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Negros Oriental

Negros Oriental

Overview
Negros Oriental (also called Oriental Negros, "Eastern Negros") is a province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 located in the Central Visayas
Central Visayas
Central Visayas, designated as Region VII, is a region of the Philippines located in the central part of the Visayas island group. It consists of four provinces—Bohol, Cebu, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor— and the highly urbanized cities of Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu City, and Mandaue City....

 region
Regions of the Philippines
In the Philippines, regions are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. Currently, the archipelagic republic of the Philippines is divided into 17 regions...

. It occupies the south-eastern half of the island of Negros
Negros
Negros is an island of the Philippines located in the Visayas, at . It is the third largest island in the country, with a land area of 13,328 km²...

, with Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is Bacolod City and it occupies the northwestern half of Negros Island; Negros Oriental is at the southeastern half...

 comprising the north-western half. It also includes Apo Island
Apo Island
Apo Island is a volcanic island covering 12 hectares in land area, 7 kilometers off the southeastern tip of Negros Island and 30 kilometers south of the Negros Oriental capital of Dumaguete City in the Philippines....

 — a popular dive site for both local and foreign tourists. Negros Oriental faces Cebu
Cebu Island
Cebu is an island of the Philippines. It is the main island of Cebu Province at the center of the Visayan Islands, south of Manila.It lies to the east of Negros Island; to the east is Leyte and to the southeast is Bohol Island. It is flanked on both sides by the Cebu Strait and Tañon Strait...

 to the east across the Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait lies between the islands of Negros and Cebu in the Philippines. The strait connects the Visayan Sea to the Bohol Sea.The Tañon Strait is known for whale and dolphin watching, with tour boats operating from a wharf in Bais City.- Controversy :...

 and Siquijor
Siquijor
Siquijor is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. Its capital is the municipality also named Siquijor. To the northwest of Siquijor are Cebu and Negros, to the northeast is Bohol and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.Siquijor is the third...

 to the south east.
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Encyclopedia
Negros Oriental (also called Oriental Negros, "Eastern Negros") is a province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 located in the Central Visayas
Central Visayas
Central Visayas, designated as Region VII, is a region of the Philippines located in the central part of the Visayas island group. It consists of four provinces—Bohol, Cebu, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor— and the highly urbanized cities of Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu City, and Mandaue City....

 region
Regions of the Philippines
In the Philippines, regions are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. Currently, the archipelagic republic of the Philippines is divided into 17 regions...

. It occupies the south-eastern half of the island of Negros
Negros
Negros is an island of the Philippines located in the Visayas, at . It is the third largest island in the country, with a land area of 13,328 km²...

, with Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is Bacolod City and it occupies the northwestern half of Negros Island; Negros Oriental is at the southeastern half...

 comprising the north-western half. It also includes Apo Island
Apo Island
Apo Island is a volcanic island covering 12 hectares in land area, 7 kilometers off the southeastern tip of Negros Island and 30 kilometers south of the Negros Oriental capital of Dumaguete City in the Philippines....

 — a popular dive site for both local and foreign tourists. Negros Oriental faces Cebu
Cebu Island
Cebu is an island of the Philippines. It is the main island of Cebu Province at the center of the Visayan Islands, south of Manila.It lies to the east of Negros Island; to the east is Leyte and to the southeast is Bohol Island. It is flanked on both sides by the Cebu Strait and Tañon Strait...

 to the east across the Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait lies between the islands of Negros and Cebu in the Philippines. The strait connects the Visayan Sea to the Bohol Sea.The Tañon Strait is known for whale and dolphin watching, with tour boats operating from a wharf in Bais City.- Controversy :...

 and Siquijor
Siquijor
Siquijor is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. Its capital is the municipality also named Siquijor. To the northwest of Siquijor are Cebu and Negros, to the northeast is Bohol and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.Siquijor is the third...

 to the south east. The primary spoken language is Cebuano
Cebuano language
Cebuano, referred to by most of its speakers as Bisaya , is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20 million people mostly in the Central Visayas. It is the most widely spoken of the languages within the so-named Bisayan subgroup and is closely related to other Filipino...

, and the predominant religious denomination is Roman Catholicism. Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

 is the capital, seat of government, and most populous city.

History


Negros Island, the fourth largest island in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, is believed to have once been part of the island of Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

, but was cut off—either by continental drift
Continental drift
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other. The hypothesis that continents 'drift' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596 and was fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912...

 or the rising waters at the end of the ice age
Ice age
An ice age or, more precisely, glacial age, is a generic geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers...

.

Among the early inhabitants of the island were dark-skinned peoples belonging to the Negrito
Negrito
The Negrito are a class of several ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia.Their current populations include 12 Andamanese peoples of the Andaman Islands, six Semang peoples of Malaysia, the Mani of Thailand, and the Aeta, Agta, Ati, and 30 other peoples of the Philippines....

 ethnic group, as well as Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 and Malays
Malay people
Malays are an ethnic group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, including the southernmost parts of Thailand, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and the smaller islands which lie between these locations...

. They called the island "Buglas", a native word which is believed to mean "cut off".

Spanish explorers on the expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi , also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo , was a Spanish conquistador who established one of the first European settlements in the East Indies and the Pacific Islands in 1565. He is the first Governor-General in the Philippines...

 first came to the island in April 1565. Legazpi dropped anchor in Bohol
Bohol
Bohol is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consisting of Bohol Island and 75 minor surrounding islands. Its capital is Tagbilaran City. With a land area of and a coastline long, Bohol is the tenth largest island of the Philippines...

 and sent his men to scout the island. Because of the strong currents of the Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait lies between the islands of Negros and Cebu in the Philippines. The strait connects the Visayan Sea to the Bohol Sea.The Tañon Strait is known for whale and dolphin watching, with tour boats operating from a wharf in Bais City.- Controversy :...

 between Cebu
Cebu Island
Cebu is an island of the Philippines. It is the main island of Cebu Province at the center of the Visayan Islands, south of Manila.It lies to the east of Negros Island; to the east is Leyte and to the southeast is Bohol Island. It is flanked on both sides by the Cebu Strait and Tañon Strait...

 and Negros, they were carried for several days and forced to land on the western side of the island. They reported seeing many dark-skinned inhabitants, and they called the island "Negros" ("Negro" means "black" in Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

). The island was sparsely settled at the time, except for a few coastal settlements including Ilog
Ilog, Negros Occidental
Ilog is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines.Founded by the Augustinian fathers in May 1584. It was the first capital of Negros Occidental and Siquijor Provinces in the late 19th century...

 and Binalbagan
Binalbagan, Negros Occidental
Binalbagan is a 1st class municipality in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 58,280 people in 11,092 households....

. In 1571, Legaspi assigned encomienda
Encomienda
The encomienda was a system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor....

s on the island to 13 of his men. Augustinian
Order of Saint Augustine
The Order of St. Augustine —historically Ordo Eremitarum Sancti Augustini", O.E.S.A.), generally called Augustinians is a Catholic Religious Order, which, although more ancient, was formally created in the thirteenth century and combined of several previous Augustinian eremetical Orders into one...

 friars began the Christianization
Christianization
The historical phenomenon of Christianization is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once...

 of the island the next year. The island was administered as part of the jurisdiction of Oton
Oton, Iloilo
Oton is a first class municipality in the province of Iloilo, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 65,374 people in 12,907 households.-Barangays:Oton is politically subdivided into 37 barangays.-Official Website:...

 until 1734 when it became a military district, and Ilog
Ilog, Negros Occidental
Ilog is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines.Founded by the Augustinian fathers in May 1584. It was the first capital of Negros Occidental and Siquijor Provinces in the late 19th century...

 became the capital of the island. The capital was transferred to Himamaylan in 1795. Negros became a politico-military province in 1856 and the capital was transferred to Bacolod
Bacolod City
The City of Bacolod , is a highly urbanized midsize Philippine city. It is the capital of the Negros Occidental province. Having a total of 499,497 inhabitants as of August 1, 2007, it is the most populous city in the Western Visayas Region. It is currently ranked as the 17th most populous city in...

.

Due to its proximity to Mindanao, the south eastern coast of Negros was in constant threat from Moro marauders looking for slaves, and watchtowers were built to protect the Christian villages. The Moro raids and Negros Oriental's distance from the Negros capital in Bacolod induced 13 Recollectionist priests to petition for the division of the island in July 1876. The island of Negros was then divided into the provinces of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is Bacolod City and it occupies the northwestern half of Negros Island; Negros Oriental is at the southeastern half...

 by a royal decree executed by Governor General Valeriano Weyler
Valeriano Weyler
Don Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, 1st Duke of Rubí and 1st Marquis of Tenerife Don Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, 1st Duke of Rubí and 1st Marquis of Tenerife Don Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, 1st Duke of Rubí and 1st Marquis of Tenerife (Seed in Ambos Camarines.-Philippines:In 1888, he was sent out as...

 on January 1, 1890. Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

 was made the first capital of Negros Oriental. In 1892, Siquijor
Siquijor
Siquijor is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. Its capital is the municipality also named Siquijor. To the northwest of Siquijor are Cebu and Negros, to the northeast is Bohol and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.Siquijor is the third...

 became a part of Negros Oriental, having previously been administered by Spain under the politico-military province of Bohol
Bohol
Bohol is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consisting of Bohol Island and 75 minor surrounding islands. Its capital is Tagbilaran City. With a land area of and a coastline long, Bohol is the tenth largest island of the Philippines...

.

The Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

 reached the province in 1898, disrupting government functions but without bloodshed. Revolutionary troops in the province were composed mostly of farm laborers and other prominent people of the Negros Oriental province who were organized and led by Don Diego de la Viña. The Spanish government in Dumaguete was overthrown on November 24, 1898. Later, the Negros Occidental area under the leadership of Gen. Araneta only, in contrast to the Negros Oriental area under the leadership of Don Diego de la Viña, formed the Cantonal Republic of Negros,a separate government from the more familiar Malolos Republic established in Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. In 1901 the Negros Oriental province was reorganized by the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and a civil government was established with Demetrio Larena
Demetrio Larena
Demetrio Larena was a former Governor of Negros Oriental , a province on Negros Island in the Philippines. He was governor of Negros Oriental from 1901 until 1906. Larena was instrumental in the establishment of Silliman University in Dumaguete City. When Dr...

 as governor. The American government made Siquijor a "sub-province" of Negros Oriental. Negros Oriental became a province under the American civil government on March 10, 1917. In 1934 Negros Oriental became a corregimiento, a separate military district. Under the American colonial government, transportation infrastructure was developed with improvements of roads and new bridges.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the province was invaded by Japanese
Japanese people
The are an ethnic group originating in the Japanese archipelago and are the predominant ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide, approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 127 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries...

 forces and many residents were forced to flee to the mountains to escape. Negros Island was taken back from the combined Filipino & American troops with the Allied Negrosanon guerillas attacked Japanese on August 6, 1945.

The 73rd Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was establishment on 1942 to 1946 at the Military General Headquarters in Negros Oriental. Started the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Negros Oriental on 1942 to 1945 against the Japanese Imperial forces.

When the Filipino soldiers of the 7th, 73rd and 75th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 7th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was started the Liberation of Negros Oriental in 1945 and fought against the Japanese forces.

On September 17, 1971, Siquijor finally became an independent province by virtue of Republic Act No. 6396. (See Province of Siquijor
Siquijor
Siquijor is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. Its capital is the municipality also named Siquijor. To the northwest of Siquijor are Cebu and Negros, to the northeast is Bohol and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.Siquijor is the third...

)

Geography



Topography


Negros Oriental occupies the south-eastern half of the island of Negros
Negros
Negros is an island of the Philippines located in the Visayas, at . It is the third largest island in the country, with a land area of 13,328 km²...

, with Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is Bacolod City and it occupies the northwestern half of Negros Island; Negros Oriental is at the southeastern half...

 comprising the western half. It has a total land area of 5,402.30 km². A chain of rugged mountains separates Negros Oriental from Negros Occidental. Unlike its sister province, which belongs to the Western Visayas
Western Visayas
Western Visayas, one of the regions of the Philippines, is designated as Region VI. It consists of six provinces; Aklan, Antique, Negros Occidental, Capiz, Guimaras and Iloilo and 16 cities making it the region with the highest number of cities. Iloilo City is the regional center...

 region, Negros Oriental belongs to the Central Visayas
Central Visayas
Central Visayas, designated as Region VII, is a region of the Philippines located in the central part of the Visayas island group. It consists of four provinces—Bohol, Cebu, Negros Oriental, and Siquijor— and the highly urbanized cities of Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu City, and Mandaue City....

 region. Negros Oriental faces Cebu
Cebu Island
Cebu is an island of the Philippines. It is the main island of Cebu Province at the center of the Visayan Islands, south of Manila.It lies to the east of Negros Island; to the east is Leyte and to the southeast is Bohol Island. It is flanked on both sides by the Cebu Strait and Tañon Strait...

 to the east across the Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait
Tañon Strait lies between the islands of Negros and Cebu in the Philippines. The strait connects the Visayan Sea to the Bohol Sea.The Tañon Strait is known for whale and dolphin watching, with tour boats operating from a wharf in Bais City.- Controversy :...

 and Siquijor
Siquijor
Siquijor is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. Its capital is the municipality also named Siquijor. To the northwest of Siquijor are Cebu and Negros, to the northeast is Bohol and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.Siquijor is the third...

 to the south-east. The Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
The Sulu Sea is a body of water in the southwestern area of the Philippines, separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago. Borneo is found to the southwest and Visayas to the northeast.Sulu Sea contains a number of...

 borders it to the south.

The province's topography is characterized by low, grooved mountain ranges which mostly lie close to the shoreline. At the southern end of the province is the Cuernos de Negros
Mount Talinis
Mount Talinis, also known as the Cuernos de Negros , is a complex volcano in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. At about above sea level, it is the second highest mountain on Negros Island after Mt. Kanla-on...

 (Horns of Negros) stratovolcano
Stratovolcano
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic, explosive eruptions...

 which rises to a height of 1864 meters. At the northern end of the province is Mount Canlaon, the highest peak in the island with a height of 2465 meters and an active volcano. There are a few plateaus in the interior to the west of the province.
One of the landmarks of Dumaguete is the Dumaguete Bell Tower which stands next to the St Catherine of Alexandria Cathedral. It once used to warn the city of impending pirate attacks.

Climate


Negros Oriental has a tropical climate
Tropical climate
A tropical climate is a climate of the tropics. In the Köppen climate classification it is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above...

. Because of the mountain range running from the north to the south, the province has two types of climatic
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

 conditions. The eastern part of the province is characterized by unpronounced maximum rainfall with a short dry season lasting from one to three months. The western half of the province is characterized by a distinct wet season
Wet season
The the wet season, or rainy season, is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region occurs. The term green season is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the...

 and dry season
Dry season
The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year...

.

Demographics




Negros Oriental's total population as of the 2000 census was 1,126,061, making it the 20th most populous province in the country. 34.5% of the population is concentrated in the six most populous component LGUs of Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

, Bayawan City
Bayawan City
Bayawan City is a 2nd class component city in the 3rd Congressional District of the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 101,391 people in 19,967 households....

, Tanjay City
Tanjay City
Tanjay City is a 4th class city in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. It was created by virtue of Republic Act 9026 otherwise known as "An act converting the Municipality of Tanjay, province of Negros Oriental into a component city to be known as the City of Tanjay". The Act was approved...

, Bais City
Bais City
Bais City is a 2nd class city in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it had a population of 74,702 people in more than 13,199 households...

, Canlaon City
Canlaon City
Canlaon City is a 4th class city in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 46,548 people in 9,302 households. Canlaon is located 168 km from the provincial capital Dumaguete...

, and Guihulngan. The province's average population density is 208 persons per km², lower than the national average of 276 persons per km². Population growth per year is about 2.11%, higher than the national average of 1.92%.

Cebuano
Cebuano language
Cebuano, referred to by most of its speakers as Bisaya , is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20 million people mostly in the Central Visayas. It is the most widely spoken of the languages within the so-named Bisayan subgroup and is closely related to other Filipino...

 (sometimes known as Visayan
Visayan languages
The Visayan languages of the Philippines, along with Tagalog and Bikol, are part of the Central Philippine languages...

) is the main language of the province, spoken by 95% of the population. Hiligaynon
Hiligaynon language
Hiligaynon, often referred to as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines.Hiligaynon is concentrated in the provinces of Iloilo, Negros Occidental and Capiz but is also spoken in the other provinces of the Panay Island group, including Antique,...

 is spoken by the remaining 5%, and is common in areas close to the border with Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is Bacolod City and it occupies the northwestern half of Negros Island; Negros Oriental is at the southeastern half...

. Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

 and English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 are generally understood, and are used for official, literary, and educational purposes.

Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 is the predominant religion in the province with Roman Catholicism as the biggest single denomination. Other denominations include mainline and evangelical
Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...

 Protestant groups, the Iglesia Ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo also known as INC, is the largest entirely indigenous Christian religious organization that originated from the Philippines and the largest independent church in Asia. Due to a number of similarities, some Protestant writers describe the INC's doctrines as restorationist in...

, the Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. The religion reports worldwide membership of over 7 million adherents involved in evangelism, convention attendance of over 12 million, and annual...

 and the Aglipayan Church, also known as the Philippine Independent Church
Philippine Independent Church
The Philippine Independent Church, The Philippine Independent Church, The Philippine Independent Church, (officially the or the IFI, also known as the Philippine Independent Catholic Church or in Ilocano: Siwawayawaya nga Simbaan ti Filipinas (in in Kinaray-a/Hiligaynon: Simbahan Hilway nga...

. Adherents of Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 and Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 constitute a minority of the population.

Education


Dumaguete City, the provincial capital, is known as a university town due to the existence of many universities and colleges in the city. These universities include: Silliman University
Silliman University
Silliman University is a private research university located in Dumaguete, Philippines. Established in 1901 as Silliman Institute by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, it was the first American private school to be founded in the country. The University is named after Dr...

 (1901), the oldest American established university in Asia; Saint Paul University of Dumaguete City (1904), the first Paulinian school in the Philippines; Negros Oriental State University
Negros Oriental State University
Negros Oriental State University, formerly Central Visayas Polytechnic College), is a public university in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, Philippines...

 (2004); and Foundation University
Foundation University
Foundation University, sometimes simply called Foundation or FU, is a private non-sectarian university in Dumaguete City, Province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. It was founded by Dr. Vicente Guzman-Sinco, former president of the University of the Philippines and an alumnus of Silliman University...

(1949). The Colegio de Sta. Catalina De Alejandria (COSCA), Negros Oriental High School (1902) Ramon Teves Pastor Memorial-Dumaguete Science High School (1986); Dumaguete City High School (1967) and Don Bosco Schools can be also found in the city. There are also institutions and colleges inside (e.g. Metro Dumaguete College, STI, ASCST, Maxino College, PTC, AMA Computer College, ACSAT) and outside the city.

Culture


Each town in Negros Oriental celebrates an annual town fiesta
Fiesta patronal
The Fiestas patronales are yearly celebrations held in countries influenced by Spanish culture.A fiesta patronal is usually dedicated to a saint or virgin, who is the patron of whichever city holds the fiesta. Usually, town members adorn the town streets with colorful decorations and other things...

, usually dedicated to a saint who is the patron
Patron saint
A patron saint is a saint who is regarded as the intercessor and advocate in heaven of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person...

 of the town. In some of the larger towns, there are particular fiestas for specific neighborhoods or barangay
Barangay
A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward...

s.

Additionally, the Buglasan Festival, which was revived in 2001, is celebrated annually in October in the provincial capital of Dumaguete and is hailed as Negros Oriental's "festival of festivals". It is a week-long celebration where you can see unique booths of each town and city in Negros Oriental featuring their native products and tourist attractions. The highlight of the occasion is the float parade and street dancing competition.

Economy


With its vast fertile land resources, Negros Oriental's major industry is agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

. The primary crops are sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

, corn
Sweetcorn
Sweet corn is a variety of maize with a high sugar content. Sweet corn is the result of a naturally occurring recessive mutation in the genes which control conversion of sugar to starch inside the endosperm of the corn kernel...

, coconut
Coconut
The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae . It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word...

 and rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

. In the coastal area, fishing
Fishing
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch wild fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping....

 is the main source of income. People are also involved in cattle
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

 ranches, fish pond
Fish pond
A fish pond, or fishpond, is a controlled pond, artificial lake, or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is used in aquaculture for fish farming, or is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes...

s and logging
Logging
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks.In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a sawmill or a lumber yard...

. There are also mineral deposits like gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

, silver
Silver
Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

 and copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

.

Negros Oriental is emerging as a technological center in Central Philippines with its growing business process outsourcing (BPO) and other technology-related industries. Negros Oriental is also becoming a notable tourist destination in the Visayas
Visayas
The Visayas or Visayan Islands and locally known as Kabisay-an gid, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Mindanao and Luzon. It consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are considered the northeast...

.

Local Newspapers


Dumaguete MetroPost

Negros Chronicle

Visayan Daily Star

Administration



Negros Oriental is subdivided into 19 municipalities and 5 cities
Cities of the Philippines
A city is a tier of local government in the Philippines. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies the administrative structure...

, which are further subdivided into 557 barangay
Barangay
A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward...

s.

Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

 is the provincial capital and seat of government. It is also the most populous city, despite having the smallest land area.
City Population Area (km²) Pop. density (per km²)
Bayawan City
Bayawan City
Bayawan City is a 2nd class component city in the 3rd Congressional District of the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 101,391 people in 19,967 households....

 
110,250 699.08 145.0
Canlaon City
Canlaon City
Canlaon City is a 4th class city in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 46,548 people in 9,302 households. Canlaon is located 168 km from the provincial capital Dumaguete...

 
50,208 170.93 273.3
Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

 
116,392 33.62 3041.8
Tanjay City
Tanjay City
Tanjay City is a 4th class city in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. It was created by virtue of Republic Act 9026 otherwise known as "An act converting the Municipality of Tanjay, province of Negros Oriental into a component city to be known as the City of Tanjay". The Act was approved...

 
78,539 276.05 254.2
Bais City
Bais City
Bais City is a 2nd class city in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it had a population of 74,702 people in more than 13,199 households...

 
74,702
Guihulngan City  83,448 388.56 214.8
Municipality Population Area (km²) Pop. density (per km²)
Amlan
Amlan, Negros Oriental
Amlan is a 5th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 19,227 people in 3851 households.Amlan was formerly known as New Ayuquitan.-Barangays:...

 
19,227 111.85 171.9
Ayungon
Ayungon, Negros Oriental
Ayungon is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 40,744 people in 7,989 households.-Barangays:Ayungon is politically subdivided into 25 barangays.* Amdus...

 
40,744 265.10 153.7
Bacong
Bacong, Negros Oriental
Bacong is a fourth-class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 23,219 people in 4,832 households. Bacong is the hometown of the Visayan hero of the Philippine Revolution, Pantaleon Villegas, better known as León...

 
23,219 40.30 576.2
Basay
Basay, Negros Oriental
Basay is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 21,366 people in 4,220 households.-Barangays:Basay is politically subdivided into 10 barangays.* Actin* Bal-os...

 
21,366 162.00 131.9
Bindoy
Bindoy, Negros Oriental
Bindoy is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 34,773 people in 6,682 households.-Barangays:Bindoy is politically subdivided into 24 barangays.-External links:*...

 
34,773 173.70 200.2
Dauin
Dauin, Negros Oriental
Dauin is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. It is bordered on the north by Bacong, on the south by Zamboanguita, and on the west a mountain range separates it from Santa Catalina. The municipality is a coastal town, the ocean forming its eastern border...

 
21,077 114.10 184.7
Jimalalud
Jimalalud, Negros Oriental
Jimalalud is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 26,756 people in 5,144 households.-Barangays:Jimalalud is politically subdivided into 28 barangays.* Aglahug...

 
26,756 139.50 191.8
La Libertad
La Libertad, Negros Oriental
La Libertad is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 35,122 people in 7,024 households.-Municipal Officials:...

 
35,122 139.60 251.6
Mabinay
Mabinay, Negros Oriental
is a 1st class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 64,451 people in 13,000 households....

 
70,548 319.44 201.8
Manjuyod
Manjuyod, Negros Oriental
Manjuyod is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 37,863 people in 7,438 households.-Barangays:Manjuyod is politically subdivided into 27 barangays.* Alangilanan...

 
37,863 264.60 143.1
Pamplona
Pamplona, Negros Oriental
Pamplona is a municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines.-Historical background:Pamplona then a barrio of Tanjay was created into a municipality by virtue of Republic Act No. 535 enacted on June 16, 1950. The law was authored by Pedro Bandoquillio, elected congressman in 1947....

 
32,790 202.20 162.2
San Jose
San Jose, Negros Oriental
San Jose is a 5th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. Based on the 2007 Census, its population is 17,250.History of San Jose...

 
15,665 54.46 287.6
Santa Catalina
Santa Catalina, Negros Oriental
Santa Catalina is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 67,197 people in 13,125 households.-Barangays:Santa Catalina is politically subdivided into 22 barangays....

 
72,629 523.10 128.5
Siaton
Siaton, Negros Oriental
Siaton is a 1st class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 64,258 people in 12,767 households.-Barangays:Siaton is politically subdivided into 26 barangays.* Albiga* Apoloy...

 
67,943 335.90 191.3
Sibulan
Sibulan, Negros Oriental
Sibulan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 47,162 people in 7,871 households.Sibulan is bordered to the south by Dumaguete City, the provincial capital...

 
47,162 163.00 230.2
Tayasan
Tayasan, Negros Oriental
Tayasan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 30,477 people in 6,374 households.Tayasan the greatest town in the Philippines.Municipal Officials:Mayor Winboy Sameon...

 
30,477 154.20 197.6
Valencia
Valencia, Negros Oriental
Valencia is a first class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. It is located 9.4 kilometre west of Dumaguete, the largest city and capital of the province. According to the national 2000 census, Valencia has a population of 24,365 people in 4,860 households. Valencia has a...

 
24,365 147.49 165.2
Vallehermoso
Vallehermoso, Negros Oriental
Vallehermoso is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 33,914 people in 6,753 households. It is situated just between the border lines of both Oriental and Occidental Negros...

 
33,914 101.25 335.0
Zamboanguita
Zamboanguita, Negros Oriental
Zamboanguita is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 23,338 people in 4,691 households.-Barangays:Zamboanguita is politically subdivided into 10 barangays.* Basac...

 
23,338 85.86 271.8


For purposes of legislative representation, the cities and municipalities are grouped into three congressional districts, with each district electing a congressman to the House of Representatives of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

.
  • 1st District: Canlaon City, Vallehermoso, Guihulngan City, La Libertad, Jimalalud, Tayasan, Ayungon, Bindoy, Manjuyod
  • 2nd District: Amlan, Bais City, Mabinay, Pamplona, San Jose, Sibulan, Tanjay City, Dumaguete City
  • 3rd district: Bacong, Basay, Bayawan City, Dauin, Santa Catalina, Siaton, Valencia, Zamboanguita

Transportation



Negros Oriental has a network of roads, including a national road that spans the circumference of Negros Island. National and provincial roads in the province total more than 900 kilometers, though only about half of these are paved.

A large portion of residents do not own private vehicles, and are totally reliant on public transport. The main form of public transport between the cities and municipalities of the province largely consists of privately operated jeepneys that link major towns to rural areas. For short distances within a town, motorized tricycles (locally known as pedicabs
Auto rickshaw
An auto rickshaw or three-wheeler is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw...

) are available.

The Dumaguete Airport located in Sibulan
Sibulan, Negros Oriental
Sibulan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 47,162 people in 7,871 households.Sibulan is bordered to the south by Dumaguete City, the provincial capital...

 is the province's only government-operated airport. It is a domestic airport
Domestic airport
A domestic airport is an airport which handles only domestic flights or flights within the same country. Domestic airports don't have customs and immigration facilities and are therefore incapable of handling flights to or from a foreign airport....

 with multiple daily flights to and from Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, served by Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

 and Cebu Pacific
Cebu Pacific
Cebu Air, Inc., operating as Cebu Pacific Air, is based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport , Pasay City, Metro Manila, the Philippines. It offers scheduled flights to both domestic and international destinations...

. Based on 2002 statistics, an average of 5,800 outgoing passengers and 5,700 incoming passengers pass through the airport every month.

The primary seaport of the province is located in Dumaguete City
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

. Additionally, there are five other seaports in the province classified as tertiary.

External links