel Niagara
The Niagara
The Niagara, also known as Grand Hotel Niagara is a landmark hotel in Niagara Falls, Niagara County, New York. At 12 stories, it was designed by noted Buffalo architects Esenwein and Johnson and considered a skyscraper when it was built between 1923 to 1925. Located 1/4 mile from the Horsehoe...

; the restoration of Old Falls Street, once the primary tourist thoroughfare downtown, which is now a promenade; the redevelopment of the former Holiday Inn Select as a new Crowne Plaza Resort with several restaurants including the city's first Starbucks
Starbucks
Starbucks Corporation is an international coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world, with 17,009 stores in 55 countries, including over 11,000 in the United States, over 1,000 in Canada, over 700 in the United Kingdom, and...

 Coffee; and other attractions such as the planned Niagara Experience Center; and of course, the Seneca Niagara Casino
Seneca Niagara Casino
Seneca Niagara Casino & Hotel is a casino located in Niagara Falls, New York and was built to compete with Casino Niagara and Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort in Niagara Falls, Ontario...

, attempt to reposition Niagara Falls as a premiere destination.

The arrival of the Seneca Niagara Casino in 2004 was major undertaking designed to renew in the city's downtown area. However as of late 2011 the anticipated economic renewal the casino was supposed to bring has not been felt in the local area.

Niagara Falls is currently visited by almost ten million people each year and is considered one of the United States' top ten tourist destinations. The official tourism promotion agency, Niagara Tourism and Convention Corporation (
NTCC), was adopted in 2005. "The Mission of the NTCC is quite simple: to enhance the economic prosperity of Niagara County by promoting, selling and marketing the County as a premier destination for meetings, conventions and leisure tourism. While everyone agrees that Niagara Falls is the region’s main attraction, there are a plethora of other attractions that make Niagara USA such a special place to visit." The NTCC has launched several campaigns, domestically and internationally,to promote Niagara Falls Hotels, Niagara Attractions, and various events and festivals in Niagara County. The NTCC's efforts have also been criticized as the city continues to struggle financially and marketing efforts have not generated a significant turnaround. A recent audit also found millions of dollars of tax dollars spent by high-ranking NTCC officials on tuxedo rentals, trips to Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, expensive meals and backrubs.

Despite all its efforts, Niagara Falls, NY struggles to keep up with its Canadian neighbor, Niagara Falls, Ontario
Niagara Falls, Ontario
Niagara Falls is a Canadian city on the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario. The municipality was incorporated on June 12, 1903...

 which has a much more vibrant tourism industry and stronger economy.
From 1982 to 2000, a shopping mall
Shopping mall
A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

 called Rainbow Centre Factory Outlet
Rainbow Centre Factory Outlet
Rainbow Centre Factory Outlet was an enclosed outlet mall in Niagara Falls, New York, that operated from 1982 to 2000. Its design was unusual in that it was contained within its own parking ramp, and opened directly into the Wintergarden, an indoor arboretum, on its southern end...

 operated downtown on city land leased to Cordish Companies. The mall was built in a failed effort to revitalize the downtown. The owner, David Cordish, was criticized for not maintaining the building. Cordish eventually shuttered the building and stopped paying rent in anticipation that the company would be bought out of the lease. In October 2010, Cordish announced that he would give the facility to Niagara County Community College
Niagara County Community College
Niagara County Community College is located in Sanborn, New York, USA northeast of the City of Niagara Falls. NCCC offers associate's degrees in many programs. Niagara County Community College was founded in 1962 and is sponsored by Niagara County and SUNY. The new campus opened in 1973...

 for free to develop a hospitality school, culinary school, restaurant and bookstore. NCCC recently announced that they would develop 75000 square feet (6,967.7 m²) of the vacant mall, giving the rest of it to the City of Niagara Falls to further develop it. NCCC began construction work in 2011.

There is also an outlet mall called Fashion Outlets of Niagara Falls
Fashion Outlets of Niagara Falls
Fashion Outlets of Niagara Falls, formerly Niagara Factory Outlet Mall and Niagara Factory Outlets, is an outlet mall serving Niagara Falls, New York. The outlet mall opened in 1982 in a former King's Department Store and connecting plaza. Before this, the site once hosted a drive-in movie...

, formerly "Prime Outlets Niagara", which is not actually part of the city, but of the town of Niagara, New York
Niagara, New York
Niagara is a town in Niagara County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 8,378. The town is named after the famous waterfall Niagara Falls....

, which shares a post office with the city.

The Wintergarden was an all-glass indoor arboretum designed by Cesar Pelli
César Pelli
César Pelli is an Argentine architect known for designing some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. In 1991, the American Institute of Architects listed Pelli among the ten most influential living American architects...

 adjacent to the Rainbow Centre. It operated as an arboretum from its 1977 opening until 2003, and as Smokin Joe's Family Fun Center from 2003 to 2005, after the city sold it to local developer Joseph Anderson. It sat adjacent to the derelict Rainbow Centre until its being demolished demolished in 2009 to make way for Old Falls Street, plus the fact that it cost too much to heat during the typically harsh winters in the area.

Crime


Although statistically lower in crime than cities in Upstate New York such as Buffalo and Rochester, unfortunately Niagara Falls still suffers from a higher than average crime rate. In wake of recent gun violence, volunteer groups such as the "SNUG" movement have been mobilized to stop violence in Niagara Falls, and promote positive community involvement in Niagara Falls poorest and highest crime areas.

Geography


Niagara Falls is located at 43°5′39"N 79°1′2"W (43.094305, -79.017339).

The city is located at the international boundary between the United States of America and Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

.

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 16.8 square miles (43.5 km²), of that, 14.1 square miles (36.5 km²) of it is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km²) of it (16.37%) is water.

Topography


The city is built along the Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
The Niagara Falls, located on the Niagara River draining Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, is the collective name for the Horseshoe Falls and the adjacent American Falls along with the comparatively small Bridal Veil Falls, which combined form the highest flow rate of any waterfalls in the world and has...

 waterfalls and the Niagara Gorge
Niagara Gorge
Niagara Gorge is a gorge carved by the Niagara River along the US-Canadian border in New York and Ontario. As Niagara Falls recedes upstream toward Lake Erie, the river has gouged the hard dolomitic limestone of the Niagara escarpment to form the gorge...

 which is located on next to the Niagara River
Niagara River
The Niagara River flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the Province of Ontario in Canada and New York State in the United States. There are differing theories as to the origin of the name of the river...

 which flows from Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Lake Erie is the fourth largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the tenth largest globally. It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time. It is bounded on the north by the...

 to Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south by the American state of New York. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot language, ontarío means...

.

Adjacent cities and towns

  • Buffalo, New York
    Buffalo, New York
    Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

     - south
  • Town of Lewiston
    Lewiston (town), New York
    Lewiston is a town in Niagara County, New York United States. The population was 16,262 at the 2010 census. The town and its contained village are named after Morgan Lewis, a governor of New York....

     - north
  • Town of Niagara
    Niagara, New York
    Niagara is a town in Niagara County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 8,378. The town is named after the famous waterfall Niagara Falls....

     - northeast
  • Town of Wheatfield
    Wheatfield, New York
    Wheatfield is a town in Niagara County, New York, United States. The population was 18,117 at the 2010 census. The name stems from the agricultural use of the town lands: Growing Wheat....

     - east
  • Town of Grand Island
    Grand Island, New York
    Grand Island is a town and an island in Erie County, New York, USA. As of the 2010 census, the town population is 20,374. This represents an increase of 9.41% from the 2000 census figure . The current town name derives from the French name La Grande Île, as Grand Island is the largest island in...

     - south
  • Niagara Falls, Ontario
    Niagara Falls, Ontario
    Niagara Falls is a Canadian city on the Niagara River in the Golden Horseshoe region of Southern Ontario. The municipality was incorporated on June 12, 1903...

     - west

Climate


Niagara Falls experiences cold winters and warm summers. The coldest temperature recorded in Niagara Falls is -11º in 2003, 2005, and 2011. The hottest temperature recorded in Niagara Falls was 97º in 2005. The city is also one of the snowiest.

Government


The City of Niagara Falls is run using a manager-council form of government. The government consists of a mayor, a hired city administrator, and a city council. The current mayor as of 2007 is Paul Dyster
Paul Dyster
Paul A. Dyster is the incumbent mayor of Niagara Falls, New York. He is a Democrat.-Political career:Dyster became a city councilman in 2000 under Mayor Irene Elia...

 (D
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

). The City Administrator is Donna D. Owens. The City of Niagara Falls functions under a strong mayor-council form of government.

The city has had four one-term mayors since 1992. Those mayors were Jacob A. Palillo, James C. Galie, Irene J. Elia, and Vincenzo V. Anello. As of 2011, Paul Dyster is the first mayor of the city to be re-elected since 1987.

The city council serves four-year, staggered terms, except in the case of a special election. It is headed by a Council Chairperson, who votes in all items for council action.

In November 2011, a city council election, as well as a mayoral election was held. The incumbent, Paul Dyster, won re-election, as did incumbent 2-term councilman Robert Anderson. Glenn Choolokian will be replacing councilman Steven Fournier on January 1, 2012.

The council members are:
  • Samuel Fruscione, the council chair
  • Robert Anderson
  • Steven Fournier
  • Kristen Grandinetti
  • Charles Walker


On a state level, Niagara Falls is part of the 138th Assembly District of New York State. The current assemblyman is John Ceretto
John Ceretto
John D. Ceretto is an American politician and a Republican member of the New York State Assembly, representing the 138th Assembly District...

 (R
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

-Lewiston
Lewiston (town), New York
Lewiston is a town in Niagara County, New York United States. The population was 16,262 at the 2010 census. The town and its contained village are named after Morgan Lewis, a governor of New York....

). Niagara Falls is also part of the 60th Senate District of New York State. The state senator is Mark Grisanti
Mark Grisanti
Mark John Grisanti is a lawyer and politician.On January 3, 2011, he assumed office as the Republican New York State Senator representing New York's 60th Senate District – which encompasses the areas of Buffalo, Tonawanda, Niagara Falls and Grand Island, New York – having won...

 (R
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

-Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

).

On a national level, the city is part of New York's 28th congressional district
New York's 28th congressional district
The 28th district of New York is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives in northwest New York. The district is based in Rochester, Buffalo, and Niagara Falls, and includes parts of Erie, Monroe, Niagara and Orleans Counties; its easternmost point is in Fairport at...

 and is represented by Congresswoman Louise Slaughter. This district will become obsolete in the 113th Congress in 2013 because of redistricting and redrawing of district lines because of the results of the 2010 census. In the United States Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

, the city and the state are represented by Senior Senator Charles Schumer
Charles Schumer
Charles Ellis "Chuck" Schumer is the senior United States Senator from New York and a member of the Democratic Party. First elected in 1998, he defeated three-term Republican incumbent Al D'Amato by a margin of 55%–44%. He was easily re-elected in 2004 by a margin of 71%–24% and in 2010 by a...

 and Junior Senator Kirsten Gillibrand
Kirsten Gillibrand
Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik Gillibrand is an attorney and the junior United States Senator from the state of New York and a member of the Democratic Party...

.

Places of interest


The city is home to the Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park is located in the City of Niagara Falls, New York in Niagara County. The park has the American Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls, and part of the Canadian Falls....

. The park has several attractions, including
  • Cave of the Winds
    Cave of the Winds
    Cave of the Winds may refer to:*Cave of the Winds , a cave at Niagara Falls*Cave of the Winds *Cave of the Winds , a cave at Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Borneo...

  • Maid of the Mist
    Maid of the Mist
    The Maid of the Mist is a boat tour of Niagara Falls. The boat starts off at a calm part of the Niagara River, near the Rainbow Bridge, and takes its passengers past the American and Bridal Veil Falls, then into the dense mist of spray inside the curve of the Horseshoe...

  • Prospect Point and its observation tower
    Prospect Point Park observation tower
    The Prospect Point Park Observation tower is located in Niagara Falls, New York, USA and just east of the American Falls.The tower stands at 282 feet with the base at the gorge level and visitors entering at the ground level from Prospect Point Park. It sees eight million visitors annually.The...

  • The falls are illuminated each night, and fireworks are fired from the Canadian side each week during the tourist season.
  • Niagara Discovery Center (Also known as the Schoellkopf Center)
  • Aquarium of Niagara


Several attractions also abut the river, including
  • Whirlpool State Park
    Whirlpool State Park
    Whirlpool State Park is located in Niagara County, New York, north of the city of Niagara Falls. The park overlooks the Niagara Whirlpool on the Niagara River and the lower Niagara Gorge....

  • De Veaux Woods State Park
    De Veaux Woods State Park
    De Veaux Woods State Park is a state park located in Niagara County, New York, USA.De Veaux Woods is located off the Robert Moses State Parkway, north of the City of Niagara Falls...

  • Earl W. Brydges Artpark State Park
    Earl W. Brydges Artpark State Park
    Earl W. Brydges Artpark State Park is located in the Village of Lewiston in Niagara County, New York, named after Earl Brydges. It is generally referred to as Artpark, and was created on the site of a former industrial waste dump...

     in nearby Lewiston, New York
    Lewiston, New York
    Lewiston is a village in Niagara County, New York, United States. The population was 2,781 at the 2000 census. The village is named after Morgan Lewis, an early 19th-century governor of New York. It is part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area.The Village of Lewiston,...

    , commonly known as the Artpark
  • Fort Niagara State Park
    Fort Niagara State Park
    Fort Niagara State Park is located in the Town of Porter in Niagara County, New York, USA. Historic Fort Niagara is located within the park. The park is northwest of Youngstown, New York near the northern terminus of the Robert Moses State Parkway....

     in Youngstown, New York
    Youngstown, New York
    Youngstown is a village in Niagara County, New York, USA. The population was 1,957 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area....

    .


Attractions in the downtown include
  • One Niagara Center
  • Aquarium of Niagara
  • United Office Building
    United Office Building
    United Office Building is an art deco skyscraper located in Niagara Falls, New York at 220 Rainbow Boulevard.Designed by architect James A. Johnson. Completed in 1929 on the eve of the Great Depression, the building is one of the most important landmarks in downtown Niagara Falls...

  • Seneca Niagara Casino & Hotel
  • Hard Rock Cafe
    Hard Rock Cafe
    Hard Rock Cafe is a chain of theme restaurants founded in 1971 by Americans Peter Morton & Isaac Tigrett. In 1979, the cafe began covering its walls with rock and roll memorabilia, a tradition which expanded to others in the chain. In 2006, Hard Rock was sold to the Seminole Tribe of Florida, and...

  • the proposed Niagara Experience Center
  • the proposed Niagara Falls Culinary Institute, which will open within the former Rainbow Centre Mall by 2015.
  • Daredevil Museum
  • Old Falls Street
  • Oakwood Cemetery (Niagara Falls, NY)
    Oakwood Cemetery (Niagara Falls, NY)
    Oakwood Cemetery in Niagara Falls, New York was founded in 1852 after land was donated by Lavinia Porter. It covers over 18 acres and over 19,000 are buried there. Notable graves include first person to travel over Niagara Falls in a barrel Annie Edson Taylor, U.S...

  • Conference Center Niagara Falls
  • Third Street Entertainment District
  • The Theater in the Mist
  • Rainbow Air Helicopter Tours, which take off from the roof of the Howard Johnson Inn on Main Street.
  • Rapids Theatre on Main Street
  • Haunted House of Wax on First Street

Cityscape


The city is home to several diverse neighborhoods including Little Italy, the North End, Deveaux, La Salle, Downtown, Niagara Street/East Side, Buffalo Avenue and Hyde Park. Niagara Falls has a numbered street system ranging from 1st Street to 102nd Street.

Little Italy


Little Italy is an area full of restaurants, bakeries, and pizzerias extending along Pine Avenue and surrounding areas from Portage Rd. to Hyde Park Boulevard. It historically was the home to a large Italian-American population. Italian Americans built such institutions as St. Joseph's Church, the Cristoforo Colombo Society (1903) and Colombus Square Park. The park serves as the center of Italian culture with its bocce courts, summer concerts and the Italian Festival. Currently Council Chairman Sam Fruscione produces a weekly Public-access television
Public-access television
Public-access television is a form of non-commercial mass media where ordinary people can create content television programming which is cablecast through cable TV specialty channels...

 cable TV show promoting Little Italy Niagara. While Pine Avenue continues to thrive, areas around it have gone through an economic decline.

North End


The North End, like Little Italy, has declined significantly over the years. Originally a booming industrial district, especially along Highland and College Avenues, several of the industries have closed and the area has become neglected. It is a dangerous area typefied by poverty, crime and drug dealing. Recently, "green" industry has begun to move into the North End, bringing back some jobs. The relocation of the Niagara Falls Train Station
Niagara Falls, New York (Amtrak station)
Amtrak's Niagara Falls, New York station is located at the corner of 27th Street and Lockport Road. It serves as an enclosed waiting area and ticket-selling location on the western terminus of the Empire Corridor. There is no platform, however, so trains are boarded in the open air of the much...

 is expected to help the area, as well as new development on nearby Main Street. It is mainly considered to be anything located north of the primary railroad tracks within the city, with the exception of west of Ninth Street. Several housing projects have been built within the area, including Center Court, Harry S. Jordan Gardens, the proposed HOPE VI houses, and the infamous Unity Park projects. Originally an Italian neighborhood, it has become increasingly African-American.

Deveaux


A small, upper-middle class neighborhood located in the northern part of Niagara Falls, Deveaux is centered around Lewiston Road and the campus of the Deveaux School, now Deveaux Woods State Park. It is named for Judge Samuel Deveaux, the main benefactor for the college located on the Deveaux Campus. The DeVeaux Woods property is located at 3100 Lewiston Road and is listed on the State and National Registers of Historic Places. Deeded by Samuel DeVeaux in 1853, the property was home to the DeVeaux College for Orphans and Destitute Children, later became the DeVeaux School and was purchased in 1978 by Niagara University. Deveaux Woods is an old-growth forest inside the city of Niagara Falls and consists of approximately 10 acres of historic forest. This is an opportunity for residents and visitors alike to “step back in time” to see what much of Western New York was like prior to European settlement.
The area surrounding Lewiston Road is highly desirable and has some absolutely gorgeous old renovated homes, and is very close to the Niagara Gorge where owners enjoy the excellent bike/walking trail. Parks are plentiful in the area, and it is very close to Niagara Falls! This neighborhood has managed to stay well kept and crime free. Beautiful brick and all stone homes from the early to mid 20th century right on the beautiful Niagara Escarpment.

LaSalle


LaSalle is a large, vaguely defined middle class neighborhood considered to be anything east of 56th Street. It is the site of Love Canal
Love Canal
Love Canal was a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, located in the white collar LaSalle section of the city. It officially covers 36 square blocks in the far southeastern corner of the city, along 99th Street and Read Avenue...

, an infamous toxic waste landfill that was sold to the city for purposes of building a school in the early 1950s. It is named for Robert de la Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico...

, a French
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

 explorer who launches his boat, the Griffon
Le Griffon
Le Griffon was a 17th century sailing ship built by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in his quest to find the Northwest Passage to China and Japan....

from the approximate location of Griffon Park on Buffalo Avenue. In recent years, the main retail area of downtown Niagara Falls has moved from the South End near the falls to Military Road and Niagara Falls Boulevard
U.S. Route 62
U.S. Route 62 runs from the US-Mexico border at El Paso, Texas to Niagara Falls, New York, near the United States-Canada border. It is the only east-west US Route that connects Mexico and Canada.Parts of U.S...

, giving a significant economic boost to the area.

Downtown


the Downtown, also known as the South End is the area of the city that adjoins Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park
Niagara Falls State Park is located in the City of Niagara Falls, New York in Niagara County. The park has the American Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls, and part of the Canadian Falls....

. It is the main tourist district in the city, especially so in locations south of Niagara Street. However, it has declined significantly since a failed Urban renewal
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

 project took place in the 1960s resulting in the demolition of the historic Falls Street tourist district. Recently, efforts have been made to restore Falls Street and the downtown to its original grandeur, including the resurrection of Third Street as the entertainment district, and the arrival of the Seneca Niagara Casino
Seneca Niagara Casino
Seneca Niagara Casino & Hotel is a casino located in Niagara Falls, New York and was built to compete with Casino Niagara and Niagara Fallsview Casino Resort in Niagara Falls, Ontario...

.

Niagara Street/East Side


Niagara Street is the main thoroughfare in the area known as the East Side. It is the historic home to a significant Eastern Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an population, especially Polish
Poles
thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

 and German
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 immigrants. It has been and continues to be a diverse working-class neighborhood. Students in the area are served by the new Niagara Street School in between Niagara Street and Welch Avenue.

Buffalo Avenue


After the decline of several industrial areas in the city, Buffalo Avenue has remained the primary industrial section of the city for a century, although today the heavy manufacturing, mainly of petrochemicals and electrochemicals, occurs at a significantly diminished rate from a half-century ago when the city was at its peak. Several chemical factories are located along Buffalo Avenue between John B. Daly Boulevard and 56th Street.

Hyde Park


Hyde Park is a neighborhood surrounding Hyde Park
Hyde Park (Niagara Falls, New York)
Hyde Park is a municipal park in Niagara Falls, New York. It is the largest city park in New York outside of Manhattan, and is located along Hyde Park Boulevard...

, the largest city park in New York State other than Manhattan
Manhattan
Manhattan is the oldest and the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. Located primarily on the island of Manhattan at the mouth of the Hudson River, the boundaries of the borough are identical to those of New York County, an original county of the state of New York...

's Central Park
Central Park
Central Park is a public park in the center of Manhattan in New York City, United States. The park initially opened in 1857, on of city-owned land. In 1858, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux won a design competition to improve and expand the park with a plan they entitled the Greensward Plan...

. Other than Hyde Park, Niagara Falls has 24 other parks. It is primarily a working class neighborhood.

Transportation


Air
  • Niagara Falls International Airport
    Niagara Falls International Airport
    -Traffic figures:Niagara Falls International received 56,943 passengers in 2008. As per Federal Aviation Administration records, the airport had 660 passenger boardings in calendar year 2005 and 1,409 unscheduled enplanements in 2006....

  • Buffalo Niagara International Airport
    Buffalo Niagara International Airport
    Buffalo Niagara International Airport is an airport located in Cheektowaga CDP, Town of Cheektowaga, in Erie County, New York, USA. It is named after the Buffalo – Niagara Falls metropolitan area. The airport serves Buffalo, New York as well as Southern Ontario, Canada...

  • Toronto
    Toronto
    Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

    's Pearson International Airport on the Canadian side offers direct service with foreign airlines to other countries.


Rail
  • Amtrak
    Amtrak
    The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

     has a station
    Niagara Falls, New York (Amtrak station)
    Amtrak's Niagara Falls, New York station is located at the corner of 27th Street and Lockport Road. It serves as an enclosed waiting area and ticket-selling location on the western terminus of the Empire Corridor. There is no platform, however, so trains are boarded in the open air of the much...

     at 27th Street and Lockport Road


Ground
  • NFTA is the public transit provider in Niagara County and Erie County
    Erie County, New York
    Erie County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,040. The county seat is Buffalo. The county's name comes from Lake Erie, which in turn comes from the Erie tribe of American Indians who lived south and east of the lake before 1654.Erie...

     with hubs at Portage Road Transit Center and Niagara Falls Transportation Center.


NFTA replaced two local bus operators in the 1950s: Lockport Bus Lines and Niagara Falls Municipal Transit System.

Major highways in the City of Niagara Falls

  • Interstate 190
    Interstate 190 (New York)
    Interstate 190 runs 28.34 miles from Interstate 90 near Buffalo, New York to Lewiston, New York via Niagara Falls. Parts of this highway were built on the former rights-of-way of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Erie Canal. It is referred to by locals as The One-Ninety...

     (Niagara Expwy.), North-South highway through the city that runs from the South Grand Island Bridge
    South Grand Island Bridge
    The South Grand Island Bridge carries Interstate 190 across the Niagara River between Tonawanda, New York and Grand Island, New York. The toll plaza is found on the Tonawanda side of the bridge; Only 2 booths are EZ-Pass, the remainder are manned booths.The twin Truss arch bridges crosses from...

     from Grand Island north into the town of Niagara, then Lewiston and its northern end at the Lewiston-Queenston Bridge
    Lewiston-Queenston Bridge
    The Lewiston–Queenston Bridge is an arch bridge that crosses the Niagara River gorge just south of the Niagara Escarpment. The bridge was officially opened on November 1, 1962. It is an international bridge between the United States and Canada. It connects Interstate 190 in the town of Lewiston,...

    .
  • U.S. Route 62
    U.S. Route 62
    U.S. Route 62 runs from the US-Mexico border at El Paso, Texas to Niagara Falls, New York, near the United States-Canada border. It is the only east-west US Route that connects Mexico and Canada.Parts of U.S...

     (Niagara Falls Blvd., Walnut Ave. (Westbound), Ferry Ave. (Eastbound)), signed as a North-South highway, US 62 in the city of Niagara Falls has an East-West orientation. Where Niagara Falls Blvd. ends at Packard Rd., US 62 is split among two one-way streets. Walnut Ave. carries US 62 west to its northern terminus at Main St. (NY 104), and Ferry Ave. (One block south) carries US 62 east away from downtown Niagara Falls.

  • US 62 Business (Pine Ave.), East-West roadway in the city, this route parallels US 62 which is one block south. Its western terminus is at Main St. (NY 104) and its eastern terminus is at Niagara Falls Blvd. (US 62).
  • New York State Route 31
    New York State Route 31
    New York State Route 31 is a state highway that extends for across western and central New York in the United States. The western terminus of the route is at an intersection with NY 104 in the city of Niagara Falls. Its eastern terminus is at a traffic circle with NY 26 in Vernon...

     (Witmer Rd., College Ave.), East-West roadway from the Niagara town line near NY 31's interchange with I-190, to its western end at Lewiston Rd. (NY 104).
  • New York State Route 61
    New York State Route 61
    New York State Route 61 is a state highway located almost entirely in the city of Niagara Falls in Niagara County, New York in the United States. The road runs across the city in a northwest–southeast direction, terminating at NY 384 at its southern extent and NY 104 at its northern...

     (Hyde Park Blvd.) North-South Roadway in through the City of Niagara Falls from Buffalo Ave. (NY 384), its southern end, north to the Lewiston town line where it has a short distance in the southwest corner of the Town of Lewiston where the route has its northern end at Lewiston Rd. (NY 104).
  • New York State Route 104
    New York State Route 104
    New York State Route 104 is a long east–west state highway in Upstate New York, United States. It spans six counties and enters the vicinity of four cities—Niagara Falls, Lockport, Rochester, and Oswego—as it follows a routing largely parallel to that of the southern shoreline of Lake...

     (Lewiston Rd., Main St.), signed as an East-West highway, NY 104 has a North-South orientation in the city that roughly parallels Robert Moses State Pkwy. and the Lower Niagara River. This routes western terminus is at Rainbow Blvd. (NY 384) at the foot of the Rainbow Bridge
    Rainbow Bridge
    Rainbow Bridge may refer to:Bridges :* Rainbow Bridge National Monument, a natural rock formation located in Utah, USA* Rainbow Bridge , in Kansas* Rainbow Bridge , on the United States – Canada border...

    . It heads north to the Lewiston town line.
  • New York State Route 182
    New York State Route 182
    New York State Route 182 is a state highway in Niagara County, New York, United States. It serves as a signed connection between the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge over the Niagara River and the Niagara Falls International Airport east of the city of Niagara Falls...

     (Porter Rd., Ontario Ave., Lockport St., Cleveland Ave.), East-West roadway through the city from the Niagara town line near its interchange with I-190 to its western terminus at the Whirlpool Rapids Bridge
    Whirlpool Rapids Bridge
    The Whirlpool Rapids Bridge, commonly called the Whirlpool Bridge, and until 1937, known as the Lower Steel Arch Bridge, is a spandrel braced, riveted, two-hinged arch bridge. It crosses the international border between Canada and the United States, connecting the commercial downtown districts of...

    .
  • New York State Route 265
    New York State Route 265
    New York State Route 265 is a state highway located in the western part of New York in the United States. NY 265 is a north–south route that roughly parallels the western parts of the Niagara River in Erie County and Niagara County...

     (Military Rd.), North-South highway at the eastern end of the city. Runs in the city from the Niagara town line near its intersection with Niagara Falls Blvd. (US 62) to the Town of Wheatfield where the route runs concurrent with NY 384.
  • New York State Route 384
    New York State Route 384
    New York State Route 384 is a state highway in Western New York in the United States. It is a north–south route extending from the city of Buffalo, Erie County to the city of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, and is one of several routes directly connecting the two cities. The southern terminus...

     (Buffalo Rd., Rainbow Blvd.), North-South highway (east-west orientation in city) that parallels the upper Niagara River in the city from the Wheatfield town line where it runs concurrent with NY 265, to its western end at the Robert Moses Pkwy/Rainbow Bridge.
  • LaSalle Expressway
    LaSalle Expressway
    The LaSalle Expressway is a long limited-access highway in Niagara County, New York, United States. It begins near the North Grand Island Bridge at an interchange with Interstate 190 in Niagara Falls and ends just south of the Niagara Falls International Airport at Williams Road in Wheatfield...

    , East-West Expressway in the eastern end of the city from its eastern end at Williams Rd. (NY Reference Route 952V) just outside the city line in the Town of Wheatfield, to its west end at an interchange with I-190 and Robert Moses State Pkwy.
  • Robert Moses State Parkway
    Robert Moses State Parkway
    The Robert Moses State Parkway is an long north–south highway in western Niagara County, New York, United States. Its southern terminus is at the LaSalle Expressway on the east bank of the Niagara River in Niagara Falls. The northern terminus is at NY 18 at Four Mile Creek State Park in...

    , North-South Parkway that runs through the city from the Lewiston town line to its southern end at an interchange with I-190 and LaSalle Expwy. The Parkway parallels the Niagara River through the city. The original route also passed under the approach to the Rainbow Bridge, however that section has since been closed to traffic and is now only used for park business. The parkway therefore is interrupted because of the closed section. The two sections are still connected by the way of New York State Route 384.

Demographics


As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2010, there were 50,193 people, 22,603 households, and 12,495 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 2,987.7 people per square mile (1,153.5 per square km). There were 26,220 housing units at an average density of 1,560.7 per square mile (622.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.5% White, 21.6% African American, 1.9% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.0% of the population.

There were 22,603 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.8% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.7% were non-families. 38.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 4.02.

In the city the population was spread out with 22% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 28.2% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,800, and the median income for a family was $34,377. Males had a median income of $31,672 versus $22,124 for females. 23% of the population was below the poverty line.

Media


Newspapers
The city has two newspapers, the Niagara Gazette
Niagara Gazette
The Niagara Gazette is a morning daily newspaper published in Niagara Falls, New York, USA, which covers several towns and villages of Niagara County, including Niagara, and the City of Niagara Falls. It was bought by Community Newspaper Holdings Inc., along with other area newspapers such as the...

, which is published daily, and the Niagara Falls Reporter
Niagara Falls Reporter
The Niagara Falls Reporter is a weekly newspaper published in Niagara Falls, New York. It was launched on June 28, 2000, by veteran journalist Mike Hudson, who had previously worked for newspapers in Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York City...

, which is published weekly. With a circulation of 22,500, the Reporter has managed to become the dominant newspaper compared to an average circulation of 14,228 for the Gazette. The Buffalo News
The Buffalo News
The Buffalo News is the primary newspaper of the Buffalo – Niagara Falls metropolitan area, and the area's only daily newspaper. It is the only newspaper owned by Berkshire Hathaway.-History:...

is the closest major newspaper in the area and once had a Niagara County, NY bureau that extensively covered Niagara Falls and its surrounding communities.It still covers the community with a variety of reporters on a part-time basis.

Radio
  • WHLD
    WHLD
    WHLD is an AM radio station licensed to Niagara Falls, New York with an adult standards format. The station resides at 1270 kHz on the dial and is owned by Citadel Communications.-History and programming:...

     AM 1270
  • WJJL
    WJJL
    WJJL is a radio station broadcasting a 1950s music format. Licensed to Niagara Falls, New York, USA, the station serves the Buffalo area. The station is currently owned by M. J. Phillips Communications, Inc., Debtor in Possession. WJJL went on the air in December 1947, and it serves Western...

     AM 1440
  • WTOR
    WTOR
    WTOR is a daytime-only radio station licensed to Youngstown, New York, USA. The station is currently owned by Birach Broadcasting Corporation. The station airs a multicultural programming format targeted primarily at the Greater Toronto Area in Canada...

     AM 770


Television

The Our Schools Channel 21 (OCS-21) is a High School run Television Station that broadcasts on the Educational Public Access Station (Channel 21) throughout Niagara County. All work is done by Niagara Falls High School Media Production Students under the direct supervision of Media Education Director; Mr. Rich Meranto. The station broadcasts programming both LIVE and Pre-Taped featuring school performances, Community events, school video announcements, sports programming and shows with many community leaders.

Education


Residents are zoned to the Niagara Falls City School District
Niagara Falls City School District
The Niagara Falls City School District is a school district in Niagara Falls, New York. The district currently has 11 schools. The current Superintendent of Schools is Cynthia A. Bianco.- History :The district was founded in the early 1900's...

. When LaSalle High School closed in June, 2000, a new Niagara Falls High School
Niagara Falls High School
Niagara Falls High School is a high school located at 4455 Porter Road in Niagara Falls New York. Niagara Falls High School was established in 2000, with the merging of the "old" Niagara Falls High School and La Salle High School, both located in Niagara Falls...

 was built at 4455 Porter Road. The new school merged LaSalle and the former Niagara Falls High School. The old Niagara Falls High School building at Pine Avenue and Portage Road became an Art and Cultural Center.

Niagara University
Niagara University
Niagara University is a Catholic university in the Vincentian tradition, located in the Town of Lewiston in Niagara County, New York. Originally founded by the Congregation of the Mission in 1856 as Our Lady of Angels Seminary, it became Niagara University in 1883. The University is still run by...

 is the closest post-secondary/college in the city.

Religion


Niagara Falls has a number of places of worship, including the First Unitarian Universalist Church
First Unitarian Universalist Church of Niagara
First Unitarian Universalist Church of Niagara is a historic church located at Niagara Falls in Niagara County, New York. It was constructed in 1921-1922 in a Classical Revival style...

, St. Peter's Episcopal Church, First Presbyterian Church and the Conservative Jewish
Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s.Conservative Judaism has its roots in the school of thought known as Positive-Historical Judaism,...

 Temple Beth Israel
Temple Beth Israel (Niagara Falls, New York)
Temple Beth Israel is a Conservative synagogue located at 905 College Avenue in Niagara Falls, New York. Founded in 1898 and formally incorporated in 1905 as an Orthodox synagogue, it hired its first rabbi in 1916, and joined the Conservative movement in 1931.The congregation moved to its current...

.

Sports

  • Niagara Falls Sox
    Niagara Falls Sox
    The Niagara Falls Sox were a Class-A minor league baseball team located in Niagara Falls, New York. The team played in the New York – Penn League, and were affiliated with the Chicago White Sox. From 1978 to 1979 they were known as the Niagara Falls Pirates, and were affiliated with the Pittsburgh...

     - Class A Minor League Baseball
    Minor league baseball
    Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball and provide opportunities for player development. All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses...

     team
  • Niagara Falls Rapids
    Niagara Falls Rapids
    The Niagara Falls Rapids were a Class-A minor league baseball team located in Niagara Falls, New York. They were formerly known as the Niagara Falls Sox, from 1982 to 1985, and were affiliated with the Chicago White Sox. The team played in the New York - Penn League, and were affiliated with the...

     - Class-A Minor League Baseball
    Minor league baseball
    Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball and provide opportunities for player development. All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses...

     team left city in 1993.
  • Niagara Power
    Niagara Power
    The Niagara Power are a collegiate summer baseball team in the New York Collegiate Baseball League . The current team owner and general manager is Cal Kern. The team plays their home games at Sal Maglie Stadium in Niagara Falls, New York...

     - New York Collegiate Baseball League
    New York Collegiate Baseball League
    The New York Collegiate Baseball League is a 12-team collegiate summer baseball league founded in 1978 and sanctioned by the NACSB and Major League Baseball. Each NYCBL team plays an eight-week, 44-game schedule from June to July with a playoff in early August...

     team founded in 2007.

Notable people


  • R.J. Adams (Bob Shannon) Film/TV actor and Radio personality. Attended Bishop Duffy High School.
  • Thomas Aquinas Daly
    Thomas Aquinas Daly
    Thomas Aquinas Daly is an American contemporary landscape and still life painter.Educated as a graphic artist at the University of Buffalo, Daly spent 23 years working in the commercial printing business before leaving it in 1981 to devote his full attention to painting...

    , contemporary landscape and still life painter
  • Dan DeSantis
    Dan DeSantis
    Daniel J. DeSantis was a former American football running back in the National Football League for the Philadelphia Eagles and in the Canadian Football League for the Hamilton Tiger-Cats. He was also a lieutenant colonel in the United States Air Force.-Career:DeSantis was a prominent athlete...

    , football player for the Philadelphia Eagles
    Philadelphia Eagles
    The Philadelphia Eagles are a professional American football team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are members of the East Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

  • Rashad Evans
    Rashad Evans
    Rashad Anton Evans is an American mixed martial artist from Niagara Falls, New York, currently signed to the Ultimate Fighting Championship where he is a former UFC Light Heavyweight Champion. Evans won the heavyweight division of The Ultimate Fighter 2. Evans lost the UFC Light Heavyweight...

    , mixed martial artist
  • Jonny Flynn
    Jonny Flynn
    Jonny William Flynn is an American professional basketball player for the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association...

    , former basketball player for the Syracuse Orange and starting guard for the Minnesota Timberwolves
    Minnesota Timberwolves
    The Minnesota Timberwolves are an American professional basketball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They play in the Northwest Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association . Founded in 1989, the team is currently owned by Glen Taylor...

  • Barbara Frum
    Barbara Frum
    Barbara Frum, OC was a Canadian radio and television journalist, acclaimed for her interviews for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.-Personal life:...

    , deceased Niagara Falls NY born Canadian television Journalist
  • John Gabriel
    John Gabriel (actor)
    John Gabriel is an American actor who is best known for his role as Seneca Beaulac in Ryan's Hope , and for which he received an Emmy Award nomination in 1980. Gabriel, who played The Professor in the original, unaired Gilligan's Island pilot, is the father of Lost actress Andrea Gabriel...

    , Emmy nominated Television actor
  • Lee Hyla
    Lee Hyla
    Lee Hyla is an American classical music composer.Lee Hyla was born in Niagara Falls, New York, and grew up in Greencastle, Indiana...

    , composer
  • Ellis Hobbs
    Ellis Hobbs
    Ellis Hobbs III is a former American football cornerback who played for six seasons in the National Football League. He played college football for Iowa State. He was drafted by the New England Patriots in the third round of the 2005 NFL Draft and played for them from 2005–2008...

    , cornerback for the Philadelphia Eagles
  • Rachael Lillis
    Rachael Lillis
    Rachael Lillis is an American actress and voice actress. She studied acting in Boston and New York City and has appeared in various theater and independent films....

    , voice actress
  • Antonino LoTempio, musician, singer, actor
  • Stefano Magaddino
    Stefano Magaddino
    Stefano Magaddino was an Sicilian mafioso who became the boss of the Buffalo crime family in western New York. His underworld influence stretched from Ohio and Southern Ontario as far north as Montreal, Quebec...

    , an American mafia boss
  • Sal Maglie
    Sal Maglie
    Salvatore Anthony Maglie was an American Major League Baseball pitcher. He played from 1945-1958 for the New York Giants, Cleveland Indians, Brooklyn Dodgers, New York Yankees, and St. Louis Cardinals. Maglie was known as "Sal the Barber", because he gave close shaves—that is, pitched inside to...

    , baseball player.
  • Rick Manning
    Rick Manning
    Richard Eugene Manning is a former center fielder in Major League Baseball who played for the Cleveland Indians and Milwaukee Brewers...

    , baseball player
  • Matt Mazza
    Matt Mazza
    Matthew Anthony "Matt" Mazza ) was an American National Basketball Association forward. He played with the Sheboygan Red Skins during the 1949-50 NBA season.-References:...

    , basketball player
  • Marc Mero
    Marc Mero
    Marc Mero is an American retired amateur boxer and professional wrestler. He is best known for his appearances with the World Wrestling Federation as Marc Mero and with Total Nonstop Action Wrestling and World Championship Wrestling under the ring name Johnny B. Badd...

    , former WWE professional wrestler
  • Johnny Pasek
    Johnny Pasek
    John Paul "Johnny" Pasek was a Major League Baseball catcher. Pasek played for the Detroit Tigers in and the Chicago White Sox in . He batted and threw right-handed....

    , baseball player
  • Bobby Previte
    Bobby Previte
    Robert "Bobby" Previte is a drummer, composer and bandleader. Previte earned a B.A. in Economics at the University at Buffalo, where he also studied percussion. He moved to New York City in 1979, and became active in the city's thriving jazz and experimental music scenes...

    , drummer and composer
  • Lynn Samuels
    Lynn Samuels
    Lynn Margaret Samuels is an American radio personality based in New York City who currently hosts a weekend talk show on Sirius XM Stars channel 107.-External links:****...

    , WABC and Sirius Radio personality.
  • James Starks
    James Starks
    James Darell Starks is an American football running back for the Green Bay Packers. He was selected in the sixth round of the 2010 NFL Draft. He played college football at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, .-High school:James attended high school in Niagara Falls, New York...

    , football player for the Green Bay Packers
    Green Bay Packers
    The Green Bay Packers are an American football team based in Green Bay, Wisconsin. They are members of the North Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League . The Packers are the current NFL champions...

  • April Stevens
    April Stevens
    April Stevens is an American singer.She has recorded since she was 15 years old. Her most popular solo recording was her RCA Victor recording of "I'm in Love Again" . Accompanied by an orchestra arranged and conducted by Henri René, Stevens' recording peaked at No...

    , singer
  • Tommy Tedesco
    Tommy Tedesco
    Thomas J. Tedesco was an American master session musician and renowned jazz and bebop guitarist.Tedesco's credits include the iconic brand-burning accompaniment theme from television's Bonanza, The Twilight Zone, Vic Mizzy's iconic theme from Green Acres, M*A*S*H, Batman, and Elvis Presley's '68...

    , born in Niagara Falls, most-recorded guitarist in history
  • Franchot Tone
    Franchot Tone
    Franchot Tone was an American stage, film, and television actor, star of Mutiny on the Bounty and many other films through the 1960s...

    , born in Niagara Falls, film actor

See also

  • Niagara Falls
    Niagara Falls
    The Niagara Falls, located on the Niagara River draining Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, is the collective name for the Horseshoe Falls and the adjacent American Falls along with the comparatively small Bridal Veil Falls, which combined form the highest flow rate of any waterfalls in the world and has...

  • Buffalo, New York
    Buffalo, New York
    Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

  • Grand Hotel Niagara
  • Lewiston, New York
    Lewiston, New York
    Lewiston is a village in Niagara County, New York, United States. The population was 2,781 at the 2000 census. The village is named after Morgan Lewis, an early 19th-century governor of New York. It is part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area.The Village of Lewiston,...

  • Love Canal
    Love Canal
    Love Canal was a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, located in the white collar LaSalle section of the city. It officially covers 36 square blocks in the far southeastern corner of the city, along 99th Street and Read Avenue...


External links