is the national lunar calendar of Nepal. It was used throughout Medieval Nepal, and into early modern Nepal, until Chandra Sumsher decided to remove it in BS 1960. It was started in 880 AD during the reign of King Raghav Dev to commemorate the payment of all the debt
A debt is an obligation owed by one party to a second party, the creditor; usually this refers to assets granted by the creditor to the debtor, but the term can also be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value.A debt is created when a...
s of Nepalese people by a Nepalese called Sankhadhar Sakhwa
Sankhadhar Sakhwa is a Nepalese philanthropist. He cleared the debts of all the people in Nepal. A new era was initiated from the date in which he cleared the debts. This new era is called Nepal Sambat...
. Local legend has it that he raised the funds through alchemy
Alchemy is an influential philosophical tradition whose early practitioners’ claims to profound powers were known from antiquity. The defining objectives of alchemy are varied; these include the creation of the fabled philosopher's stone possessing powers including the capability of turning base...
, turning the sand of the Bagmati river into gold dust. The Gregorian calendar
The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words Inter...
is also widely used, on account of its international acceptance. Nepal Sambat has its own special relevance for Newars living in Nepal. Nepal Sambat is one among a few calendars native to Nepal. Most of the others either passed over time, or only maintain existence in the religious calendars called Patro.
This calendar was in wide official use during the Malla
The Malla Dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Nepal from the 12th to the 18th century. Malla kings of Nepal visited Lumbini in the 11th and 12th century. It was during their reign the people living in and around the Kathmandu Valley began to be called as "Newars" . The Mallas were the ruling clan of...
period in the Kathmandu valley. After the unification of Nepal, Saka Sambat took ground, and later on, during the premiership of Chandra SJBR Bikram Sambat
Vikram Samvat is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya...
were recognized for official use. This calendar, Nepal Sambat, is being revived, especially in the Kathmandu valley, over the last 3 decades. Moreover, the calendar was widely used by Newars for cultural and religious purpose inside the Kathmandu Valley because of its relation with festivals Jatra
Jatra can mean:* Jatra street festival* Jatra street festival or Carnival* Jatra form of entertainment* Jatra...
celebrated there. The government of Nepal recognized the Nepal Sambat as the national calendar
in 2007. As a result, most Nepalese national newspapers have employed this calendar, together with the Gregorian calendar and the Bikram Sambat. On October 24, 2011 the government decided to bring Nepal Sambat into use as the country´s national calendarhttp://www.myrepublica.com/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=37568
, a lunar calendar, is a variant of "saka sambat" a Hindu calendar
The hindu calendar used in ancient times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization, and today there are several regional Indian calendars, as well as an Indian national calendar. Nepali calendar, Bengali calendar, Malayalam calendar, Tamil calendar, Telugu calendar, Kannada...
with main difference being, Nepal Sambat era lags behind the saka sambat by 802 years. It consists of 354 days per year, due to the fact that a lunar month has 29 or 30 days based on the movement of the moon. So it necessitates a month adhik mas to be added every third year.
This calendar came into being and into official use during the reign of king Raghabdev, immediately after the completion of the Saka Samvat 802 (on 20 October 879 AD). The year 804 was approaching within a year and according to legend, his decision was guided by his fear of number 804, that some people still believe, brings misfortune. People with traditional belief still try to escape with number 8 that comes together with 12 (in Nepali -ath barha). Doing math correctly, 804 adds up to 12 and 804 means 8 along with 12.
Nepal Samvat is a unique calendar in the sense that all other calendars are named after some rulers or religious leaders. Nepal Samvat is the only calendar which is named after a country. This calendar is said to have been introduced by a common subject Shankhadhar Sakhwa by clearing on his own all debts owing to the state by the then subjects of Nepal. This calendar was in continuous official use Nepal (and not just in Kathmandu valley as is widely thought) and had significant influence, to be mentioned in the documents of Tibet, China, and kingdoms of northern India. After the unification of Nepal, under the Shah rulers, the calendar was in use as is evident by Sugauli Treaty
The Sugauli Treaty was signed on December 2, 1815 and ratified by March 4, 1816, between the British East India Company and Nepal, which was a kingdom during that era. This ended the second British invasion of the Himalayan kingdom during the Anglo-Nepalese War...
. In 1903 AD, Rana prime minister Chandra Shamsher replaced Nepal Samvat with the Bikram Samvat, a Lunisolar calendar
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. If the solar year is defined as a tropical year then a lunisolar calendar will give an indication of the season; if it is taken as a sidereal year then the calendar will...
, which is in use as the official calendar in Nepal to this date. Since the founder of the Nepal Samvat, Sankhadhar Sakhwa has been recognized as a national hero of Nepal. Nepalese people especially, inside Kathmandu Valley,are also demanding to preserve as well as reintroduce the Nepal Samvat as Nepal's official calendar. The new year is celebrated every year in the religious Tihar festival, a day after Laxmi Puja. The Newars call the day Mha: Puja (mha: meainng body).
Year 2010 AD refers to year 1131 in Nepal Sambat, or 2067 in the official Bikram Sambat calendar.
Months of the year
The months of the year are:-
|| Roman script
|| Corresponding Gregorian month
Goon lā is a month of Nepalese calendar Nepal Sambat. The month roughly corresponds to August of Gregorian Calendar. The month is marked by musical pilgrimage made by Newars...