New media art

New media art

Encyclopedia

New media art is a genre that encompasses artworks created with new media
New media
New media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century. For example, new media holds out a possibility of on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community...

 technologies
Technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

, including digital art
Digital art
Digital art is a general term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process...

, computer graphics
Computer graphics
Computer graphics are graphics created using computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware....

, computer animation
Computer animation
Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images by using computer graphics. The more general term computer generated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images....

, virtual art
Virtual art
Virtual art is art practice using virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed reality as a medium in a digital environment..-Form:It can be considered a post-convergent art form, containing all previous media as subsets...

, Internet art
Internet art
Internet art is a form of digital artwork distributed via the Internet. This form of art has circumvented the traditional dominance of the gallery and museum system, delivering aesthetic experiences via the Internet. In many cases, the viewer is drawn into some kind of interaction with the work...

, interactive art
Interactive art
Interactive art is a form of installation-based art that involves the spectator in a way that allows the art to achieve its purpose. Some installations achieve this by letting the observer or visitor "walk" in, on, and around them; Some others ask the artist to become part of the artwork.Works of...

, computer
Computer
A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem...

 robotics
Robotics
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots...

, and art as biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

. The term differentiates itself by its resulting cultural objects and social events, which can be seen in opposition to those deriving from old visual arts (i.e. traditional painting
Painting
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

, sculpture, etc.). This concern with medium is a key feature of much contemporary art
Contemporary art
Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. The definition of the word contemporary would support the first view, but museums of contemporary art commonly define their collections as consisting of art produced...

 and indeed many art schools and major Universities now offer majors in "New Genres" or "New Media". New Media Art often involves interaction between artist and observer.

New Media concerns are often derived from the telecommunications, mass media
Mass media
Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies which are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media transmit their information electronically and comprise of television, film and radio, movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras or video consoles...

 and digital
Digital
A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

 modes of delivery the artworks involve, with practices ranging from conceptual to virtual art
Internet art
Internet art is a form of digital artwork distributed via the Internet. This form of art has circumvented the traditional dominance of the gallery and museum system, delivering aesthetic experiences via the Internet. In many cases, the viewer is drawn into some kind of interaction with the work...

, performance
Performance
A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers behave in a particular way for another group of people, the audience. Choral music and ballet are examples. Usually the performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. Afterwards audience...

 to installation
Installation art
Installation art describes an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called Land art; however, the boundaries between...

.

History


The origins of new media art can be traced to the moving photographic inventions of the late 19th century such as the zoetrope
Zoetrope
A zoetrope is a device that produces an illusion of action from a rapid succession of static pictures. The term zoetrope is from the Greek words "ζωή – zoe", "life" and τρόπος – tropos, "turn". It may be taken to mean "wheel of life"....

 (1834), the praxinoscope
Praxinoscope
The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud. Like the zoetrope, it used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder...

 (1877) and Eadweard Muybridge's
Eadweard Muybridge
Eadweard J. Muybridge was an English photographer who spent much of his life in the United States. He is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion which used multiple cameras to capture motion, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible...

 zoopraxiscope
Zoopraxiscope
The zoopraxiscope is an early device for displaying motion pictures. Created by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879, it may be considered the first movie projector. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion. The...

 (1879).

During the 1960s the development of then new technologies of video produced the new media art experiments of Nam June Paik
Nam June Paik
Nam June Paik was a Korean American artist. He worked with a variety of media and is considered to be the first video artist....

, Wolf Vostell
Wolf Vostell
Wolf Vostell was a German painter, sculptor, noise music maker and Happening artist of the second half of the 20th century. Wolf Vostell is considered one of the pioneers of video art, environment-sculptures, Happenings and the Fluxus Movement...

 and A. Michael Noll
A. Michael Noll
A. Michael Noll is an American engineer, and professor emeritus at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California. He was a very early pioneer in digital computer art and 3D animation and tactile communication.- Biography :Noll has a B.S.E.E...

, and multimedia
Multimedia
Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. The term can be used as a noun or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. The term is used in contrast to media which use only rudimentary computer display such as text-only, or...

 performance
Performance
A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers behave in a particular way for another group of people, the audience. Choral music and ballet are examples. Usually the performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. Afterwards audience...

s of Fluxus
Fluxus
Fluxus—a name taken from a Latin word meaning "to flow"—is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. They have been active in Neo-Dada noise music and visual art as well as literature, urban planning,...

.
At the end of the 1980s the development of computer graphics, combined with real time technologies then in the 1990s with the spreading of the Web and the Internet favored the emerging of new and various forms of interactivity Lynn Hershman Leeson
Lynn Hershman Leeson
Lynn Hershman Leeson is an award-winning American artist and filmmaker. She was Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Davis, and an A.D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University...

, David Rokeby
David Rokeby
David Rokeby is an artist who has been making works of electronic, video and installation art since 1982.His early work Very Nervous System is acknowledged as a pioneering work of interactive art, translating physical gestures into real-time interactive sound environments...

, Don Ritter
Don Ritter
Don Ritter is a Canadian installation artist and writer living in Berlin, Germany. He has been active in the field of new media art since the mid-1980s. His work consists primarily of large interactive video and sound installations that audiences control through their body position, body movement...

, Perry Hoberman
Perry Hoberman
Perry Hoberman , is an installation artist who has worked extensively with machines and media. His career has included stints with Laurie Anderson and the USC Interactive Media Division....

, telematic art
Telematic art
Telematic art is a descriptive of art projects using computer mediated telecommunications networks as their medium. Telematic art challenges the traditional relationship between active viewing subjects and passive art objects by creating interactive, behavioural contexts for remote aesthetic...

 Roy Ascott
Roy Ascott
Roy Ascott is a British artist and theorist, who works with cybernetics and telematics. He is President of the Planetary Collegium.- Biography :...

, Internet Vuk Ćosić
Vuk Cosic
Vuk Ćosić , graduated from Univerzitet u BeograduThe university of Belgrade and earned a BA in Archaeology in 1991, emigrating that year to Trieste, Italy, and the following year to the newly independent Slovenia....

, Jodi
Jodi
Jodi, or jodi.org, is a collective of two internet artists: Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmans . Their background is in photography and video art; since the mid-1990s they started to create original artworks for the World Wide Web...

, virtual and immersive art Jeffrey Shaw
Jeffrey Shaw
Jeffrey Shaw is a pioneering new media artist and researcher. From 1965 to 2002 he lived in Milan, London, Amsterdam and Karlsruhe, and returned to Australia in 2003 to assume the Directorship of the iCinema Research Centre at the University of New South Wales...

, Maurice Benayoun
Maurice Benayoun
Maurice Benayoun is a French pioneer new-media artist and theorist based in Paris. His work employs various media, including video, immersive virtual reality, the Web, wireless technology, performance, large-scale urban art installations and interactive exhibitions.-Biography:Born in Mascara,...

 and large scale urban installation Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
Rafael Lozano-Hemmer is a Mexican-Canadian electronic artist who works with ideas from architecture, technological theater and performance. He holds a Bachelors of Science in Physical Chemistry from Concordia University in Montreal...

.

Simultaneously advances in biotechnology have also allowed artists like Eduardo Kac
Eduardo Kac
Eduardo Kac is an American contemporary artist internationally recognized for his interactive net installations and his bio-art. Kac was born in 1962, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He lives and works in Chicago....

 to begin exploring DNA and genetics as a new art medium.

Contemporary New Media Art influences on new media art have been the theories developed around hypertext
Hypertext
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer or other electronic device with references to other text that the reader can immediately access, usually by a mouse click or keypress sequence. Apart from running text, hypertext may contain tables, images and other presentational devices. Hypertext is the...

, databases, and networks
Computer network
A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information....

. Important thinkers in this regard have been Vannevar Bush
Vannevar Bush
Vannevar Bush was an American engineer and science administrator known for his work on analog computing, his political role in the development of the atomic bomb as a primary organizer of the Manhattan Project, the founding of Raytheon, and the idea of the memex, an adjustable microfilm viewer...

 and Theodor Nelson, whereas comparable ideas can be found in the literary works of Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo , known as Jorge Luis Borges , was an Argentine writer, essayist, poet and translator born in Buenos Aires. In 1914 his family moved to Switzerland where he attended school, receiving his baccalauréat from the Collège de Genève in 1918. The family...

, Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. His best known works include the Our Ancestors trilogy , the Cosmicomics collection of short stories , and the novels Invisible Cities and If on a winter's night a traveler .Lionised in Britain and the United States,...

, and Julio Cortázar
Julio Cortázar
Julio Cortázar, born Jules Florencio Cortázar, was an Argentine writer. Cortázar, known as one of the founders of the Latin American Boom, influenced an entire generation of Spanish speaking readers and writers in the Americas and Europe.-Early life:Cortázar's parents, Julio José Cortázar and...

. These elements have been especially revolutionary for the field of narrative and anti-narrative studies, leading explorations into areas such as non-linear and interactive narratives. A contemporary timeline of media art can be found here.

Themes


In the book New Media Art, Mark Tribe
Mark Tribe
Mark Tribe is an American artist. He is the founder of Rhizome, a not-for-profit arts organization based in New York City....

 and Reena Jana named several themes that contemporary new media art addresses, including computer art
Computer art
Computer art is any art in which computers play a role in production or display of the artwork. Such art can be an image, sound, animation, video, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, videogame, web site, algorithm, performance or gallery installation...

, collaboration
Collaboration
Collaboration is working together to achieve a goal. It is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals, — for example, an intriguing endeavor that is creative in nature—by sharing...

, identity, appropriation, open sourcing
Open source
The term open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials. Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology...

, telepresence
Telepresence
Telepresence refers to a set of technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present, to give the appearance of being present, or to have an effect, via telerobotics, at a place other than their true location....

, surveillance, corporate parody, as well as intervention and hacktivism
Hacktivism
Hacktivism is the use of computers and computer networks as a means of protest to promote political ends. The term was first coined in 1994 by a member of the Cult of the Dead Cow hacker collective named Omega...

. In the book Postdigitale, Maurizio Bolognini
Maurizio Bolognini
Maurizio Bolognini is an Italian post-conceptual artist. His installations explore the potential and implications of new media technologies starting from the minimal and abstract activation of processes that are beyond artist's control, at the crossroads between generative art, public art and...

 suggested that new media artists have one common denominator, which is a self-referential relationship with the new technologies, the result of finding oneself inside an epoch-making transformation determined by technological development. Nevertheless New Media Art does not appear as a set of homogeneous practices, but as a complex field converging around three main elements: 1) the art system, 2) scientific and industrial research, and 3) politico-cultural media activism. There are significant differences between scientist-artists, activist-artists and technological artists closer to the art system, who not only do have different training and technocultures, but also different artistic production. This should be taken into account in examining the several themes addressed by New Media Art.

Non-linearity can be seen as an important topic to new media art by artists like Bill Viola
Bill Viola
Bill Viola is a contemporary video artist. He is considered a leading figure in the generation of artists whose artistic expression depends upon electronic, sound, and image technology in New Media...

 who explores the term as an approach to looking at varying forms of digital projects. This is a key concept since people acquired the notion that they were conditioned to view everything in a linear and clear-cut fashion. Now, art is stepping out of that form and allowing for people to build their own experiences with the piece. People always ask, "What is the difference between non-linearity and randomness?" Non-linearity describes a project that has freedom with certain parameters, whereas randomness has freedom and no boundaries whatsoever. Non-linear art usually requires the participation of an audience to reveal its non-linearity while random art, more-or-less, acts on its own. When looking at Public Secrets, one can see this piece as non-linear due to ideas stressed by people like Viola. In doing so, viewers can understand another theme in the many forms of new media art. The participatory aspect of new media art, which for some artists has become integral, emerged from Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow was an American painter, assemblagist and a pioneer in establishing the concepts of performance art. He helped to develop the "Environment" and "Happening" in the late 1950s and 1960s, as well as their theory. His Happenings - some 200 of them - evolved over the years...

's 'Happenings'
Happening
A happening is a performance, event or situation meant to be considered art, usually as performance art. Happenings take place anywhere , are often multi-disciplinary, with a nonlinear narrative and the active participation of the audience...

.

The inter-connectivity and interactivity of the internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

, as well as the fight between corporate interests, governmental interests, and public interests that gave birth to the web today, fascinate and inspire a lot of current New Media Art.

Many new media art projects also work with themes like politics and social consciousness, allowing for social activism through the interactive nature of the media. Some examples include Sharon Daniel
Sharon Daniel
Sharon Daniel is a professor in the Film and Digital Media department and serves as chair for the at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Along with teaching classes about digital media, Daniel does field research for new media projects. Her essays have been published in analytical and...

's Public Secrets, a site that shows oppression and struggles behind the prison system in America; Applied Autonomy's Terminal Air, a site that demonstrates the practices of United States Central Intelligence Agency's extraordinary rendition program; Beyondmedia Education, a non-profit organization that collaborates with under-served women, youth, and communities to create and distribute media arts on social justice topics including gender violence and school safety; and Michael Mandiberg
Michael Mandiberg
Michael Mandiberg is an artist, programmer, designer and educator. His work spans web applications about environmental impact, to conceptual performances about subjectivity, to laser cut lampshades for compact fluorescent lightbulbs....

's The Oil Standard, a Firefox plugin that shows all prices of online products in the cost of barrels of crude oil.

One of the key themes in new media art is to create visual views of databases. Pioneers in this area include Lisa Strausfeld
Lisa Strausfeld
Lisa Strausfeld is an American design professional. She is a leading Information architect.-Early life:Lisa Strausfeld born in central New Jersey, one of a set of twin daughters of an ob-gyn and an urban planner...

 and Martin Wattenberg
Martin M. Wattenberg
Martin M. Wattenberg is an American scientist and artist known for his work with data visualization. Along with Fernanda Viégas, he worked at the Cambridge location of IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center as part of the Visual Communication Lab, and created Many Eyes...

. Database aesthetics holds at least two attractions to new media artists: formally, as a new variation on non-linear narratives; and politically as a means to subvert what is fast becoming a form of control and authority.

Presentation and preservation


As the technologies used to deliver works of new media art such as film
Photographic film
Photographic film is a sheet of plastic coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive silver halide salts with variable crystal sizes that determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film...

, tapes, web browser
Web browser
A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content...

s, software and operating system
Operating system
An operating system is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software. The operating system is the most important type of system software in a computer system...

s become obsolete, New Media art faces serious issues around the challenge to preserve artwork
Art conservation and restoration
Conservation-restoration, also referred to as conservation, is a profession devoted to the preservation of cultural heritage for the future. Conservation activities include examination, documentation, treatment, and preventive care...

 beyond the time of its contemporary production. Currently, research projects into New media art preservation
New media art preservation
New media art preservation, a form of Art conservation, is the study and practice of techniques for sustaining artworks created using digital, biological, performative, and other variable media....

 are underway to improve the preservation and documentation of the fragile media arts heritage (see DOCAM - Documentation and Conservation of the Media Arts Heritage
DOCAM
DOCAM is an international research alliance on the documentation and the conservation of the media arts heritage....

).

Methods of preservation exist, including the translation of a work from an obsolete medium into a related new medium, the digital archiving of media (see Internet Archive
Internet Archive
The Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge". It offers permanent storage and access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, music, moving images, and nearly 3 million public domain books. The Internet Archive...

), and the use of emulators to preserve work dependent on obsolete software or operating system environments.

Types


The term New Media Art is generally applied to disciplines such as:
  • Artistic computer game modification
    Artistic computer game modification
    Video game art involves the use of patched or modified video games or the repurposing of existing games or game structures. Often this modification is through the use of level editors, though other techniques exist...

  • Ascii Art
    ASCII art
    ASCII art is a graphic design technique that uses computers for presentation and consists of pictures pieced together from the 95 printable characters defined by the ASCII Standard from 1963 and ASCII compliant character sets with proprietary extended characters...

  • Bio Art
    BioArt
    BioArt is an art practice where humans work with live tissues, bacteria, living organisms, and life processes. Using scientific processes such as biotechnology the artworks are produced in laboratories, galleries, or artists' studios...

  • Computer art
    Computer art
    Computer art is any art in which computers play a role in production or display of the artwork. Such art can be an image, sound, animation, video, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, videogame, web site, algorithm, performance or gallery installation...

  • Digital art
    Digital art
    Digital art is a general term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process...

  • Digital poetry
    Digital poetry
    Digital poetry is a form of electronic literature, displaying a wide range of approaches to poetry, with a prominent and crucial use of computers...

  • Tradigital art
    Tradigital art
    Tradigital art most commonly refers to art that combines both traditional and computer-based techniques to implicate an image. It is related to digital art, traditional art, information art, new media art, video art, interactive art, and internet art.-Background:Artist and teacher Judith Moncrieff...

  • Electronic art
    Electronic art
    Electronic art is a form of art that makes use of electronic media or, more broadly, refers to technology and/or electronic media. It is related to information art, new media art, video art, digital art, interactive art, internet art, and electronic music...

  • Evolutionary art
    Evolutionary art
    Evolutionary art is created using a computer. The process starts by having a population of many randomly generated individual representations of artworks. Each representation is evaluated for its aesthetic value and given a fitness score...

  • fax art
    Fax art
    Fax art is art specifically designed to be sent or transmitted by a facsimile machine, where the "fax art" is the received "fax". It is also called telecommunications art or telematic art. "Fax art was another means of mediating distances," according to art historians Annmarie Chandler and Norie...

  • Generative art
    Generative art
    Generative art refers to art that has been generated, composed, or constructed in an algorithmic manner through the use of systems defined by computer software algorithms, or similar mathematical or mechanical or randomised autonomous processes....

  • Glitch Art
  • Hacktivism
    Hacktivism
    Hacktivism is the use of computers and computer networks as a means of protest to promote political ends. The term was first coined in 1994 by a member of the Cult of the Dead Cow hacker collective named Omega...

  • Hypertext
    Hypertext
    Hypertext is text displayed on a computer or other electronic device with references to other text that the reader can immediately access, usually by a mouse click or keypress sequence. Apart from running text, hypertext may contain tables, images and other presentational devices. Hypertext is the...

  • Information art
    Information art
    Information art is an emerging field of electronic art that synthesizes computer science, information technology, and more classical forms of art, including performance art, visual art, new media art and conceptual art...

  • Interactive art
    Interactive art
    Interactive art is a form of installation-based art that involves the spectator in a way that allows the art to achieve its purpose. Some installations achieve this by letting the observer or visitor "walk" in, on, and around them; Some others ask the artist to become part of the artwork.Works of...

  • Internet art
    Internet art
    Internet art is a form of digital artwork distributed via the Internet. This form of art has circumvented the traditional dominance of the gallery and museum system, delivering aesthetic experiences via the Internet. In many cases, the viewer is drawn into some kind of interaction with the work...

  • Motion graphics
    Motion graphics
    Motion graphics are graphics that use video footage and/or animation technology to create the illusion of motion or rotation, graphics are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects. Motion graphics are usually displayed via electronic media technology, but may be displayed via...

  • Net art
  • Performance art
    Performance art
    In art, performance art is a performance presented to an audience, traditionally interdisciplinary. Performance may be either scripted or unscripted, random or carefully orchestrated; spontaneous or otherwise carefully planned with or without audience participation. The performance can be live or...

  • Radio art
    Radio art
    Radio art refers to the use of radio for art. "Radio Art implies that the artist who works in, and with, radio is not necessarily a trained DJ, programmer, producer, engineer, or personality, but one who uses sound to make art and seeks ways to transit it through radio as art...

  • Robotic art
    Robotic art
    Robotic art is a broad term that encompasses a variety of sub-types of art, all of which employ some form of robotic or automated technology.Robotic installation art unifies Installation art and robotic technologies insofar as the works and installations often employ computers, sensors, actuators...

  • Software art
    Software art
    Software art refers to works of art where the creation of software, or concepts from software, play an important role; for example software applications which were created by artists and which were intended as artworks. As an artistic discipline software art has attained growing attention since the...

  • Sound art
    Sound art
    Sound art is a diverse group of art practices that considers wide notions of sound, listening and hearing as its predominant focus. There are often distinct relationships forged between the visual and aural domains of art and perception by sound artists....

  • Systems art
    Systems art
    Systems art is art influenced by cybernetics, and systems theory, which reflects on natural systems, social systems and social signs of the art world itself....

  • Telematic art
    Telematic art
    Telematic art is a descriptive of art projects using computer mediated telecommunications networks as their medium. Telematic art challenges the traditional relationship between active viewing subjects and passive art objects by creating interactive, behavioural contexts for remote aesthetic...

  • Video art
    Video art
    Video art is a type of art which relies on moving pictures and comprises video and/or audio data. . Video art came into existence during the 1960s and 1970s, is still widely practiced and has given rise to the widespread use of video installations...

  • Virtual art
    Virtual art
    Virtual art is art practice using virtual reality, augmented reality or mixed reality as a medium in a digital environment..-Form:It can be considered a post-convergent art form, containing all previous media as subsets...



New media artists


  • Miguel Álvarez-Fernández
    Miguel Álvarez-Fernández
    Miguel Álvarez-Fernández is a sound artist, composer, theorist and curator based between Madrid and Berlin, where he has taught at the Electronic Music Studio of the Technical University of Berlin...

  • Carlos Amorales
    Carlos Amorales
    -Biography:Amorales studied at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie and the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam from 1992 to 1996.-Works:Amorales works in a variety of media, including video animation, painting, drawing, sculpture, and performance...

  • Cory Arcangel
    Cory Arcangel
    Cory Arcangel is a Brooklyn, New York artist who makes work in many different media, including drawing, music, video, performance,, and video game modifications, for which he is perhaps best known...

  • Roy Ascott
    Roy Ascott
    Roy Ascott is a British artist and theorist, who works with cybernetics and telematics. He is President of the Planetary Collegium.- Biography :...

  • Maurice Benayoun
    Maurice Benayoun
    Maurice Benayoun is a French pioneer new-media artist and theorist based in Paris. His work employs various media, including video, immersive virtual reality, the Web, wireless technology, performance, large-scale urban art installations and interactive exhibitions.-Biography:Born in Mascara,...

  • Jean-Jacques Birgé
    Jean-Jacques Birgé
    Jean-Jacques Birgé is an independent French musician and filmmaker, at once music composer , film director , multimedia author , sound designer Jean-Jacques Birgé is an independent French musician and filmmaker, at once music composer (co-founder of Un Drame Musical Instantané which with he records...

  • Maurizio Bolognini
    Maurizio Bolognini
    Maurizio Bolognini is an Italian post-conceptual artist. His installations explore the potential and implications of new media technologies starting from the minimal and abstract activation of processes that are beyond artist's control, at the crossroads between generative art, public art and...

  • Oleg Buryan
    Oleg Buryan
    Oleg Yuriyevich Buryan , born 1959, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, is a Russian artist, who lives in Moscow. Since 2003 O. Buryan is a member of the Moscow Union of artists.-Biography:Oleg Buryan is a well-known artist...

  • Micha Cárdenas
    Micha Cárdenas
    Micha Cárdenas is a transgender performance and new media artist. Her work deals with the interplay of technology, gender, sex, immigration and biopolitics. She currently lives and works in Los Angeles.- Education :...

  • Janet Cardiff
    Janet Cardiff
    Janet Cardiff is a Canadian installation artist. Born in Brussels, Ontario in 1957 Cardiff studied at Queen's University where she graduated in 1980. She also studied at the University of Alberta and graduated in 1983. She works in collaboration with her partner George Bures Miller. Cardiff and...

  • Thomas Charvériat
    Thomas Charvériat
    Thomas Charvériat is an artist, curator and art director.- Life :Thomas Charvériat was born in Paris and attended the School of Visual Arts in New York, receiving his Bachelor of Fine Arts in photography in 1998, and pursued graduate coursework at Columbia University, receiving a Master of Fine...

  • Brody Condon
    Brody Condon
    Brody Condon is an artist based in New York. Concerned with the aftermath of trauma and the over-identification with fantasy in contemporary culture, Condon’s work is best known for its influence on the re-purposing of existing pop cultural material to create performative situations, video, and...

  • Critical Art Ensemble
    Critical Art Ensemble
    Critical Art Ensemble is an award-winning collective of five tactical media practitioners of various specializations including computer graphics and web design, film/video, photography, text art, book art, and performance. For CAE, tactical media is situational, ephemeral, and self-terminating...

  • Sharon Daniel
    Sharon Daniel
    Sharon Daniel is a professor in the Film and Digital Media department and serves as chair for the at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Along with teaching classes about digital media, Daniel does field research for new media projects. Her essays have been published in analytical and...

  • Liu Dao
    Liu Dao
    Liu Dao Liu Dao Liu Dao (a Pinyin phrase meaning "island number 6" - , is an international multidisciplinary art collective based in Shanghai, China. Liu Dao was founded in 2006 by island6 Arts Center under the direction of French curator Thomas Charvériat. Liu Dao is an electronic art group...

  • Char Davies
    Char Davies
    Char Davies is an artist who creates artworks using the technologies of immersive virtual reality.-Life and work:Davies was born in Toronto. Originally a painter, she transitioned to digital media in the late 1980s, becoming a founding director of the 3-D software company Softimage...

  • Ronald Davis
    Ronald Davis
    Ronald Davis , born 1937, is an American painter whose work is associated with Geometric abstraction, Abstract Illusionism, Lyrical Abstraction, Hard-edge painting, Shaped canvas painting, Color field painting, and 3D Computer Graphics...

  • Heiko Daxl
    Heiko Daxl
    Heiko Daxl is a German media artist, exhibition curator and design / art collector. He lives and works in Berlin and Zagreb.- Life :...

  • Erwin Olaf
    Erwin Olaf
    Erwin Olaf is a Dutch photographer.Olaf is most famous for his commercial and personal work. He has been commissioned to photograph advertising campaigns for large international companies such as Levi's, Microsoft and Nokia. Some of his most famous photographic series include "Grief", "Rain", and...

  • Electronic Disturbance Theater
    Electronic Disturbance Theater
    Ricardo Dominguez, Brett Stalbaum, Stefan Wray, and Carmin Karasic are collectively known as The Electronic Disturbance Theater or EDT for short. Taking the idea of the American Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, the EDT members always used their real names. They never concealed their identities...

  • David Em
    David Em
    -Life and work:David Em is one of the first artists to make art with pixels. He was born in Los Angeles and grew up in South America. He studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and film directing at the American Film Institute....

  • Masaki Fujihata
    Masaki Fujihata
    Masaki Fujihata is a Japanese sound and installation artist and a professor at Keio University.- External links :*...

  • Mary Flanagan
    Mary Flanagan
    Mary Flanagan is an artist, author, educator, and designer currently residing in Hanover, New Hampshire. She is inaugural chair holder of the Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Professorship in Digital Humanities at Dartmouth College and the director of the Tiltfactor Lab, an activist game design group...

  • Floating Point Unit
    Floating point unit
    A floating-point unit is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. Typical operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square root...

  • Furtherfield
    Furtherfield
    Furtherfield.org is an artist-led online community and arts organization. It creates and supports global participatory projects with networks of artists, theorists and activists and offers "a chance for the public to present its own views and enter or alter various art discourses".Furtherfield...

  • Ken Feingold
  • Ingeborg Fülepp
    Ingeborg Fülepp
    Ingeborg Fülepp, born in is a Croatian artist, university teacher, curator and film editor.- Life :She studied film editing and film analysis at the Academy for Theatre, Film and Television at the University of Zagreb and later education, video and interactive media with Carol Chomsky, and Howard...

  • Ken Goldberg
    Ken Goldberg
    Kenneth Y. Goldberg is a Professor of Industrial Engineering and OperationsResearch , with a joint appointment in Electrical Engineering and...

  • Peter Benjamin Graham
    Peter Benjamin Graham
    Peter Benjamin Graham , was an Australian visual artist, a master craftsman in a variety of printing techniques, and an art theorist. Peter saw no contradiction between abstract and figurative art...

  • greyworld
    Greyworld
    Greyworld are a collective of London based artists who are interested in public-activated art, sculpture and interactive installations. Although often varied in their materials, their work is typically subtle and environmentally reflective, often allowing participants the opportunity to play...

  • Phil Hansen
    Phil Hansen (artist)
    -Later years:Hansen went to Shelton High School, Shelton, Washington with Rob Phelan as his instructor.Following that, he attended the Northwest College of Art, Poulsbo, Washington but dropped out after only two quarters....

  • Lynn Hershman
  • Perry Hoberman
    Perry Hoberman
    Perry Hoberman , is an installation artist who has worked extensively with machines and media. His career has included stints with Laurie Anderson and the USC Interactive Media Division....

  • Barbara Januszkiewicz
    Barbara Januszkiewicz
    Barbara Morrison Januszkiewicz is an American painter, multi-media artist and filmmaker. She specializes in watercolor painting in a hybrid style – 'realism handled in a impressionist manner'. Her artwork has appeared predominantly in the Washington, D.C., area, including the Phillips Collection,...

  • Carsten Nicolai
  • Marc Horowitz
    Marc Horowitz
    Marc Horowitz is an artist, actor, writer, filmmaker, comic, and internet celebrity based in Los Angeles, California....

  • G.H. Hovagimyan
  • Kenneth Tin-Kin Hung
    Kenneth Tin-Kin Hung
    Kenneth Tin-Kin Hung is a Chinese-American new media artist who lives and works in New York. He earned his Bachelor of Arts in Arts degree from San Francisco State University. Hung's works are digital collages of popular culture and current events. His media includes hi-definition video animation,...

  • Ryoji Ikeda
    Ryoji Ikeda
    Ryoji Ikeda is a Japanese sound artist who lives and works in Paris. Ikeda's music is concerned primarily with sound in a variety of "raw" states, such as sine tones and noise, often using frequencies at the edges of the range of human hearing...

  • Toshio Iwai
    Toshio Iwai
    is a Japanese interactive media and installation artist who has also created a number of commercial video games. In addition he has worked in television, music performance, museum design and digital musical instrument design.-Education and early work:...

  • Junichi Kakizaki
    Junichi Kakizaki
    is a floral designer. He exhibits regularly both in Japan and internationally. Since 2006, he has mainly worked on stage decorations.-Life and career:Kakizaki was born in Nagano, Japan and has been a floral designer since 1990...

  • Allan Kaprow
    Allan Kaprow
    Allan Kaprow was an American painter, assemblagist and a pioneer in establishing the concepts of performance art. He helped to develop the "Environment" and "Happening" in the late 1950s and 1960s, as well as their theory. His Happenings - some 200 of them - evolved over the years...

  • KMA
  • Knowbotic Research
    Knowbotic Research
    Knowbotic Research is a German-Swiss electronic art group, established in 1991. Its members are Yvonne Wilhelm, Christian Hübler and Alexander Tuchacek...

  • Aaron Koblin
    Aaron Koblin
    Aaron Koblin is an American digital media artist best known for his innovative uses of data visualization and crowdsourcing. He is currently Creative Director of the Data Arts Team at Google Creative Lab in San Francisco, California....

  • Myron Krueger
  • Ryota Kuwakubo
    Ryota Kuwakubo
    Ryota Kuwakubo is a Japanese multimedia artist. Kuwakubo was born in Tochigi Prefecture. In 1998 he co-produced the project BITMAN with the art unit Maywa Denki...

  • Antoinette LaFarge
    Antoinette LaFarge
    Antoinette LaFarge is a new media artist and writer known for her work with mixed-reality performance and projects exploring the conjunction of visual art and fiction.-Biography:...

  • Roy LaGrone
    Roy LaGrone
    Roy LaGrone is a digital media artist. His work, which ranges from large-scale photomontage, animation and video installations, often involve intricate illusions of three-dimensional space constructed from found objects....

  • Steve Lambert
  • Golan Levin
    Golan Levin
    Golan Levin is an American new media artist, composer, performer and engineer interested in developing artifacts and events which explore supple new modes of reactive expression.-Biography:...

  • Teddy Lo
    Teddy Lo
    Teddy Lo is a Hong Kong and New York-based LED artist known for his work in the "tech-art" scene. He has held exhibitions in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Lo studied advertising design at the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, California, where he began exploring the use of...

  • Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
    Rafael Lozano-Hemmer
    Rafael Lozano-Hemmer is a Mexican-Canadian electronic artist who works with ideas from architecture, technological theater and performance. He holds a Bachelors of Science in Physical Chemistry from Concordia University in Montreal...

  • Marita Liulia
    Marita Liulia
    Marita Liulia is a Finnish media artist.Her production includes media art works, photography, painting and stage performances....

  • Machfeld
    MACHFELD
    MACHFELD is an Austrian art duo.Founded in 1999 by media artists Michael Mastrototaro and Sabine Maier in Vienna, Austria, they work in different fields: Netart, short and experimental films, streaming projects, interactive installations, and art in public space...

  • John Maeda
  • Judy Malloy
    Judy Malloy
    Judy Malloy is a poet whose works embrace the intersection of hypernarrative, magic realism, and information art. Beginning with Uncle Roger in 1986, Malloy has composed works in both new media literature and hypertext fiction...

  • Sergio Maltagliati
    Sergio Maltagliati
    Sergio Maltagliati is an Italian Internet-based artist, composer, and visual-digital artist.His first musical experiences with the Gialdino Gialdini Musical Band in in early 70s.-Biography:...

  • Michael Mandiberg
    Michael Mandiberg
    Michael Mandiberg is an artist, programmer, designer and educator. His work spans web applications about environmental impact, to conceptual performances about subjectivity, to laser cut lampshades for compact fluorescent lightbulbs....

  • Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich is an author of new media books, professor of Visual Arts, University of California, San Diego, U.S. and European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, where he teaches new media art and theory, software studies, and digital humanities...

  • Cathy Marshall
  • Eva and Franco Mattes
    Eva and Franco Mattes
    Eva and Franco Mattes were born in Italy in 1976. Since meeting in Madrid in 1994, they have never separated, living a nomadic life throughout Europe and the United States...

  • Elle Mehrmand
    Elle Mehrmand
    Elle Mehrmand is a new media performance artist and musician. Mehrmand's work combines the body and electronics. Her performance art work has been presented at museums, galleries and art festivals throughout the Americas...

  • Bjørn Melhus
    Bjørn Melhus
    Bjørn Melhus is a German media artist of Norwegian ancestry born in Kirchheim/Teck, Germany, in 1966. His works have appeared on television, DVD, and in live art installations throughout the world...

  • Yucef Merhi
    Yucef Merhi
    Yucef Merhi is a Venezuelan artist, poet and computer programmer, based in New York.-Life and work:Yucef Merhi was born in Caracas, Venezuela. He studied at Universidad Central de Venezuela and New School University.. His artistic practice began in the mid 80s...

  • Christian Moeller
    Christian Moeller
    Christian Moeller is a German architect and artist.He is a professor of Design | Media Arts at University of California, Los Angeles. -Life:...

  • Manfred Mohr
    Manfred Mohr
    Manfred Mohr is a digital art pioneer. He has lived and worked in New York since 1981.-Life & career:...

  • Francesco Monico
    Francesco Monico
    Francesco Monico is an artist, educator, broadcaster, and writer in Italy.-Previous activities:Monico worked for ten years as a director, screenwriter and program chief in Italian broadcast, sperimentale and interactive TV, is both a Technoetic researcher and artist...

  • Joshua Mosley
    Joshua Mosley
    Joshua Mosley is an American artist and animator. He is Professor and Chair of Fine Arts in the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. His work is represented by in Chicago. He is the recipient of the 2007 Joseph H...

  • Michael Naimark
    Michael Naimark
    Michael Naimark is a media artist and researcher who often explores “place representation.”- Biography :Naimark helped found a number of prominent research labs including the MIT Media Laboratory , the Atari Research Lab , the Apple Multimedia Lab , Lucasfilm Interactive , and Interval Research...

  • Joseph Nechvatal
    Joseph Nechvatal
    Joseph Nechvatal is a post-conceptual art digital artist and art theoretician who creates computer-assisted paintings and computer animations, often using custom-created computer viruses.-Life and work:Joseph Nechvatal was born in Chicago...

  • Kingsley Ng
    Kingsley Ng
    Kingsley Ng is an interdisciplinary artist working primarily on conceptual, site-specific and community-oriented projects...

  • Graham Nicholls
    Graham Nicholls
    Graham Nicholls is an author, artist and expert on out of body experiences and spirituality. He speaks widely on issues around parapsychology, ethics and art at institutions ranging from the London Science Museum to the Cambridge Union Society...

  • Nsumi
    Nsumi
    Nsumi or Nsumi Collective, is a contemporary art collective based in New York City.Members of Nsumi claim that the group spawns art collectives and experimental groups through a gift economy consulting project, workshops, art exhibitions and performances, zines, academic research, and public...

  • Marisa Olson
    Marisa Olson
    Marisa Olson is a new media artist, curator, critic, and media theorist. In 2004 she auditioned for popular American television show American Idol as an artistic project. In her blog, she describes her feelings and the entire process that she must go through in order to look presentable to the...

  • Randall Packer
    Randall Packer
    -Biography:Packer studied music composition with Mel Powell and Richard Felciano at the California Institute of the Arts and the University of California, Berkeley. He pursued post-graduate study in computer music in Paris, where he was a composer in residence at IRCAM under Pierre Boulez...

  • Nam June Paik
    Nam June Paik
    Nam June Paik was a Korean American artist. He worked with a variety of media and is considered to be the first video artist....

  • Zaven Paré
    Zaven Paré
    Zaven Paré is a French new media artist who was born in 1961. He met Piotr Kowalski and Nicolas Schöffer from 1981 to 1983, and exposed his first bionic structure the same year in the Modern Art Museum of Paris...

  • Eric Paulos
    Eric Paulos
    Eric Paulos is an American computer scientist, artist, and inventor, best known for his early work on internet robotic teleoperation and is considered a founder of the field of Urban Computing. Dr...

  • Melinda Rackham
    Melinda Rackham
    Melinda Rackham is an Australian Networked Media Artist, Writer and Curator, and founder and producer the influential -empyre- online media arts forum, which she initiated as part of her Doctoral thesis on Art and Identity in Virtual Reality Environments.Rackham studied sculpture and performance...

  • Ken Rinaldo
    Ken Rinaldo
    Ken Rinaldo is an American artist and educator. He creates interactive art installations that explore the intersection between nature and technology...

  • Don Ritter
    Don Ritter
    Don Ritter is a Canadian installation artist and writer living in Berlin, Germany. He has been active in the field of new media art since the mid-1980s. His work consists primarily of large interactive video and sound installations that audiences control through their body position, body movement...

  • Finn Robertson
    Finn Robertson
    Finn Buster Robertson is an Australian composer and music producer.He grew up in country Victoria learning to play piano, guitar and trumpet before discovering the bizarre and otherworldly sounds that were possible to make with a computer...

  • David Rokeby
    David Rokeby
    David Rokeby is an artist who has been making works of electronic, video and installation art since 1982.His early work Very Nervous System is acknowledged as a pioneering work of interactive art, translating physical gestures into real-time interactive sound environments...

  • Studio Roosegaarde
    Studio Roosegaarde
    Studio Roosegaarde is a techno artistic laboratory based in Rotterdam, Netherlands, which has made severalinternationally acclaimed interactive artworks such as , and .Studio Roosegaarde is for its interactive installations which react to sound and motion...

  • Ryder Ripps
    Ryder Ripps
    Ryder Ripps is an American artist born in 1986 to designer, Helene Verin and artist, Rodney Ripps.-Career:In 2009, Ripps established InternetArchaeology.org, with the hopes of archiving and presenting content from GeoCities. His work has been compared to Cory Arcangel and Paper Rad...

  • Jason Salavon
    Jason Salavon
    Jason Salavon is an American contemporary artist. He is noted for his use of computer software of his own design to manipulate and reconfigure preexisting media and data to create new visual works of fine art.-Life and art:...

  • Charles Sandison
    Charles Sandison
    Charles Sandison is a Scottish visual artist who lives and works in Tampere, Finland.-Biography:Sandison was born in Haltwhistle and grew up in Wick, Caithness. He studied art from 1987–1993 and briefly taught there after graduating...

  • Marie Sester
    Marie Sester
    Marie Sester is an artist working primarily with digital technologies to create works in a variety of media and formats.- Biography :Born in France, Sester studied to be an architect, earning a Masters Degree from the Ecole d'Architecture in Strasbourg, France...

  • Jeffrey Shaw
    Jeffrey Shaw
    Jeffrey Shaw is a pioneering new media artist and researcher. From 1965 to 2002 he lived in Milan, London, Amsterdam and Karlsruhe, and returned to Australia in 2003 to assume the Directorship of the iCinema Research Centre at the University of New South Wales...

  • Alexei Shulgin
    Alexei Shulgin
    Alexei Shulgin is a Russian born contemporary artist, musician, and online curator. Working out of Moscow and Helsinki, Shulgin established the Immediate Photography Group in 1988 and started his career in this area of study...

  • Antoine Schmitt
    Antoine Schmitt
    Antoine Schmitt is a French contemporary artist, programming engineer and designer.- Biography :Antoine Schmitt was a self-made programmer at the age of 16....

  • Scott Snibbe
    Scott Snibbe
    Scott Snibbe is an interactive media artist, researcher, and entrepreneur. He is one of the first artists to work with projector-based interactivity, where a computer-controlled projection onto a wall or floor changes in response to people moving across its surface, with his well-known full-body...

  • Ubermorgen
    Ubermorgen
    UBERMORGEN.COM is a swiss-austrian-american artist duo founded in 1995 by lizvlx and Hans Bernhard. They live and work in Vienna, Basel and S-Chanf near St...

  • Camille Utterback
    Camille Utterback
    Camille Utterback is an interactive installation artist. Initially trained as a painter, her work is at the intersection of painting and interactive art.-Biography:...

  • Bill Viola
    Bill Viola
    Bill Viola is a contemporary video artist. He is considered a leading figure in the generation of artists whose artistic expression depends upon electronic, sound, and image technology in New Media...

  • Wolf Vostell
    Wolf Vostell
    Wolf Vostell was a German painter, sculptor, noise music maker and Happening artist of the second half of the 20th century. Wolf Vostell is considered one of the pioneers of video art, environment-sculptures, Happenings and the Fluxus Movement...

  • Lee Walton
    Lee Walton
    Lee Walton is an American artist whose work includes drawing, concept based systems, performance, video art, net art, and public projects.-Academic career:...

  • Martin Wattenberg
    Martin M. Wattenberg
    Martin M. Wattenberg is an American scientist and artist known for his work with data visualization. Along with Fernanda Viégas, he worked at the Cambridge location of IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center as part of the Visual Communication Lab, and created Many Eyes...

  • Gillian Wearing
    Gillian Wearing
    Gillian Wearing OBE RA is an English conceptual artist, one of the YBAs, and winner of the annual British fine arts award, The Turner Prize, in 1997. On 11 December 2007, Wearing was elected as lifetime member of the Royal Academy of Arts in London....

  • Noah Wardrip-Fruin
    Noah Wardrip-Fruin
    Noah Wardrip-Fruin is Associate Professor in the Computer Science Department of the University of California, Santa Cruz, and is an advisor for the Expressive Intelligence Studio. He is an alumnus of the Literary Arts MFA program and Special Graduate Study PhD program at Brown University...

  • Guillermo Gómez-Peña
    Guillermo Gómez-Peña
    Guillermo Gómez-Peña was born in Mexico City and moved to the US in 1978, where he established himself as a performance artist, writer, activist, and educator. He has pioneered multiple media, including performance art, experimental radio, video, performance photography and installation art...

  • Augusto Boal
    Augusto Boal
    Augusto Boal was a Brazilian theatre director, writer and politician. He was the founder of Theatre of the Oppressed, a theatrical form originally used in radical popular education movements...

  • System D-128
    System D-128
    System D-128 is a music video and film director, editor, video artist, new media artist and producer.-Early life:...

  • Yuri Ono

New media curators



  • Klaus Biesenbach
    Klaus Biesenbach
    Klaus Biesenbach is the current Director of MoMA PS1 in Queens, New York City and Chief Curator at Large at The Museum of Modern Art, New York City...

  • Sarah Cook
    Sarah Cook (curator)
    Sarah Cook is a Canadian scholar, historian and curator in the field of New Media art, who is based in Newcastle upon Tyne. Cook is a Research Fellow at the University of Sunderland, where she works with the research institute CRUMB – Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss, that she co-founded...

  • Barbara London
    Barbara London
    -Filmography:* The Biz .... Babs* Frankie and Johnny .... Night Waitress* The Wild Life .... Salesgirl* Love in the Present Tense .... Roz* California Split .... Lady on the Bus...

  • Christiane Paul
    Christiane Paul (curator)
    Christiane Paul is a scholar in the field of digital art and an historian of art and technology. She is Professor of Visual Arts at The New School and author of the seminal book Digital Art. Dr...

  • Won-il Rhee
    Won-il Rhee
    Won-il Rhee was a Korean digital art curator. He was born and died in Seoul.Rhee was the artistic director in 2002 and 2006 of the Media City Seoul Biennale. He was the leading curator of the Total Museum of Art and co-ordinator of the Korean Pavilion for the 1995 Venice Biennale...

  • Lawrence Rinder
    Lawrence Rinder
    Lawrence R. Rinder is the Director of Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive , a position to which he was appointed in 2008.Previously, he was the Dean of the College at the California College of the Arts in San Francisco...

  • Julian Stallabrass
    Julian Stallabrass
    Julian Stallabrass is a British art historian, photographer and curator. A Marxist, he has written extensively on contemporary art , photography and the history of twentieth century British art.-High Art Lite:...

  • Mark Tribe
    Mark Tribe
    Mark Tribe is an American artist. He is the founder of Rhizome, a not-for-profit arts organization based in New York City....

  • Peter Weibel
    Peter Weibel
    Peter Weibel is an artist, curator and theoretician.Raised in Upper Austria he started to study French and cinematography in Paris...


See also

  • Artmedia
    Artmedia
    Artmedia, Seminar and Laboratory of the Aesthetics of Media and Communication, was one of the first scientific projects concerning the relationship between art, technology, philosophy and aesthetics. It was founded in 1985 at the University of Salerno...

  • Aspect magazine
    Aspect magazine
    ASPECT Magazine is a biannual DVD magazine showcasing new media art.ASPECT is notable for being one of the first DVD-based chronicles of time-based media. ASPECT’s DVD format offers artists using installation art, performance art, animation, sound, and visual techniques a way for their work to be...

  • Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe
    Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe
    The Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe in Karlsruhe, Germany is an interdisciplinary art museum and research institution focusing on new media....

  • CRUMB - Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss
    CRUMB - Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss
    CRUMB – Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss is a research resource for all things related to the practice of curating new media art. Via an online discussion list and regular conferences as well as publications, CRUMB collects and disseminates information about curating in the field of New...

  • Digital art
    Digital art
    Digital art is a general term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process...

  • Digital Media
    Digital media
    Digital media is a form of electronic media where data is stored in digital form. It can refer to the technical aspect of storage and transmission Digital media is a form of electronic media where data is stored in digital (as opposed to analog) form. It can refer to the technical aspect of...

  • Digital puppetry
    Digital puppetry
    Digital puppetry is the manipulation and performance of digitally animated 2D or 3D figures and objects in a virtual environment that are rendered in real-time by computers...

  • DOCAM: Documentation and Conservation of the Media Arts Heritage
    DOCAM
    DOCAM is an international research alliance on the documentation and the conservation of the media arts heritage....

  • Electronic art
    Electronic art
    Electronic art is a form of art that makes use of electronic media or, more broadly, refers to technology and/or electronic media. It is related to information art, new media art, video art, digital art, interactive art, internet art, and electronic music...

  • Electronic Language International Festival
    Electronic Language International Festival
    FILE - Electronic Language International Festival is a New media art festival that usually takes place in three different cities of Brazil: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre and it has also participated in others events around the world...

  • Experiments in Art and Technology
  • Interactive film
  • Interactive Media
    Interactive media
    Interactive media normally refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user’s actions by presenting content such as text, graphics, animation, video, audio, etc.-Terminology:...

  • Intermedia
    Intermedia
    Intermedia was a concept employed in the mid-sixties by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins to describe the ineffable, often confusing, inter-disciplinary activities that occur between genres that became prevalent in the 1960s. Thus, the areas such as those between drawing and poetry, or between painting...

  • Net.art
    Net.art
    "net.art" refers to a group of artists who worked in the medium of Internet art from 1994. The main members of this movement are Vuk Ćosić, Jodi.org, Alexei Shulgin, Olia Lialina, and Heath Bunting...

  • New Epoch Notation Painting
  • New Media art festivals
    New Media art festivals
    -Hong Kong-=Austria:-Czech Republic:-Iceland:-Italy:=The Netherlands:...

  • New media artist
    New Media Artist
    A New Media artist may use the following media to create works of art: The Internet, computer hardware, computer software-servers, routers, personal computers, database applications, scripts and computer files...

  • New Media Caucus
    New Media Caucus
    The New Media Caucus is a non-profit, international membership organization formed to advance the conceptual and artistic use of digital media, and it is an affiliated society of the College Art Association...

  • New media art journals
    New media art journals
    Whereas more traditional fine art depends on printed magazines the inherently dynamic nature of new media art has led to the development of online journals...

  • New media art preservation
    New media art preservation
    New media art preservation, a form of Art conservation, is the study and practice of techniques for sustaining artworks created using digital, biological, performative, and other variable media....


Further reading

  • Vannevar Bush
    Vannevar Bush
    Vannevar Bush was an American engineer and science administrator known for his work on analog computing, his political role in the development of the atomic bomb as a primary organizer of the Manhattan Project, the founding of Raytheon, and the idea of the memex, an adjustable microfilm viewer...

     (1945). "As We May Think
    As We May Think
    As We May Think is an essay by Vannevar Bush, first published in The Atlantic Monthly in July 1945, and republished again as an abridged version in September 1945 — before and after the U.S. nuclear attacks on Japan...

    " online at As We May Think – The Atlantic Monthly
  • Roy Ascott
    Roy Ascott
    Roy Ascott is a British artist and theorist, who works with cybernetics and telematics. He is President of the Planetary Collegium.- Biography :...

     (2003). Telematic Embrace: Visionary Theories of Art, Technology, and Consciousness (Ed.) Edward A. Shanken
    Edward A. Shanken
    Edward A. Shanken is an American art historian, whose work focuses on the entwinement of art, science and technology, with a focus on experimental new media art and visual culture. His scholarship has appeared in numerous journals and anthologies and has been translated into six...

    . Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-21803-1
  • Barreto, Ricardo and Perissinotto, Paula “the_culture_of_immanence”, in Internet Art. Ricardo Barreto e Paula Perissinotto (orgs.). São Paulo, IMESP, 2002. ISBN 85-7060-038-0.
  • Jorge Luis Borges
    Jorge Luis Borges
    Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo , known as Jorge Luis Borges , was an Argentine writer, essayist, poet and translator born in Buenos Aires. In 1914 his family moved to Switzerland where he attended school, receiving his baccalauréat from the Collège de Genève in 1918. The family...

     (1941). "The Garden of Forking Paths
    The Garden of Forking Paths
    "The Garden of Forking Paths" is a 1941 short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. It is the title story in the collection El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan , which was republished in its entirety in Ficciones in 1944...

    ." Editorial Sur.
  • Nicolas Bourriaud
    Nicolas Bourriaud
    Nicolas Bourriaud is a French curator and art critic. He co-founded, and from 1999 to 2006 was co-director of the Palais de Tokyo, Paris together with Jerôme Sans. He was also founder and director of the contemporary art magazine Documents sur l'art , and correspondent in Paris for Flash Art from...

    , (1997) Relational Aesthetics, Dijon: Les Presses du Réel, 2002, orig. 1997
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann
    Christine Buci-Glucksmann
    Christine Buci-Glucksmann is a French philosopher and Professor Emeritus from University of Paris VIII specializing in the aesthetics of the Baroque, Japan and computer art...

    , "L’art à l’époque virtuel", in Frontières esthétiques de l’art, Arts 8, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2004
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann
    Christine Buci-Glucksmann
    Christine Buci-Glucksmann is a French philosopher and Professor Emeritus from University of Paris VIII specializing in the aesthetics of the Baroque, Japan and computer art...

    , La folie du voir: Une esthétique du virtuel, Galilée, 2002
  • Sarah Cook
    Sarah Cook (curator)
    Sarah Cook is a Canadian scholar, historian and curator in the field of New Media art, who is based in Newcastle upon Tyne. Cook is a Research Fellow at the University of Sunderland, where she works with the research institute CRUMB – Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss, that she co-founded...

     & Beryl Graham, Rethinking Curating: Art After New Media, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-262-01388-8.
  • Sarah Cook
    Sarah Cook (curator)
    Sarah Cook is a Canadian scholar, historian and curator in the field of New Media art, who is based in Newcastle upon Tyne. Cook is a Research Fellow at the University of Sunderland, where she works with the research institute CRUMB – Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss, that she co-founded...

    , Verina Gfader, Beryl Graham & Axel Lapp, A Brief History of Curating New Media Art - Conversations with Curators, Berlin: The Green Box, 2010. ISBN 978-3-941644-20-5.
  • Sarah Cook
    Sarah Cook (curator)
    Sarah Cook is a Canadian scholar, historian and curator in the field of New Media art, who is based in Newcastle upon Tyne. Cook is a Research Fellow at the University of Sunderland, where she works with the research institute CRUMB – Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss, that she co-founded...

    , Verina Gfader, Beryl Graham & Axel Lapp, A Brief History of Working with New Media Art - Conversations with Artists, Berlin: The Green Box, 2010. ISBN 978-3-941644-21-2.
  • Fleischmann, Monika and Reinhard, Ulrike (eds.). Digital Transformations - Media Art as at the Interface between Art, Science, Economy and Society online at netzspannung.org, 2004, ISBN 3-934013-38-4
  • Monika Fleischmann / Wolfgang Strauss (eds.) (2001). Proceedings of »CAST01//Living in Mixed Realities« Intl. Conf. On Communication of Art, Science and Technology, Fraunhofer IMK 2001, 401. ISSN 1618–1379 (Print), ISSN 1618–1387 (Internet).
  • Gatti, Gianna Maria. (2010) The Technological Herbarium. Avinus Press, Berlin, 2010 (edited, translated from the Italian, and with a preface by Alan N. Shapiro). online at alan-shapiro.com
  • Charlie Gere
    Charlie Gere
    Charlie Gere is a British academic who is Director of Research at the Institute for Cultural Research at Lancaster University.-Career:* His PhD, ‘The Computer as an Irrational Cabinet’, was part practice-based and was from the Centre for Electronic Arts and the Department of Visual Culture,...

    , (2002) Digital Culture, Reaktion ISBN 978-1-86189-143-3
  • Charlie Gere
    Charlie Gere
    Charlie Gere is a British academic who is Director of Research at the Institute for Cultural Research at Lancaster University.-Career:* His PhD, ‘The Computer as an Irrational Cabinet’, was part practice-based and was from the Centre for Electronic Arts and the Department of Visual Culture,...

    , (2006) White Heat, Cold Logic: Early British Computer Art, co-edited with Paul Brown, Catherine Mason and Nicholas Lambert, MIT Press/Leonardo Books
  • Graham, Philip Mitchell, New Epoch Art, InterACTA: Journal of the Art Teachers Association of Victoria, Published by ACTA, Parkville, Victoria, No 4, 1990, ISSN 0159-9135, Cited In APAIS. This database is available on the, Informit Online Internet Service or on CD-ROM, or on Australian Public Affairs - Full Text
  • Oliver Grau
    Oliver Grau
    Oliver Grau is a German art historian and media theoretician with a focus on image science, modernity and media art as well as culture of the 19th century and Italian art of the Renaissance.-Works:...

     (2003). Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion (Leonardo Book Series). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press/Leonardo Books. ISBN 0-262-07241-6.
  • Oliver Grau
    Oliver Grau
    Oliver Grau is a German art historian and media theoretician with a focus on image science, modernity and media art as well as culture of the 19th century and Italian art of the Renaissance.-Works:...

     (2007). (Ed.) MediaArtHistories. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press/Leonardo Books. ISBN 0-262-07279-3.
  • Mark Hansen, (2004) New Philosophy for New Media (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)
  • Dick Higgins
    Dick Higgins
    Dick Higgins was a composer, poet, printer, and early Fluxus artist. Higgins was born in Cambridge, England, but raised in the United States in various parts of New England, including Worcester, Massachusetts, Putney, Vermont, and Concord, New Hampshire.Like other Fluxus artists, Higgins studied...

    , ‘Intermedia’ (1966), reprinted in Donna De Salvo (ed.), Open Systems Rethinking Art c. 1970, London: Tate Publishing, 2005
  • Lopes, Dominic McIver. (2009). A Philosophy of Computer Art. London: Routledge
  • Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich is an author of new media books, professor of Visual Arts, University of California, San Diego, U.S. and European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, where he teaches new media art and theory, software studies, and digital humanities...

     (2001). The Language of New Media Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press/Leonardo Books. ISBN 0-262-63255-1
  • Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich is an author of new media books, professor of Visual Arts, University of California, San Diego, U.S. and European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, where he teaches new media art and theory, software studies, and digital humanities...

    , Ten Key Texts on Digital Art: 1970-2000 Leonardo - Volume 35, Number 5, October 2002, pp. 567–569
  • Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich
    Lev Manovich is an author of new media books, professor of Visual Arts, University of California, San Diego, U.S. and European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland, where he teaches new media art and theory, software studies, and digital humanities...

     (2003. "New Media from Borges to HTML", The New Media Reader. MIT Press.
  • Dominique Moulon
    Dominique Moulon
    Dominique Moulon is a historian of art and technology, specializing in French digital art. He is the author of the book Art contemporain nouveaux médias.-Background:...

    , Tim Murray, Kristine Stiles
    Kristine Stiles
    Kristine Stilesis an art historian specializing in global contemporary art. She has written extensively on performance art as well as on the themes of destruction, violence, and trauma in art. Stiles earned a B.A. in Art History from San Jose State University in California, and an M.A. and Ph.D...

    , Derrick de Kerckhove
    Derrick de Kerckhove
    Derrick de Kerckhove is the author of The Skin of Culture and Connected Intelligence and Professor in the Department of French at the University of Toronto, Canada...

    , Oliver Grau
    Oliver Grau
    Oliver Grau is a German art historian and media theoretician with a focus on image science, modernity and media art as well as culture of the 19th century and Italian art of the Renaissance.-Works:...

     Open Art, Maurice Benayoun
    Maurice Benayoun
    Maurice Benayoun is a French pioneer new-media artist and theorist based in Paris. His work employs various media, including video, immersive virtual reality, the Web, wireless technology, performance, large-scale urban art installations and interactive exhibitions.-Biography:Born in Mascara,...

    , Nouvelles editions Scala, 2011, ISBN 978-235-988046-5
  • Paul, Christiane (2003). Digital Art (World of Art series). London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20367-9.
  • Robert C. Morgan
    Robert C. Morgan
    Robert C. Morgan is an American art critic, art historian, curator, poet, and visual artist.-Background:Robert C. Morgan received his M.F.A. in Sculpture from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 1975 and his Ph.D. in contemporary art history from New York University in 1978...

    , Commentaries on the New Media Arts Pasadena, CA: Umbrella Associates,1992
  • Janet Murray
    Janet Murray
    Janet Murray is a professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where she is the director of graduate studies in the School of Literature, Communication, and Culture. Before coming to Georgia Tech in 1999, she was a Senior Research Scientist in the Center for Educational Computing Initiatives...

     (2003). "Inventing the Medium", The New Media Reader. MIT Press.
  • Frank Popper
    Frank Popper
    Frank Popper is a historian of art and technology and Professor Emeritus of Aesthetics and the Science of Art at the University of Paris VIII. He has been decorated with the medal of the Légion d'honneur by the French Government...

     (2007) From Technological to Virtual Art, MIT Press/Leonardo Books
  • Frank Popper
    Frank Popper
    Frank Popper is a historian of art and technology and Professor Emeritus of Aesthetics and the Science of Art at the University of Paris VIII. He has been decorated with the medal of the Légion d'honneur by the French Government...

     (1997) Art of the Electronic Age, Thames & Hudson
  • Edward A. Shanken
    Edward A. Shanken
    Edward A. Shanken is an American art historian, whose work focuses on the entwinement of art, science and technology, with a focus on experimental new media art and visual culture. His scholarship has appeared in numerous journals and anthologies and has been translated into six...

     Selected Writings on Art and Technology http://artexetra.com
  • Edward A. Shanken
    Edward A. Shanken
    Edward A. Shanken is an American art historian, whose work focuses on the entwinement of art, science and technology, with a focus on experimental new media art and visual culture. His scholarship has appeared in numerous journals and anthologies and has been translated into six...

     Art and Electronic Media. London: Phaidon, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7148-4782-5
  • Mark Tribe
    Mark Tribe
    Mark Tribe is an American artist. He is the founder of Rhizome, a not-for-profit arts organization based in New York City....

     and Reena Jana. New Media Art. https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/x/Wkg
  • Rainer Usselmann, (2003) "The Dilemma of Media Art: Cybernetic Serendipity at the ICA London", Cambridge, Masschusetts: The MIT Press/Leonardo Journal - Volume 36, Number 5, pp. 389–396
  • Rainer Usselmann, (2002) "About Interface: Actualisation and Totality", University of Southampton
  • Wands, Bruce (2006). Art of the Digital Age, London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-23817-0.
  • Whitelaw, Mitchell (2004). Metacreation: Art and Artificial Life Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-73176-2.
  • Anne-Cécile Worms, (2008) Arts Numériques: Tendances, Artistes, Lieux et Festivals M21 Editions 2008 ISBN 2-916260-33-1.
  • Youngblood, Gene
    Gene Youngblood
    Gene Youngblood is a theorist of media arts and politics, and a respected scholar in the history and theory of alternative cinemas. His Expanded Cinema , the first book to consider video as an art form, was influential in establishing the field of media arts as a recognized artistic and scholarly...

     (1970). Expanded Cinema
    Expanded Cinema
    Expanded Cinema by Gene Youngblood , the first book to consider video as an art form, was influential in establishing the field of media arts. In the book he argues that a new, expanded cinema is required for a new consciousness...

    . New York. E.P. Dutton & Company.

External links