Nawaz Sharif

Nawaz Sharif

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Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

, ; born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani conservative politician and steel
Steel mill
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is produced in a two-stage process. First, iron ore is reduced or smelted with coke and limestone in a blast furnace, producing molten iron which is either cast into pig iron or...

 magnate
Business magnate
A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a capitalist, czar, mogul, tycoon, baron, oligarch, or industrialist, is an informal term used to refer to an entrepreneur who has reached prominence and derived a notable amount of wealth from a particular industry .-Etymology:The word magnate itself...

 who served as 12th Prime Minister of Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 in two non-consecutive terms from November 1990 to July 1993, and from February 1997 to October 12, 1999. He is the current and incumbent President
Party Chair
In politics, a party chair is the presiding officer of a political party....

 of the Pakistan Muslim League-N
Pakistan Muslim League (N)
The Pakistan Muslim League is a conservative political party in Pakistan, affiliated with Western conservatism...

, the Centre-right
Centre-right
The centre-right or center-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals, political parties, or organizations whose views stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. Centre-right can also describe a coalition of centrist...

 semi-Islamist
Islamism
Islamism also , lit., "Political Islam" is set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only a religion but also a political system. Islamism is a controversial term, and definitions of it sometimes vary...

 conservative political force in Pakistan.

Before becoming the Prime minister, Sharif served as the 9th Chief Minister of Punjab Province from 1985 to 1990 and embarked his political career under the military regime of President General Zia-ul-Haq. A businessman and lawyer by profession, he owns Ittefaq Group, a private steel mill enterprise and one of the largest producer of iron materials. Sharif is noted as being as Pakistan's one of the wealthiest investor in Steel mill
Steel mill
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is produced in a two-stage process. First, iron ore is reduced or smelted with coke and limestone in a blast furnace, producing molten iron which is either cast into pig iron or...

 business and a conservative politician advocating for the conservatism
Conservatism
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports, at the most, minimal and gradual change in society. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others oppose modernism...

 in the country, and capitalism
Capitalism
Capitalism is an economic system that became dominant in the Western world following the demise of feudalism. There is no consensus on the precise definition nor on how the term should be used as a historical category...

 as its economic base. His first term survived a constitutional crisis
Constitutional crisis
A constitutional crisis is a situation that the legal system's constitution or other basic principles of operation appear unable to resolve; it often results in a breakdown in the orderly operation of government...

 when President Ghulam Ishaq Khan attempted to dismissed Sharif by citing "corruption and nepotism", which Sharif strongly denied and turned to Supreme Court. The apex Supreme Court
Supreme Court of Pakistan
The Supreme Court is the apex court in Pakistan's judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It has number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the...

 ruled out Presidential Order as unconstitutional, therefore, the government was restored. His first term was finally dismissed after the Pakistan Armed Forces pressured him to resign to end the political standoff with another national conservative President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, which he too was forced to resigned.

From 1993 until 1996, Sharif served as the Leader of the Opposition in the socialist democratic government of Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

. In 1997, he was elected on for a second term by an overwhelming margin after brutally defeating Benazir Bhutto whose government was dismissed on corruption. During his second term, he notably ordered Pakistan's first nuclear tests
Chagai-I
The Chagai-I was a codename referring to the five underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15hrs in 28th May of 1998. It was named Chagai-I, as the tests were conducted in the Chagai District...

 in response to India's nuclear tests
Pokhran-II
Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. These nuclear tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states....

, as part of his tit-for-tat policy, a termed he coined after the tests. Sharif controversially appointed Pervez Musharraf— then lieutenant-general and commander of the I Strike Corps
I Corps (Pakistan)
The I Corps, also known as I Strike Corps, of the Pakistan Army headquartered in Mangla, Azad Kashimir Province of Pakistan. Known as I Strike Corps, it is one of two strike corps within its ten manouvre Army corps...

— as the Chief of Army Staff and promoted him to the 4 star rank
4 star rank
Four-star rank is a term used to describe a very senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO OF-9 code. The term is also used by some armed forces which are not NATO members...

. Sharif later violated the code of conduct of Pakistan Armed Forces when he controversially appointed General Pervez Musharraf as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. His decision forced Chief of Naval Staff
Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Naval Staff, abbreviated as CNS, is the highest ranking officer in the Pakistani Navy unless a 4-star naval officer is appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The current Chief of the Naval Staff is Admiral Asif Sandila who commands the Navy. The CNS reports...

 Admiral
Admiral
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet . It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"...

 Fasih Bokhari to resign from the Navy.

Despite Sharif giving prestigious appointments to General Musharraf and the Army, Sharif developed serious disagreements pertaining to the undeclared war in Northern Pakistan, and later ordered the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

 to evacuated and Indian-held Kargil
Kargil
' :* Kargil district, in Ladakh, Indian-administered Kashmir* Kargil town, the chief town of the district* Kargil War, a 1999 armed conflict between India and Pakistan in the Kargil district...

. Problems with Pakistan Armed Forces further escalated and he was finally ousted in an military coup d'état led by General Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

 after Navaz made an unsuccessful attempt to remove General Musharraf as Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. He dramatically returned to Pakistan in late 2007 after eight years of forced exile by General Musharraf in a secret contract he claimed that he was forced to sign in. Now in Pakistan, Sharif successfully called for Musharraf's impeachment
Movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf
The movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf was an August 2008 attempt by the Pakistan Peoples Party , the Pakistan Muslim League , Awami National Party , and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam to force Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf out of office....

 and the reinstatement
Suspension of Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry was made a "non functional Chief Justice" on March 9, 2007. In so acting, President Pervez Musharraf invoked two main clauses of the Constitution of Pakistan.-Article 180:Acting Chief Justice....

 of Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry is the current Chief Justice of Pakistan.He became chief justice of Pakistan's Supreme Court in 2005 and soon became not only a central figure in the nation's political struggles but an icon to the country's legal profession and others campaigning for the rule of law...

.

Early life and education


Sharif was born in Lahore, West-Pakistan
West Pakistan
West Pakistan , common name West-Pakistan , in the period between its establishment on 22 November 1955 to disintegration on December 16, 1971. This period, during which, Pakistan was divided, ended when East-Pakistan was disintegrated and succeeded to become which is now what is known as Bangladesh...

 on 25 December 1949. His father, Muhammad Sharif
Muhammad Sharif
Mian Muhammad Sharif Butt was a Pakistani industrialist and father of former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif and the chief minister of the Punjab province, Shahbaz Sharif.-Early life:...

, was an upper middle-class businessman and industrialist who had migrated from Amritsar district
Amritsar District
Amritsar district is one of 22 districts in the state of Punjab in West India. It has a population of 3,074,207 and covers an area of 5075 km²...

 to Pakistan during the 1947 Indian partition
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

. His family is of Kashmiri
Kashmiri people
The Kashmiri people are a Dardic linguistic group living in Kashmir Valley in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and parts of the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir who speak the Kashmiri language...

-Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 origin. His father followed the teachings of the Ahl al-Hadith. His family owns Ittefaq Group
Ittefaq Group
The Ittefaq Group of Industries, , is an integrated steel producer with major operations in Punjab Province of Pakistan. This steel mill was founded and established by renowned industrialist Muhammad Sharif, father of two times Prime minister Nawaz Sharif.Muhammad Sharif father, with his six...

, a multimillion dollar steel conglomerate. His brother Shahbaz Sharif
Shahbaz Sharif
Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif is a well-known conservative Pakistani politician and currently President of Pakistan Muslim League . He is the brother of Nawaz Sharif, former Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is the chief minister of Pakistan's most populous province Punjab since 2008...

 is the incumbent Chief Minister of Punjab province while his nephew Hamza Shahbaz Sharif
Hamza Shahbaz Sharif
Muhammad Hamza Shahbaz Sharif is a Pakistani politician and a Member of National Assembly of Pakistan in constituency no. NA-119.- Family and Education :...

 is a member of the National Assembly
National Assembly of Pakistan
The National Assembly of Pakistan is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also compromises the President of Pakistan and Senate . The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad...

.

He went to Saint Anthony High School
St. Anthony's High School (Lahore)
St. Anthony's High School is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lahore in Pakistan. It is ranked among the best educational institutions in Punjab. It is situated at Lahore's historical road, The Mall....

. He graduated from the Government College University
Government College University
Government College University, Lahore is a co-educational public university located on The Mall in Lahore, Pakistan...

 of Lahore with an art and business degree and then received a law degree from the University of Punjab
University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab , colloquially known as Punjab University, is located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The University of the Punjab is the oldest and biggest University of Pakistan. The University of the Punjab was formally established with the convening of the first meeting of its...

.
He is married to Kalsoom Nawaz Sharif

Initial political career


After his education, Sharif joined his father's steel conglomerate, the Ittefaq Group of Industries
Ittefaq Group
The Ittefaq Group of Industries, , is an integrated steel producer with major operations in Punjab Province of Pakistan. This steel mill was founded and established by renowned industrialist Muhammad Sharif, father of two times Prime minister Nawaz Sharif.Muhammad Sharif father, with his six...

, as CEO
Chief executive officer
A chief executive officer , managing director , Executive Director for non-profit organizations, or chief executive is the highest-ranking corporate officer or administrator in charge of total management of an organization...

 in early 1975, but the family lost the control of the steel industry during the wave of nationalizaion policy of former Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

. The Sharif family was financially devastated after discoverying that the family business was lost into the hands of the government, and Sharif jumped into national politics
Politics of Pakistan
Politics of Pakistan have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. In the current parliamentary system, the President of Pakistan is the largely ceremonial head of state, the Prime...

 soon after. In 1976, Sharif politically motivated himself and joined the Pakistan Muslim League
Pakistan Muslim League
The Pakistan Muslim League was founded in 1962, as a successor to the previously disbanded Muslim League in Pakistan. Unlike the original PML which ended in 1958 when General Ayub Khan banned all political parties, each subsequent Muslim League was in some way propped by the military dictators of...

, a conservative front rooted from Punjab Province, initially focused to regain the control of his steel industry from the hands of Bhutto's government. In 1981, Sharif joined the Punjab Advisory Board under General Zia-ul-Haq and principally rose to public and political prominence as a staunch proponent of the military government
Military government
Military government can refer to conditions under either Military occupation, or Military dictatorship.-Military Government:Military government is the form of administration by which an occupying power exercises governmental authority over occupied territory.The Hague Conventions of 1907 specify...

 of General Zia-ul-Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq , was the 4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan from July 1977 to his death in August 1988...

 during the 1980s.

He maintained close relations with the General and soon the general agreed to return back his private steel mill in the 1980s which was lost during the wave of nationalization by Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

. Sharif maintained an alliance with General Rahimuddin Khan, who was Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. During his political career, Sharif also had close ties with ISI's
Inter-Services Intelligence
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence , is Pakistan's premier intelligence agency, responsible for providing critical national security intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan...

 then-Director-General Lieutenant-General (retired) Hamid Gul, who played a substantial role in the formation of the Islami Jamhoori Ittehad— a conservative political alliance that supported Sharif.

Punjab Advisory Council


In 1981, he initially joined as a member of the Punjab Advisory Council under President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq , was the 4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan from July 1977 to his death in August 1988...

. Since his early career, Sharif has been a strong vocal of capitalism
Capitalism
Capitalism is an economic system that became dominant in the Western world following the demise of feudalism. There is no consensus on the precise definition nor on how the term should be used as a historical category...

 and strongly opposed its inverse, the nationalization
Nationalization
Nationalisation, also spelled nationalization, is the process of taking an industry or assets into government ownership by a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being...

. In 1980s, Sharif gained influence on General Zia-ul-Haq who had previously agreed to return his steel industry to him, convincing the General to denationalization and deregulate the industries in order to improve the economy. Under the Military government of Lieutenant-General Ghulam Jillani Khan, Sharif was appointed as the provisional finance minister and Sharif successfully attempted to denationalized all of the government-owned industries to private sector. As provincial finance minister, he presented development-oriented budgets to the military government. As Finance minister, Sharif gained prominence and fame in Punjab Province which also extended the rule of General Ghulam Jillani, as he improved the law and order situation in Punjab Province. Financial policies drafted and approved by Sharif, who was backed by General Zia, Punjab Province benefited with the better financial capital and purchasing power
Purchasing power
Purchasing power is the number of goods/services that can be purchased with a unit of currency. For example, if you had taken one dollar to a store in the 1950s, you would have been able to buy a greater number of items than you would today, indicating that you would have had a greater purchasing...

 of Punjab Province's locals were greatly and exponentially improved. Punjab Province having Sharif as Finance minister, received many funds by the federal government than any other provinces of Pakistan, which also contributed in economical inequality
Economic inequality
Economic inequality comprises all disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income. The term typically refers to inequality among individuals and groups within a society, but can also refer to inequality among countries. The issue of economic inequality is related to the ideas of...

 between Punjab Province and other provinces. Due to its huge financial capital in 1980s, Punjab Province was Pakistan's richest province and Punjab Province's better standard of living
Standard of living
Standard of living is generally measured by standards such as real income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods , or measures of health such as...

 comparing to other provinces.

Chief Minister of Punjab


In 1985, Sharif secured the landslide victory during the non-political parties 1985 elections
Pakistani general election, 1985
General elections were held in Pakistan on 28 February 1985. Around 1,300 candidates contested the election, which was held on a non-party basis. Voter turnout was 52.93%.-Results:...

 and became Chief Minister of Punjab with the support of the army. He served for two consecutive terms as Chief Minister of Punjab Province
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

, the most populous province of Pakistan. Because of his vast popularity, he received the nickname "Lion of the Punjab". As chief minister, he stressed welfare and development activities and the maintenance of law and order.

The provincial Martial Law Administrator
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 of Punjab Province, Lieutenant-General Ghulam Jilani Khan sponsored the government of Nawaz Sharif, and Sharif built his ties with the senior army generals who would remain supportive and sponsored Sharif's ministerial ship. General Jilani Khan made much headway in beautifying Lahore, extending military infrastructure, and muting political opposition, while Sharif maintained the law and order in the province, expanded the economical infrastructure that not only benefited and also the people of Punjab province. In 1985, General Zia dismissed the government of hand-picked Prime minister Khan Junejo
Muhammad Khan Junejo
Muhammad Khan Junejo was the tenth Prime Minister of Pakistan.-Early life:He was born at Sindhri in Tharparkar of Sindh. He belongs to Sindhi Muslim Rajput family of Junejo clan. Junejo started his political career at the age of twenty one...

, and called for new elections. However, with all the provisional and the national assemblies were dissolved, General Zia-ul-Haq retained Sharif as the Chief Minister of Punjab Province, and continued Sharif's support until his death and the elections
Pakistani general election, 1988
General elections were held in Pakistan on 16 November 1988 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan. The result was a victory for the Pakistan People's Party, which won 94 of the 207 seats...

 were held in 1988.

1988 elections



After General Zia's death in August 1988, Zia's political party — PML (Pagara Group) — split into two factions. Sharif led the Zia loyalist Fida Group against the Junejo Group, led by Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo
Muhammad Khan Junejo
Muhammad Khan Junejo was the tenth Prime Minister of Pakistan.-Early life:He was born at Sindhri in Tharparkar of Sindh. He belongs to Sindhi Muslim Rajput family of Junejo clan. Junejo started his political career at the age of twenty one...

. The Fida Group later took on the mantle of the PML while the Junejo Group became known as the JIP. The two parties along with seven other right-wing conservatives and Islamist parties united to form the Islamic Democratic Alliance (IDA)
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad or Islamic Democratic Alliance was formed in September 1988 to oppose the Pakistan Peoples Party in elections that year...

. The alliance was co-led by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was a Pakistani politician, and was the Acting Prime Minister of Pakistan for 3 months, from August 6, 1990 to November 6, 1990. Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi's ancestors were mureeds of the Pir's of Sarhandi....

 and Sharif to oppose Benazir Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party in the elections. The IDA gained substantial majorities in the Punjab and Sharif was reelected Chief Minister of Punjab.

In December 1989, Sharif decided to remain in the provincial Punjab Assembly rather than hold a seat in the National Assembly. In early 1989, the PPP government failed to unseat Sharif through a no-confidence motion in the Punjab Assembly. Sharif retained control by a vote of 152 to 106.

First term as Prime Minister (1990-93)



The conservative forces for the times in the country's history
History of Pakistan
The 1st known inhabitants of the modern-day Pakistan region are believed to have been the Soanian , who settled in the Soan Valley and Riwat almost 2 million years ago. Over the next several thousand years, the region would develop into various civilizations like Mehrgarh and the Indus Valley...

, came into the power under the leadership of the Nawaz Sharif. Nawaz Sharif became the 12th Prime minister of Pakistan on 1st November 1990 as well as he was the head of IJI
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad or Islamic Democratic Alliance was formed in September 1988 to oppose the Pakistan Peoples Party in elections that year...

 (Islamic Democratic Alliance) and succeeded Benazir Bhutto as Prime minister. He campaigned on a conservative platform and vowed to reduce government corruption. He focused on improving the nation's infrastructure and spurred the growth of digital telecommunication. He privatized government banks and opened the door for further industrial privatization, and disbanded Zulfikar Bhutto's policies. He legalized foreign money exchange to be transacted through private money exchangers. His privatization policies were continued by both Benazir Bhutto in mid 1990s and Shaukat Aziz
Shaukat Aziz
Shaukat Aziz is a world acclaimed Pakistani economist who was the 15th Prime Minister of Pakistan from May 20, 2004 to 15 November 2007 in a joint military government led by General Pervez Musharraf. A Citibank executive, Aziz returned to Pakistan from the United States to be became Finance...

 as well in 2000s.

Conservatism policies


Initially campaigned, Sharif took steps to initiate Islamization and conservatism at once. The continuation of conservative change in Pakistan society was encouraged, a policy started by Zia ul Haq.Reforms were made to introduced the conservatism including the introduction of fiscal conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Fiscal conservatism is a political term used to describe a fiscal policy that advocates avoiding deficit spending. Fiscal conservatives often consider reduction of overall government spending and national debt as well as ensuring balanced budget of paramount importance...

, supply-side economics
Supply-side economics
Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering barriers for people to produce goods and services, such as lowering income tax and capital gains tax rates, and by allowing greater flexibility by reducing...

, bioconservatism and religious conservatism in Pakistan.

He took many steps to raise the issue of Kashmir on international forums, to transfer power peacefully in Afghanistan so to put an end to the drug smugglers and illegal transaction of unregistered weapons across the border which was promoting then increasing numbers of dacoits in the country. Sharif intensified General Zia-ul-Haq's controversial Islamization
Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization
On December 2, 1978, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq delivered a nationwide address on the occasion of the first day of the Hijra calendar. He did this in order to usher in an Islamic system to Pakistan...

 policies, and introduced to introduced Islamic Laws such as the Shariat Ordinance and Bait-ul-Maal (to help poor orphans widows etc.); Moreover he gave tasks to the Ministry of Religion
Ministry of Religious Affairs (Pakistan)
The Ministry of Religious Affairs, Zakat, and Ushr in Pakistan is responsible for the pilgrimage beyond Pakistan, Muslims pilgrims visits to India for Ziarat and Saudi Arabia for Umra & Hajj. It is also responsible for the welfare and safety of pilgrims and zairines...

 to prepare reports and recommendations for steps taken for Islamization. He ensured the establishment of three committees.

  • Ittehad-e-bain-ul-Muslemeen (Unity of Muslims Bloc)
  • Nifaz-e-Shariat Committee (Sharia
    Sharia
    Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

     Establishment Committee
    )
  • Islamic Welfare Committee



He believed in forming a Muslim Bloc by uniting all Central Asian Muslim Countries thus he extended the membership of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
Economic Cooperation Organization
The Economic Cooperation Organization is an intergovernmental organization involving seven Asian and three Eurasian nations, part of the South-central Asian Union. It provides a platform to discuss ways to improve development and promote trade, and investment opportunities. The ECO is an ad hoc...

 to all Central Asian Countries. Nawaz Sharif was pretty confident that he had majority in the assembly thus he ruled with considerable confidence. He had disputes with three successive army chiefs. Sharif took the issue
Environmental issues in Pakistan
Environmental issues in Pakistan threaten the population’s health and have been disturbing the balance between economic development and environmental protection...

 of environmentalism
Environmentalism
Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements...

 as part of his government platform, and established the Environmental Protection Agency
Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, sometimes known as Pak-EPA, is an executive agency Government of Pakistan managed by the Ministry of Environment. The agency is charged with protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulation based on laws passed by...

 in 1997, as part of his environmental conservatism policy.

Domestic issues


Following the imposition and passing of the Resolution 660
United Nations Security Council Resolution 660
United Nations Security Council Resolution 660, adopted on August 2, 1990, after noting its alarm of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Council condemned the invasion and demanded Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally to positions as they were on August 1, 1990.Yemen called upon Iraq and...

, Resolution 661
United Nations Security Council Resolution 661
In United Nations Security Council Resolution 661, adopted on August 6, 1990, reaffirming Resolution 660 and noting Iraq's refusal to comply with it and Kuwait's right of self-defence, the Council took steps to implement international sanctions on Iraq under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter...

, and the Resolution 665
United Nations Security Council Resolution 665
United Nations Security Council Resolution 665, adopted on August 25, 1990, after demanding the full and immediate implementation of resolutions 660, 661, 662 and 664, the Council authorised a naval blockade to enforce the embargo against Iraq, in the aftermath of its invasion of Kuwait on August...

, Sharif internationally sided with the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 on Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. A major international incident took place in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 with Iraq invading the Kuwait which dismay the world. Sharif's government criticized Iraq for invading the fellow Muslim country, which led to strained the Pakistan's relationships with Iraq. The relationships continued to be strained as Pakistan seek to tighten its relations with Iran, and his foreign policy continued by Benazir Bhutto, Pervez Musharraf until the removal of Saddam Hussain in 2003.

Sharif contended with former Chief of Army Staff General Mirza Aslam Beg over the 1991 Gulf War (See Operation Desert Storm). Under the direction of General Beg, Pakistan Armed Forces actively participated in the conflict and the Army Special Service Group
Special Services Group
The Special Service Group , also known as Black Storks, because of their distinctive headgear, the unit is also known as Maroon Beret, are a special operations military unit of the Pakistan Army mandated with fourteen primary and special missions: Asymmetric warfare,Anti piracy,Special...

 and the Naval Special Service Group was rushed to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 in order to provide intense security to Saudi royal family. Sharif also contended the upcoming Chief of Army Staff General Asif Navaz over the paramilitary operation in Sindh Province
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 (See Operation Clean-Up
Operation Clean-up
The Operation Clean-up was a military operation led by Pakistan Army and the Army Rangers under the command of Brigadier Imtiaz Ahmed in Karachi, Pakistan that lasted from 1992−1994. The claimed goal of the operation was to 'cleanse' the city of "anti-social" elements...

).

Sharif, during his first term, founded difficult working with Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the Mutahidda Qaumi Movement, a potent force in Karachi.The MQM and PPP opposed Sharif widely due to his focused on beautifying Punjab and Kashmir while neglecting Sindh. The MQM, a liberal force, also opposed Sharif's conservatism. The clash between liberalism and conservatism soon forces soon erupted in 1992 when political tension began to arise in which both party renegading ideological war against each other. Despite MQM had formed government with Sharif, more and more problems were mounted between Sharif and the MQM in 1992. Sharif's government members passed the resolution in the Parliament, to launch the paramilitary operation to end the cold war between PML-N and MQM. During this time, the democratic socialist Pakistan Peoples Party remained quiet and neutral while watching the impact of the the cold war between liberal and conservative forces. Prime minister Sharif also contended this upcoming operation with Chief of Army Staff General Asif Navaz over the paramilitary operation in Sindh Province
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 (See Operation Clean-Up
Operation Clean-up
The Operation Clean-up was a military operation led by Pakistan Army and the Army Rangers under the command of Brigadier Imtiaz Ahmed in Karachi, Pakistan that lasted from 1992−1994. The claimed goal of the operation was to 'cleanse' the city of "anti-social" elements...

). Launched in 1992, violence erupted in Karachi and brought an economic halt in the country that dismantle Sharif's industrialization and investment that was being brought by Sharif. Benazir Bhutto, during the course of this episode, remained silent as she too had opposed the MQM. His operation continued by Benazir also, but due to amid pressure exerted by her brother Murtaza Bhutto
Murtaza Bhutto
Dr. Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto was a Pakistani politician and the Member of the Parliament of Pakistan, representing Pakistan People's Party from the Larkana constituency...

, the operation came to halt. The period of 1992-1994 is considered the bloodiest years in the history of the city
History of Karachi
The area of Karachi , in Sindh, Pakistan was known to the ancient Greeks by many names: Krokola, where Alexander the Great camped in Sindh to prepare a fleet for Babylonia after his campaign in the Indus valley; 'Morontobara' port , from where Alexander's admiral Nearchus sailed for back home; and...

, with many went missing while many innocent were killed.

During his second term, Altaf Hussain
Altaf Hussain
Altaf Hussain is the founder and leader of the Muttahida Quami Movement . The MQM emerged as the third largest political party in the national assembly of Pakistan during 1988 and 1990 elections. The MQM secured representation in the parliamentary elections held in the northern areas of Pakistan...

 decided to join hands with Sharif and tried to reach a compromise, Soon after the 1997 parliamentary elections
Pakistani general election, 1997
A general election was held in Pakistan on 3 February 1997 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan and the four provincial assemblies. The election took place after the previous Pakistan Peoples Party government of Benazir Bhutto was dismissed by President Farooq Leghari for alleged corruption...

, MQM joined hand with Sharif but this alliance fall apart following the assassination of Hakim Said
Hakim Said
Sir Hakim Muhammad Said , was a prominent and world acclaimed medical researcher, scholar, philanthropist, and a former Governor of Sindh Province of Pakistan from 1993 until 1996...

. Therefore, the Prime minister kicked the MQM out of the government on immediate effect and assumed the control of Karachi. MQM was forced to continued its political activities underground. This action led Nawaz Sharif to claim the exclusive mandate of entire Pakistan, and for the first time in his political career, Sharif and his party had the control of Sindh, Balochistan, Khyber, Kashmir and the Punjab Provinces.

Industrialization



Shortly after taking power, Nawaz Sharif announced that his government would carry out a national reconstruction programme to industrialize Pakistan. Acknowledged since that the unemployment had became Pakistan's greatest disadvantage in economic growth and that only industrial and privatization growth could solve the economic slow down. In 1990, Sharif announced the nuclear policy and aimed to continue the peaceful atomic programme benefit for country's economic infrastructure. Sharif expanded nuclear energy program in entire country and peaceful and economic infrastructure was extensively built by him by the 1990s. Many of the nuclear medicine and nuclear engineering projects were completed under his government as part of Sharif's Atoms for Peace program
Atoms for Peace
"Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953....

.

Sharif also upgraded the Islamic laws such as Shariat Ordinance and Bait-ul-Maal (to help poor orphans widows) to drive the country to became a Pakistan a truly Islamic
Islamic State
An Islamic state is a type of government, in which the primary basis for government is Islamic religious law...

 welfare state
Welfare state
A welfare state is a "concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those...

. Sharif was an affectee of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

's nationalization policy and a beneficiary of Zia ul Haqs' denationalized . A number of important industries, such as shipping corporations
Pakistan National Shipping Corporation
The Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is an autonomous megacorporation owned and run under the control of the Ministry of Ports and Shipping of Pakistan.-History:...

, electricity supply
National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority is responsible for regulating electricity in Pakistan.- See also :* List of electric supply companies in Pakistan* Electricity in Pakistan* Electricity sector in Pakistan...

, national airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

 and telecommunications
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Ltd
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited is the largest telecommunication company in Pakistan.The company provides telephony services nation-wide and is the backbone for country's telecommunication infrastructure despite arrival of a dozen other telecommunication comanies, including giants like...

 were opened up to the private sector. Sharif successfully privatized the National Development Finance Corporation
National Development Finance Corporation
National Development Finance Corporation is based Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan was founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. National Development Finance Corporation is the largest development finance institution of Pakistan performing diversified activities in the field of industrial financing and investment...

, a financial institution founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto mandate to manage the international investment for the benefit of the people.

He introduced and inaugurated several large scale projects to stimulate the economy, such as the Ghazie-Barotah Hydropower plant and the. However, unemployment remained a challenge, therefore Sharif imported thousands of privatized Yellow-cab taxis
Yellow Cab
There are many Yellow Cabs taxicab operators around the world . The original Yellow Cab Company, based in Chicago, Illinois is one of the largest taxicab companies in the United States.- History :...

 to many young Pakistanis, but this program came at a cost. Few of the loans were repaid by the government and Sharif founded it difficult to privatized these taxis at low rate, since the young and poor could not afford at higher price. However, Sharif indeed privatized these taxis at low rate and his steel industry was forced to pay the remaining cost. During his first and second term, Sharif intensified his policies of industrialization and privatization
Privatization
Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency or public service from the public sector to the private sector or to private non-profit organizations...

 of major industries that were nationalized by former Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

. Undoing what was previously done in 1970s remained a challenge for Sharif but, despite the economical slow down, Sharif reverted major policies of Bhutto and under short span of time, 90% of the industries were industrialized and privatized by him. This radical move did had positive impact on country's economy and the economy progressed at an appropriate level. Sharif policies were also continued by Benazir Bhutto, who nationalized only those industries that needed a government bail out plan, and by Pervez Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz
Shaukat Aziz
Shaukat Aziz is a world acclaimed Pakistani economist who was the 15th Prime Minister of Pakistan from May 20, 2004 to 15 November 2007 in a joint military government led by General Pervez Musharraf. A Citibank executive, Aziz returned to Pakistan from the United States to be became Finance...

 in 2000s who managed to privatized all of the major industries by the end his term in 2008.

As his second term, Prime minister Sharif built the largest Pakistan first major motorway which is known as M2 Motorway (3MM)
M2 motorway (Pakistan)
The M-2 is a motorway in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is 367 km long and connects Lahore with Islamabad. It passes through Kala Shah Kaku, Sheikhupura, Khanqah Dogran,Kot Sarwar, Pindi Bhattian, Salem, Lilla, Kot Momin, Kallar Kahar, Balksar, and Chakri before ending just outside the...

, and it is often called as Autobahns of South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

. This semi-government and semi-privatized mega project was completed in November, 1997 at a cost of $
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

989.12 million. However, after the completion of this mega project, Sharif’s policies were undermined by lack of capital for investments. There was an influx of foreign capital when he loosened foreign exchange restrictions and opened Karachi Stock Exchange
Karachi Stock Exchange
The Karachi Stock Exchange or KSE is a stock exchange located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's largest and oldest stock exchange, with many Pakistani as well as overseas listings. Currently located in Stock Exchange Building on Stock Exchange Road, in the heart of Karachi's Business...

 to foreign capital, but the government remained short of funds for investments.

During his first term, Sharif focused his industrialization on Punjab and Kashmir Provinces
Azad Kashmir
Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

, mild and few projects were completed in Khyber and Balochistan provinces. While, the Sindh Province did not benefit with his industrialization. After receiving intense criticism by Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

 and the liberal-secular Mutahidda Qaumi Movement (MQM), Sharif launched the Orangi Cottage Industrial Zone
Orangi Cottage Industrial Zone
Orangi Cottage Industrial Zone, is located in Orangi Town, in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.The Orangi Town Cottage Industrial Zone, spread over an area of , was inaugurated in 1994...

 which was completed and finally inaugurated by him. However, prime minister's reputation in Sindh was widely damaged because of his focused on beautifying Lahore and Kashmir while he neglected other provinces. Sharif's industrialization are also target by his opponents as it was focused and circled only on Punjab and Kashmir, Sharif's native provinces. His opponents argued that Sharif, as prime minister, obtained permits for building factories for himself and his business. Sharif is also blamed for expanding and finance Armed Forces' secretive industrial conglomerate and, is also blamed for bribing the generals to protected himself.

Sharif gave strong and vehement criticism to former Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

's socialist economics policies as "lamentable state of Pakistan".. His privatization policies were staunchly criticized by former science advisor Dr. Mubashir Hassan
Mubashir Hassan
Mubashir Hassan PhD, is a Pakistani civil engineer and science administrator known for his work in Hydraulics and his political role in the development of the atom bomb project....

, calling it Sharif's privatization "unconstitutional". Other Pakistan Peoples Party members also stood the fact that nationalization measures were protected by the Parliament who gave this policy a constitutional picture and status. The Peoples Party felt the privatization policies where illegal and taking place with out parliamentary approval and parliament was not taken in confidence.

In spite of economical uplift and recovery in 1997, the economical graph gradually came down, and was in a turmoil that damaged Sharif's credibility. Facing serious structural issues and financial problems, the inflation and the foreign debt stood at an all time high and the unemployment that reached at its highest point in the history of Pakistan. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) had suspended aid demanding the country finances are sorted out. Sharif attempted to control the Stock Exchanges under government's control, but that move backfired brutally on Sharif and by the time Sharif was deposed, the country was heading for a financial default.

Science policy


Sharif took steps for intense government control the Science in Pakistan and the projects needed his authorization. As like Benazir, the ongoing nuclear weapons and the energy program remained one of his top priority. Sharif countered the international pressure, and followed the same suit as Benazir's, and refused to make compromise to halt the program despite the United States had offered a large economical aid to Pakistan. Unlike Benazir, Sharif's nuclear policy was less aggressive towards India and focused the atomic programme for usage of public and civil society.

As part of this, Sharif intensified his move to enhance the Pakistan's integrated nuclear development and authorized projects that seemed to be important in his point of views. Sharif also promoted the peaceful nuclear energy programme, and signed the CHASNUPP-I reactor with People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 for the commercial electricity use. Sharif also responded to use the nuclear development in more of economical usage, benefited for the country's economy and its extension to the civil society. His policies to make the nuclear program for economical use was also continued by Benazir Bhutto and Pervez Musharraf, and is still carried upon under Yousaf Raza Gillani, the current Prime minister.Under his leadership, the nuclear program had became vital part of Pakistan's economical policy as the program had became back-bone of economy of Pakistan in 1998.

Co-operatives Societies Scandal


Sharif also lost from support the Punjab Province and Kashmir Province as well when the co-operatives societies scandal became public. Co-operatives societies accept deposits from members and can legally make loans only to members for purposes that are to the benefit of the society and its members. However, mismanagement of these societies led to a collapse in which millions of Pakistanis lost money in 1992. In Sharif’s native Punjab Province and the Kashmir Province
Azad Kashmir
Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

, around 700,000 people mostly poor people lost all their savings when the states cooperatives societies went bankrupt. It was soon discovered that The society had granted billions of rupees to the Ittefaq Group of Industries
Ittefaq Group
The Ittefaq Group of Industries, , is an integrated steel producer with major operations in Punjab Province of Pakistan. This steel mill was founded and established by renowned industrialist Muhammad Sharif, father of two times Prime minister Nawaz Sharif.Muhammad Sharif father, with his six...

— Sharif's owned Steel mill. Though Ittefaq Group's management hurriedly repaid the loans to the affectees, but the Prime minister's reputation was severely damaged.

End of first term


Sharif developed serious issues over the authority with another conservative President
President of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is the head of state, as well as figurehead, of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Recently passed an XVIII Amendment , Pakistan has a parliamentary democratic system of government. According to the Constitution, the President is chosen by the Electoral College to serve a...

 Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan
Ghulam Ishaq Khan , abbreviated as GIK, was the seventh President of Pakistan from August 17, 1988 until July 18, 1993 and a career statesman from the start to the end of cold war...

. Before 1993 Parliamentary election
Pakistani general election, 1993
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them. Although the Pakistan Muslim League won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples...

, President Ghulam Ishaq Khan on 18 April 1993, with the support of the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
The Pakistan Army is the branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the Partition of India and the resulting independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan...

, used his reserve powers (58-2b) (See 8th Amendment
Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The VIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, was short-time amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, which was passed by the Majlis-e-Shoora, in the absence of elected Parliament of Pakistan, in 1985. The VIII Amendment was drafted and later enforced by the joint Technocratic-Military...

) to dissolve the National Assembly
National Assembly
National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. The best known National Assembly, and the first legislature to be known by this title, was that established during the French Revolution in 1789, known as the Assemblée nationale...

, the lower house. Khan appointed Mir Blake Scher
Balakh Sher Mazari
Sardar Mir Balakh Sher Mazari is the Chieftain and the Paramount Sardar of the Mazari tribe, which is situated on the tri-border area of Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. As the Chief of Mazaris he holds the title of Mir and also goes by the styles of Tumandar and Sardar. Mir...

 as the interim Prime Minister. When the news reached to Sharif, he forcefully rejected to accept this act and moved to Supreme Court of Pakistan
Supreme Court of Pakistan
The Supreme Court is the apex court in Pakistan's judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It has number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the...

, an apex court in Pakistan. In May 26 1993, Sharif returned to power after the Supreme Court ruled that the Presidential Order as unconstitutional and reconstituted the National Assembly on its immediate effect. The Court ruled, 10-1, that the president could dissolve the assembly only if a constitutional breakdown had occurred and that the government's incompetence or corruption was irrelevant. However, issues with President over the authority circled and a subsequent political stand off was instigated between President and Prime minister. Finally, on July 1993, Sharif resigned under pressure from the Pakistan Armed Forces but negotiated a settlement that resulted in the removal of President Ghulam Ishaq Khan as well. In July 1993, Chief of Army Staff General Abdul Vahied Kakar and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Shamim Allam
Shamim Alam Khan
General Shamim Alam Khan, NI, SJ, SBt, is a retired four-star rank general in the Pakistan Army was the Supreme Commandant of the Pakistan Defense Forces as Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 1991 to 1994...

 forced President Ishaq Khan to resign from the presidency and subsequently ended the political standoff. Under Pakistan Armed Forces, the new interim and transitional government was formed and new parliamentary election
Pakistani general election, 1993
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them. Although the Pakistan Muslim League won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples...

 were held.

Parliamentary opposition (1993-96)



New elections
Pakistani general election, 1993
General elections were held in Pakistan on 6 October 1993. The election took place after both the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and President Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned to resolve a power struggle between them. Although the Pakistan Muslim League won the largest number of votes, the Pakistan Peoples...

 were held in the year of 1993 and the Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

, under Benazir Bhutto, returned to power for the third time. Sharif conceded defeat and offered his full co-operation as Leader of the Opposition but soon the Benazir Bhutto's PPP and PML-N again came at loggerheads in the Parliament. Benazir's government found it difficult to act effectively in the face of opposition from Sharif. Benazir Bhutto also mounted problems with her younger brother, Murtaza Bhutto
Murtaza Bhutto
Dr. Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto was a Pakistani politician and the Member of the Parliament of Pakistan, representing Pakistan People's Party from the Larkana constituency...

, in her strong hold and political lair, the Sindh Province.

The Nawaz Sharif joined hands with Benazir's younger brother Murtaza Bhutto and formed a political axis that worked tirelessly to undermine Benazir Bhutto's government and tapped an anti-corruption wave in entire Pakistan. The Nawaz-Bhutto axis targeted the Benazir Bhutto's government corruption in major state corporations and blamed Benazir's government for slowing down the economic progress. In 1994 to 1995, Sharif with Murtaza Bhutto began a "Train March", a phenomenon founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1978, taking them from Karachi to Peshawar during which huge crowds listened to their critical speeches. Sharif played a major part in organizing labor and industrial strikes throughout Pakistan in September and October 1994. With following the controversial death of Murtaza Bhutto
Murtaza Bhutto
Dr. Mir Ghulam Murtaza Bhutto was a Pakistani politician and the Member of the Parliament of Pakistan, representing Pakistan People's Party from the Larkana constituency...

 in 1996, amid protests and spontaneous demonstrations in Sindh Province had led the Benazir's government lost of control of the province. By 1996, the Benazir Bhutto had become widely unpopular, in entire Pakistan, because of her high levels of government corruption and alleged involvement of her spouse role in her younger brother's death which led to their ouster in October 1996.

Second term as Prime Minister (1997-99)


By the 1996, the national economy has came under the intense situation and deadlock, and a economic failure was soon near. The continuous and large-scale of government corruption made by either Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 and her appointed government ministers had deteriorated the country's economy at the extreme level. In the 1997 parliamentary elections
Pakistani general election, 1997
A general election was held in Pakistan on 3 February 1997 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan and the four provincial assemblies. The election took place after the previous Pakistan Peoples Party government of Benazir Bhutto was dismissed by President Farooq Leghari for alleged corruption...

, Sharif and his Pakistan Muslim League (PML-N) won a landslide victory in the elections, brutally defeating Benazir Bhutto and her People's party. Commenting on his victory, the Pakistan media
Media of Pakistan
Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines in Pakistan.-Regulation:The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority was formed in 2002 to "facilitate and promote a free, fair and independent electronic media", including opening the broadcasting...

 and the people of Pakistan hoped that Sharif would provide a conservative but a stable government benefit for Pakistan as he promised earlier. Besides Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

, no other leader, in the history of Pakistan
History of Pakistan
The 1st known inhabitants of the modern-day Pakistan region are believed to have been the Soanian , who settled in the Soan Valley and Riwat almost 2 million years ago. Over the next several thousand years, the region would develop into various civilizations like Mehrgarh and the Indus Valley...

, has enjoyed his level of popularity, and received the exclusive mandate
Exclusive Mandate
An exclusive mandate is a government's assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty...

 from all over the Pakistan to improve the all over conditions in Pakistan at same time. As commentary, 1997 election resulted to boost Navaz popularity and was mandate onerous task to improve the country's economy. Navaz defeated Benazir Bhutto with overwhelmingly voting numbers and it was the worst defeat of Bhutto and People's party since its inception. After the elections, Navaz arrived to Islamabad where he met with large crowd of spontaneous and jubilant people supporting for Nawaz, it took more than 13 hours for Nawaz Sharif to reach to Islamabad in order to take the oath. Sharif was sworn as Prime Minister in the early morning of on 17 February to serve a non-consecutive second term.. With the passing of the 14th amendment
Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution Act, 1997 was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in 1997, during the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, leader of the Pakistan Muslim League party. It subjected Members of Parliament to very strict party discipline...

, Sharif emerged as the most powerful elected Prime minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 in the country since its independence 50 years ago
1947 in Pakistan
-August:* Jinnah and his sister arrive on August 7, at the Mauripur Airport from New Delhi.* Muslim member of Partition Committee, Chaudhri Muhammad Ali comes to Karachi on August 9, for a one-day visit for Jinnah's approval on Patel's proposal for debt settlement...

 and no other leader has enjoyed the his level of extreme popularity.

In August 1997, he passed the controversial Anti-Terrorist Act which established Anti-Terrorism Courts
Anti Terrorism Court of Pakistan
Anti Terrorism Court was established in Pakistan, under Nawaz Sharif's government, to deal with terrorism cases.- 1997 creation and subsequent amendments :...

. The Supreme Court later rendered the Act unconstitutional. However, Sharif made few amendments, and received the permission of Supreme Court to established these courts.

In 1999, he met with Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee is an Indian statesman who served as the tenth Prime Minister of India three times – first for a brief term of 13 days in 1996, and then for two terms from 1998 to 2004. After his first brief period as Prime Minister in 1996, Vajpayee headed a coalition government from...

 at the Wagah
Wagah
Wagah is the only road border crossing between Pakistan and India , and lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Lahore, Pakistan and Amritsar, India. Wagah itself is a village through which the controversial Radcliffe Line was drawn. The village was divided by independence in 1947...

 border and signed a joint communique, known as the Lahore Declaration
Lahore Declaration
The Lahore Declaration was a bilateral agreement between India and Pakistan signed on February 21, 1999 by the then-Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif at the conclusion of a historic summit in Lahore, Pakistan...

.

1998 Nuclear tests




Pakistan's nuclear tests were an important turning point in his political career. However, there are media reports of senior scientists and former general that Nawaz Sharif was not in any favor for authorizing the atomic testing programme. But, Sharif came under pressure to authorize the atomic testing programme after the momentum began to build in Pakistan. The Prime minister was said to have dealt an economical package with the United States in exchange for not conducting the tests; but ordered the nuclear tests after public pressure and momentum reached at an extreme limit and failure for not authorizing the nuclear testing programme would be a political suicide for the Prime minister, as former general Pervez Musharraf maintained.. In his first term, Sharif funded Pakistan's nuclear, missile and space programme, as well as allotted funds for the science research, particularly its extension to defence. In May of 1998, soon after Indian nuclear tests
Pokhran-II
Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. These nuclear tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states....

, Sharif vowed that his country would give a suitable reply to the Indians. On May 14th, Leader of the Opposition Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 and MQM publicly called for the nuclear tests and the public calls for the nuclear test as well began to take place in Pakistan. When India tested its nuclear weapons the second time, it caused a great alarm in Pakistan and pressure mounted to built on the Prime minister. On 15 May 1998, Sharif called and chaired a National Security Council
National Security Council of Pakistan
The Prime minister Secretariat National Security Council is a consultative body that is chaired by the President of Pakistan and Prime minister of Pakistan. It is a principal forum that is mandated for considering national security and foreign policy matters with the senior national security...

 meeting in Prime minister Secretariat. The Pakistan Armed Forces left the matter to elected Prime minister, though Prime minister Sharif put the Pakistan Armed Forces on high-alert. The discussions went on for a few hours and encompassed the financial, diplomatic, military, strategic and national security concerns. At this sensitive meeting, it has had two important agendas; first, whether or not Pakistan should conduct its nuclear tests in order to respond to Indian nuclear aggression. And, secondly, if the nuclear testing program does go ahead then which of the government science organizations— the PAEC
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

 or KRL
Kahuta Research Laboratories
The Khan Research Laboratories ,, formerly known as Engineering Research Laboratories , is a multi-program Pakistan's weapons science and engineering research and development institute and nuclear research facility...

— conduct the nuclear testing as well as leading the nuclear testing program.

Mushahid Hussain Syed, Media Minister
Minister of Information and Broadcasting (Pakistan)
The Minister of Information and Broadcasting is a person who is the head of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. This minister control that department of government. Currently the minister of Information and Broadcasting is Firdous Ashiq Awan....

, was the first person to propose the tests, while, Sartaj Aziz
Sartaj Aziz
Sartaj Aziz , PhD, is a world recognized Pakistani economist, peace and Pakistan Movement activist currently serving as a Senator from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province to Senate Secretariat...

 who was the Treasure Minister
Finance Minister of Pakistan
The Finance Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Finance and serves in the Prime Minister's cabinet. The Minister is required to be a member of the Parliament.The current finance minister is Abdul Hafeez Shaikh...

 that time, was the only person in the meeting who opposed the tests on financial grounds due to the economic recession, the low foreign exchange reserves of the country and the effect of inevitable economic sanctions
Economic sanctions
Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country on another for a variety of reasons. Economic sanctions include, but are not limited to, tariffs, trade barriers, import duties, and import or export quotas...

 which would be imposed on Pakistan if it carried out the tests. When it comes to voting, the Prime minister did not opposed nor proposed the tests. The remainder spoke in favor of conducting the tests. .

Nuclear physicist
Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many fields, including those...

 Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad
Ishfaq Ahmad
Ishfaq Ahmad , D.Sc., Minister of State, SI, HI, NI, FPAS, is a Pakistani nuclear physicist, and well-known educationist and academic from Pakistan...

 of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

 (PAEC) and metallurgical engineer Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan
Abdul Qadeer Khan
Abdul Qadeer Khan , also known in Pakistan as Mohsin-e-Pakistan , D.Eng, Sc.D, HI, NI , FPAS; more widely known as Dr. A. Q...

 of Kahuta Research Laboratories
Kahuta Research Laboratories
The Khan Research Laboratories ,, formerly known as Engineering Research Laboratories , is a multi-program Pakistan's weapons science and engineering research and development institute and nuclear research facility...

 equally presented their point of views, and approached for the permission from the Prime minister. The meeting concluded without any resolution of the two agenda points. On May 16, senior scientist dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan had briefed the prime minister on key weapon-grade explosives issues and also briefed on the latest situation on Pakistan's different weapon-testing laboratories at that time. On the morning of 17 May 1998, Sharif summoned Ishfaq Ahmad and asked him for his opinion on two points discussed on 15 May. Dr. Ahmed told the Prime Minister that the decision to test or not to test was that of the Government of Pakistan. Ahmad also acknowledged that PAEC was ready for the capability of carrying out the tests. Sharif then concluded that eyes of the world were focused on Pakistan and failure to conduct the tests would put the credibility of the Pakistan's nuclear deterrence programme in doubt. Dr. Ahmad then said, "Conducting a nuclear test is a highly political decision, and no matter the wish of scientific community may be, the political leadership of the country will have its say... Mr. Prime Minister, take a [decision], then I give you the [g]uarantee of success." Initially, the Prime minister waited to see the world reaction on India's nuclear tests, while observing the embargo placed on Indian economy, which had no placed no effects. Prime minister Sharif, at first, was hesitant towards the nuclear test program and its economical turn out if the tests are ordered. Few days after the Indian tests, Indian Home Minister
Minister for Home Affairs (India)
The Home Minister, or more properly the Minister for Home Affairs, is a position in the Indian Cabinet, at both State and Union levels. The Home Ministry is one of the most important, powerful and high profile ministry after the Prime Minister...

 Lal Kishanchand Advani and Defence Minister
Minister of Defence (India)
The Minister of Defence is the head of the Ministry of Defence and one of the cabinet ministers of the Government of India.-List of Cabinet Ministers of Defence :* Baldev Singh * Kailash Nath Katju * V. K...

 George Fernandes
George Fernandes
George Mathew Fernandes is an Indian trade unionist, politician, journalist, agriculturist, and member of Rajya Sabha from Bihar. He is a key member of the Janata Dal , and was the founder of the Samata Party...

 issued foolish taunts and threatening statements towards Pakistan, which angered the prime minister.

On May 18, Prime minister Nawaz Sharif ordered PAEC to make preparation for the tests, but remain on stand-by for the final decision.. In his own words, Sharif called dr. Ishfaq Ahmad and ordered him, "Conduct the explosion!
Nuclear explosion
A nuclear explosion occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from an intentionally high-speed nuclear reaction. The driving reaction may be nuclear fission, nuclear fusion or a multistage cascading combination of the two, though to date all fusion based weapons have used a fission device...

". Simultaneously, Sharif's ordered, the XII Corps
XII Corps (Pakistan)
The XII Corps is an active and military administrative corps of Pakistan Army currently stationed in Quetta, Balochistan Province. The XII Corps is a major part of Southern Military Command of Pakistan Defence Forces...

, Southern Naval Command
Jinnah Naval Base
Jinnah Naval Base is located at Ormara, Balochistan, Pakistan. Jinnah Naval Base is a Pakistan Naval support marine and naval research and development base which consists of a military airport and a space facility. The facility is under control of the Pakistan Navy. The base is named after...

, National Logistics Cell, and No. 6 Squadron Globe Trotters were put on high-alert to provide the necessary support to the PAEC in this regard. On May 21, Sharif issued orders to conduct nuclear tests as a suitable reply to India, and authorized the nuclear weapon testing program the same day. A Boeing-737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

 airline from Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

 was readily made available for PAEC scientists, engineers, and technicians to Balochistan.

Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan and scientists and engineers from KRL were also told to be stay alert and were also sent to Balochistan along with PAEC. Pakistan carried out its successful nuclear tests on 28 May 1998 (codename Chagai-I
Chagai-I
The Chagai-I was a codename referring to the five underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15hrs in 28th May of 1998. It was named Chagai-I, as the tests were conducted in the Chagai District...

), and on 30 May 1998 (codename Chagai-II), in response to the Indian detonation of six nuclear devices roughly two weeks before. After these test, the Prime minister appeared on national television (PTV)
Pakistan Television Corporation
The Pakistan Television Corporation is Pakistan's national television broadcaster. The first live transmission of PTV began on November 26, 1964, in Lahore...

 and took the nation on confidence and addressed the world:

Economical effects of tests



After weeks of anticipation, Pakistan surprised the world by conducting its own nuclear tests. Sharif popularity in Pakistan increased in a record. While he was being hailed as nationalist, Sharif proclaimed an emergency on the same day as these nuclear tests were conducted, which dismay the public. All the foreign currency accounts in Pakistani banks were frozen to minimize the effects of economic sanctions. A serious financial default
Default (finance)
In finance, default occurs when a debtor has not met his or her legal obligations according to the debt contract, e.g. has not made a scheduled payment, or has violated a loan covenant of the debt contract. A default is the failure to pay back a loan. Default may occur if the debtor is either...

 was near, and the country's economy was getting out of control from the government. Preventing a serious financial default was most important, therefore, Sharif asked the investors to sell their shares to the government at 2% more to the present rate. Sharif then took control of the economy as he assumed the control of the economy under his government's control. For time limit, Sharif disbanded the capitalist policies and Stock exchange came under government's control.

He put the Pakistan Armed Forces on high alert in order to defend country's nuclear installations. He justified the tests on national security grounds, as they demonstrated Pakistan's nuclear deterrent capabilities against an armed Indian nuclear programme
India and weapons of mass destruction
India possesses nuclear weapons and maintains short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles, nuclear-capable aircraft, surface ships, and submarines under development as possible delivery systems and platforms...

. Under his premiership, Pakistan became the first Muslim
Muslim world
The term Muslim world has several meanings. In a religious sense, it refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, it refers to Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization...

 country and seventh nation to become a nuclear power.

Political effects of tests


In spite of the intense international criticism and the steady decline in foreign investment and trade, these six nuclear tests were popular domestically and the Sharif's popularity and the PML (N)'s prestige rose in response. After appearing on national television
Pakistan Television Corporation
The Pakistan Television Corporation is Pakistan's national television broadcaster. The first live transmission of PTV began on November 26, 1964, in Lahore...

 and taking the nation of confidence, the tests were greeted with great jubilation and large-scale approval of Sharif's decision by the civil society. On May 30, Sharif appeared after immediately the tests, and informed the world, "Today, we have settled a score
Tit for tat
Tit for tat is an English saying meaning "equivalent retaliation". It is also a highly effective strategy in game theory for the iterated prisoner's dilemma. It was first introduced by Anatol Rapoport in Robert Axelrod's two tournaments, held around 1980. An agent using this strategy will initially...

 and have carried out six successful nuclear tests". Newspapers and television channels praised Sharif and his government for its bold decision; editorials were full of praise for the country's leadership and advocated the development of an operational nuclear deterrence for the country, despite a small scale anti-nuclear sentiments criticized the nuclear testings which was forcefully silenced by the emerging public opinion favoring Sharif and the nuclear tests.

The scientific community
Pakistan Academy of Sciences
The Pakistan Academy of Sciences The Pakistan Academy of Sciences The Pakistan Academy of Sciences (Urdu: پاکستان اكيڈ مى ﺁف سائس; shortened to PAS, is a learned society for science and technology based in Pakistan. The academy consisted and served as the network of science across the Pakistan as...

 also thanked Sharif and his government for having been given the opportunity to prove their capabilities. As in return, Sharif established the National Center for Theoretical Physics (NCTP) and inaugurated the Abdus Salam Museum in 1999. According to Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 who calculated her rival's level of political popularity after ordering the tests asserted, that these tests had erased the existed doubts and fear from the minds of people of Pakistan who questioned Pakistan's deterrence capability after 1971 collapse
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

. Even as of today, Sharif and his party takes all the credit for authorizing these tests, and annually held celebrating public functions in all over the country. Without any doubts, Sharif posed to became Pakistan's most favorable and strongest Prime minister since 1974, and the political prestige of Nawaz Sharif was at its peak point at the time when the country had gone nuclear.

The nuclear tests remained highly popular in Pakistan which many in Pakistan saw as dignified status for the Pakistan in the world community. Despite disagreement with Nawaz Sharif, his rivals and Opposition parties backed Nawaz Sharif and congratulated for his "bold decision".

Foreign Policy


Sharif strengthened relations with Muslim world
Muslim world
The term Muslim world has several meanings. In a religious sense, it refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, it refers to Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, and Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. The year he was elected, Sharif made a state visit to Malaysia and Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 where Sharif succeeded to signed a economic and free trade agreements with both countries. It was a a trilateral trade bloc in South Asia and Premiers of Singapore, Malaysia, and Pakistan had successfully signed the agreement. Following the agreement, the work on comprehensive frame work to enhance collaboration in defense, economic and private sector was launched and completed in 1998. One of the core issue was the Malaysia's agreement on sharing its space technology to Pakistan. Both Malaysia and Singapore assured their support for Pakistan to join Asia–Europe Meeting. However, it was not until 2008, Pakistan and India became part of the treaty.
On January of 1998, Prime minister Sharif paid a state visit to South-Korea, where he successfully signed the bilateral and economical agreements with South Korean President
President of South Korea
The President of the Republic of Korea is, according to the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, chief executive of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the head of state of the Republic of Korea...

 Kim Young-sam
Kim Young-sam
Kim Young-sam was a South Korean politician and democratic activist. From 1961, he spent 30 years as South Korea's leader of the opposition, and one of Park Chung-hee's most powerful rivals....

. Sharif also urged the North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

 to make peace and improve its ties with South Korea, his statement caused a diversion in Pakistan-North Korea relations. On April of 1998, Sharif went on to visit Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, and Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 to promote economic ties. He said in Brussels at an official reception, "We [Pakistan] [s]eek understanding and cooperation with Europe". He signed a number of agreements to enlarge economic cooperation with Italy and Belgium, besides an agreement with European Union (EU) for the protection of intellectual, industrial and commercial property rights. In February of 1997, the Prime Minister had meeting with Jiang Zemin
Jiang Zemin
Jiang Zemin is a former Chinese politician, who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2005...

, the Chinese President and Li Peng
Li Peng
Li Peng served as the fourth Premier of the People's Republic of China, between 1987 and 1998, and the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, China's top legislative body, from 1998 to 2003. For much of the 1990s Li was ranked second in the Communist Party of China ...

, the Premier, for economic cooperation. Two conferences were specially organised in Beijing and Hongkong to promote Chinese investment in Pakistan.

However, Sharif's effort seemed to be wasted when Sharif ordered the nuclear tests on 1998. Following these tests, the Foreign policy of Pakistan was much in trouble position since its 1971 disaster
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan's December 3, 1971 pre-emptive strike on 11 Indian airbases...

. Pakistan, at United Nations, failed to gather any support from its allies. Trade agreements were abrogated by Europe, United States, and Asian bloc. While, Sharif was praised to carried out tests domestically. Sharif was heavily criticized for ordering internationally. Pakistan's nuclear weapons and energy programme was targeted on multiple times over its involvement for spreading the nuclear proliferation. United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

 and Saudia Arabia, however did not criticized Pakistan but both neither issued any statement. On 7th June 1998, Sharif went to visit UAE for talks on the situation in South Asia after nuclear tests in the region. He thanked the Government for their support after India conducted five nuclear tests on May 11 and 13.

Since both countries had ordered their nuclear tests, both Prime ministers proceeded towards maintaining peace and security. In 1998, both governments signed an agreement recognizing the principle of building an environment of peace and security and resolving all bilateral conflicts, which became the basis of the Lahore Declaration. On February 1, 1999, Prime minister Sharif made a breakthrough with India when he invited his counter part to Pakistan. On February 19, Indian premier
Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India , as addressed to in the Constitution of India — Prime Minister for the Union, is the chief of government, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament...

 Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee is an Indian statesman who served as the tenth Prime Minister of India three times – first for a brief term of 13 days in 1996, and then for two terms from 1998 to 2004. After his first brief period as Prime Minister in 1996, Vajpayee headed a coalition government from...

 paid a historic state visit
State visit
A state visit is a formal visit by a foreign head of state to another nation, at the invitation of that nation's head of state. State visits are the highest form of diplomatic contact between two nations, and are marked by ceremonial pomp and diplomatic protocol. In parliamentary democracies, heads...

 to Pakistan traveling on the inaugural bus service
Delhi-Lahore Bus
The Delhi–Lahore Bus, officially known as Sada-e-Sarhad , is a passenger bus service connecting the Indian capital of Delhi with the city of Lahore, Pakistan via the border transit post at Wagah. The bus was of symbolic importance to the efforts of the governments of both nations to foster peaceful...

 connecting the Indian capital of New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

 with the major Pakistan's cultural city of Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, establishing a major transport link for the peoples of both nations. On February 21, both Prime ministers signed the bilateral agreement with a memorandum of understanding
Memorandum of understanding
A memorandum of understanding is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in...

 to ensure the nuclear-free safety in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

. This bilateral agreement was widely popular in Pakistan and India onwards, the people of Pakistan supported the Prime minister's move and the Prime minister received wide appreciation from the opposition as well as the civil society. This agreement known as Lahore Declaration
Lahore Declaration
The Lahore Declaration was a bilateral agreement between India and Pakistan signed on February 21, 1999 by the then-Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif at the conclusion of a historic summit in Lahore, Pakistan...

, it was widely assumed to development of nuclear weapons brought added responsibility to both nations towards avoiding conflict and promoted the importance of Confidence-building measures, especially to avoid accidental and unauthorised use of nuclear weapons. To some Western observers, this treaty was more like as of SALT Treaties
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union—the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT...

 signed by both superpowers, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.

Constitution Amendment



In late August 1998, he proposed a law to establish a legal system based on the Islamic principles. His proposal came a week after 10-year commemorations of the late President Zia ul-Haq. The Cabinet removed some of its controversial aspects. The National Assembly approved and passed the bill on 10 October 1998 by 151 votes to 16. With majority in Parliament, Sharif drove Pakistan's political system more onto parliamentary system
Parliamentary republic
A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic which operates under a parliamentary system of government - meaning a system with no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches. There are a number of variations of...

, reverting the previous semi-presidential system
Semi-presidential system
The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state...

 and laws fondly enjoyed by President. With passing these amendments, Sharif became the strongest prime minister that the country has ever seen since its independence. However, these amendments failed to achieve two-thirds majority in the Senate, which was still was under control by Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

. Weeks afterward, Sharif's government would suffer a military coup, therefore these amendments went to cold storage after Pervez Musharraf replaced them with his 2002 LFO, putting back the country to semi-presidential system. However, in 2010, Pakistan Parliament unanimously passed the 18th Amendment, which was passed by both in National Assembly and Senate, putting back the country to the road to parliamentary system.

Relations with the military


From the 1981 until the military coup against him in 1999, Nawaz Sharif enjoyed a strong and extremely friendly and cordial relations with the Pakistan Armed Forces— the only civilian leader to have cordial friendship and relationships with the military's establishment
Establishment (Pakistan)
The Establishment is a term used commonly by Pakistani political scientists and also by political scholars and analysts around the world for the powerful military-dominant oligarchy in Pakistan...

 at that time. During his second tenure, he removed General Karamat over the National Security Council
National Security Council of Pakistan
The Prime minister Secretariat National Security Council is a consultative body that is chaired by the President of Pakistan and Prime minister of Pakistan. It is a principal forum that is mandated for considering national security and foreign policy matters with the senior national security...

 disputes. He later had severe political confrontation with General Musharraf that resulted in a coup d'état which removed him from office. At the end of General Wahied Kakar's three-year term in January 1996, General Jehangir Karamat was appointed Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army. His term was due to end on 9 January 1999. However, in October 1998 Sharif had a falling out with General Karamat over the latter’s advocacy of a "National Security Council
National Security Council of Pakistan
The Prime minister Secretariat National Security Council is a consultative body that is chaired by the President of Pakistan and Prime minister of Pakistan. It is a principal forum that is mandated for considering national security and foreign policy matters with the senior national security...

". Sharif interpreted this move to be a conspiracy to return the military to a more active role in Pakistan politics. In 1999, after Sharif's removal, the National Security Council was indeed established by his successor. In October 1998, General Karamat resigned and Sharif promoted Lieutenant-General Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

, then core-commander of the I Strike Corps
I Corps (Pakistan)
The I Corps, also known as I Strike Corps, of the Pakistan Army headquartered in Mangla, Azad Kashimir Province of Pakistan. Known as I Strike Corps, it is one of two strike corps within its ten manouvre Army corps...

 that time, as 4-star general and appointed him as new Chief of Army Staff. Sharif then also appointed General Musharraf as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee despite Musharraf's lack of seniority to Admiral Bokhari. In protest, Admiral Fasih Bokhari resigned from his post as Chief of Naval Staff
Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Naval Staff, abbreviated as CNS, is the highest ranking officer in the Pakistani Navy unless a 4-star naval officer is appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The current Chief of the Naval Staff is Admiral Asif Sandila who commands the Navy. The CNS reports...

. The year of 1999 brought a tremendous political upheavals and dramatic changes in Pakistan as well as for the Prime minister.

Despite Sharif tremendous approval in 1998, Sharif's popularity graph gradually went down after he announced the emergency in Pakistan, a decision which dismayed the people of Pakistan. Sharif's popularity was also undermined when Pakistan became involved with unpopular and undeclared war
Undeclared war
An undeclared war is a conflict that is fought between two or more nations without a formal declaration of war being issued.Since United Nations action in Korea, a number of democratic governments have pursued usually limited warfare by characterizing them as something else, such as a "military...

 with India in Northern front. This undeclared war
Kargil War
The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

 was fought on the northern fronts of India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

 and Pakistan, one of world's most coldest and highest points in the world. Intensified criticism of this plan began to take place in Pakistan's private media
Media of Pakistan
Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines in Pakistan.-Regulation:The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority was formed in 2002 to "facilitate and promote a free, fair and independent electronic media", including opening the broadcasting...

, and General Musharraf took the whole matter to the media, and held the prime minister responsible for this misadventure. During the Kargil War
Kargil War
The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

 in 1999, Sharif claimed to have no knowledge of the planned attacks, saying that Pervez Musharraf acted alone. In 2008, Lieutenant-General (retired) Jamshed Gulzar Kiani
Jamshed Gulzar Kiani
Lieutenant-General Jamshed Gulzar Kiani , was a Pakistan Army intelligence officer and the former Colonel Commandant of the X Corps and Baloch Regiment...

— at that time Kiani was Major-general and served as the Director-General of the Military Intelligence
Military Intelligence of Pakistan
In Pakistan Defence Forces, the Directorate-General for the Military Intelligence , is a Pakistan Defence Forces intelligence agency and that is responsible for the military counter-intelligence. It also refers specifically to the intelligence components of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Unlike the...

— also publicly confirmed Sharif's statement of not having the knowledge on Kargil debacle. According to Major-General Kiani, General Musharraf had eye-blinded the Prime minister and did not brief him over the true facts or difficult situation which was faced by the Pakistan Army. During the Kargil debacle, the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict...

's two MiG-29
Mikoyan MiG-29
The Mikoyan MiG-29 is a fourth-generation jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union for an air superiority role. Developed in the 1970s by the Mikoyan design bureau, it entered service with the Soviet Air Force in 1983, and remains in use by the Russian Air Force as well as in many other...

 intercepted the PAF
Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

's two F-16
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

 fighter jets of the No. 9 Squadron Griffins, initially gaining a missile lock on these jets. This dogfight
Dogfight
A dogfight, or dog fight, is a form of aerial combat between fighter aircraft; in particular, combat of maneuver at short range, where each side is aware of the other's presence. Dogfighting first appeared during World War I, shortly after the invention of the airplane...

 made a next-day morning headlines in Pakistan, prompting the prime minister to investigate the matter. However, Chief of Air Staff
Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force, abbreviated as CAS, is typically the highest ranking 4-star rank officer in the Pakistan Air Force, unless a four-star officer is appointed as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The CAS is a senior and permanent member of the...

 General Pervez Mehdi
Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi
Air Chief Marshal Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi is a retired senior officer of the Pakistan Air Force . He served as the PAF Chief of Air Staff from 1997 to 2000 and led the PAF during the 1999 Kargil War...

 denied this incident, later accused the Prime minister for not taking the Air Force in confidence in the matters of national security.

Sharif's part-time taking control of Stock Exchange Markets had devastating effects on Pakistan's economy, a move he instigated after the tests to control the economy. Sharif's policies were widely disapproved by the people and at the mid of 1999, and Sharif's own popularity was mixed with few approved his policies.

The year of 1999, Sharif's government also denied to accept the bodies of young paramilitary and army soldiers who unknowingly went onto participate in secret war
Proxy war
A proxy war or proxy warfare is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used governments as proxies, violent non-state actors, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed...

 in Western front against the Northern Alliance
Northern Alliance
The Afghan Northern Alliance is a military-political umbrella organization created by the Islamic State of Afghanistan in 1996.Northern Alliance may also refer to:*Northern Alliance , a Canadian white supremacist group...

. This decision sparked the wide spread of demonstration and protests against the Sharif's government in Western Pakistan
North-West Frontier Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country...

, which forced Sharif to accept the bodies. Following this incident, Sharif tried to intervened in this matter and tried to stop the Army's support to Taliban. However, then-Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf had stopped Sharif and called Taliban as Pakistan's most valuable assets.

In August 1999, two Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict...

 MiG-21FL shot down the Pakistan Navy
Pakistan Navy
The Pakistan Navy is the naval warfare/service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Pakistan's Navy is responsible for Pakistan's coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important civilian harbors and military bases...

's reconnaissance aircraft, Breguet Atlantique
Breguet Atlantique
The Breguet Br.1150 Atlantic is a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, primarily designed for use over the sea. It is used in several NATO countries as a reconnaissance and patrol aircraft as well as anti-submarine aircraft. The Atlantic is also capable of carrying air-to-ground missiles...

, near at the Rann of Kutch
Rann of Kutch
The Great Rann of Kutch, also called Greater Rann of Kutch or just Rann of Kutch , is a seasonal salt marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat, India and the Sindh province of Pakistan....

. This resulted the heavy loss of Pakistan Navy's 16 naval officers as well as the expensive aircraft. This was the heaviest and largest biggest combat-related casualty for the navy since the naval hostilities in 1971
Indo-Pakistani Naval War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani Naval warfare of 1971 were the series of aggressive naval battles fought by the Indian and Pakistani Navy during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. These battles were an integral part of India-Pakistan War of 1971 and the Pakistan war in Bangladesh...

 Already suffering with public disapproval and bad popularity, this incident of downing of the aircraft came at a particularly bad juncture for the Prime minister who was already under attack from politicians and the civil society for ordering a withdrawal of its troops from Kargil. Sharif failed to gather any foreign support against India after this incident, and the navy
Pakistan Navy
The Pakistan Navy is the naval warfare/service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Pakistan's Navy is responsible for Pakistan's coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important civilian harbors and military bases...

 saw this failure as Sharif's declining of support of the navy in the war times. Therefore, then-Chief of Naval Staff
Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Naval Staff, abbreviated as CNS, is the highest ranking officer in the Pakistani Navy unless a 4-star naval officer is appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The current Chief of the Naval Staff is Admiral Asif Sandila who commands the Navy. The CNS reports...

 Admiral
Admiral
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet . It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"...

 Abdul Aziz Mirza
Abdul Aziz Mirza
Admiral Abdul Aziz Mirza is a now-retired 4-star rank naval officer who was the 15th Chief of Naval Staff of Pakistan Navy from 1999 to 2002, and is served as Pakistan's ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 2002 to 2005. Admiral Mirza is one of the Pakistan Defense Force's Naval officer who...

 turned against the Prime minister and Sharif soon faced a new cold war with the newly appointed Admiral who assumed the charge of the navy only few days ago. The Prime minister dispatched the units of Pakistan Marines
Pakistan Marines
The Pakistani Marines , are the Marine Corps and amphibious corps service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The Pakistani Marines are a special military operations service branch of the Pakistani Navy and part of Pakistani Armed Forces, responsible for providing force projection from the sea,...

 at the vicinity to retrieved the down pilots, during this course the Marines also turned their back on the Prime minister due to his failure to defend the Navy at the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands...

 (ICJ) on September, 1999. The relations with Pakistan Air Force
Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

 also deteriorated in matter of months, when Chief of Air Staff
Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)
The Chief of the Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force, abbreviated as CAS, is typically the highest ranking 4-star rank officer in the Pakistan Air Force, unless a four-star officer is appointed as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. The CAS is a senior and permanent member of the...

 General
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

 Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi
Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi
Air Chief Marshal Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi is a retired senior officer of the Pakistan Air Force . He served as the PAF Chief of Air Staff from 1997 to 2000 and led the PAF during the 1999 Kargil War...

 accused the Prime minister for not taking the Air Force in confidence in matters critical to national security.

Two months later, after escalating the tug of war
Tug of war
Tug of war, also known as tug o' war, tug war, rope war or rope pulling, is a sport that directly pits two teams against each other in a test of strength. The term may also be used as a metaphor to describe a demonstration of brute strength by two opposing groups, such as a rivalry between two...

 with the Pakistan Armed Forces, Sharif was deposed by General Pervez Musharraf, then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Chief of Army Staff as well, and the Martial law was imposed in the entire country.

Military coup


The simultaneous conflicts in North
Kargil War
The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

 with India and West with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 as well as the economical turmoil, Sharif's credibility was undermined and destroyed as the public opinion turned against him and his policies. On 12 October 1999, Prime minister Sharif attempted to remove Chairman of the Joint Chiefs and Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf as Sharif saw the General as responsible for his failure, and appoint General Ziauddin Butt
Ziauddin Butt
General Ziauddin Khawaja, also known as Ziauddin Butt, is a four-star general of the Pakistan Army and a career operations and infantry formations commander, head of intelligence and engineering officer...

 in his place.

Musharraf, who was in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

, attempted to return through a commercial airliner to return to Pakistan after he learned the news. Sharif ordered civilian Inspector-General
Inspector General
An Inspector General is an investigative official in a civil or military organization. The plural of the term is Inspectors General.-Bangladesh:...

 of Sindh Police Force
Sindh Police
-History:On the pattern of the colonial Irish constabulary, Sir Charles Napier established a police system in Sindh in 1843. The British Army Officers closely supervised and controlled forces which were resultantly more disciplined, efficient and not corrupt...

 Rana Maqbool to arrest of Chief of Army Staff and and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Musharraf.

Sharif ordered the Jinnah Terminal to be sealed off to prevent the landing of the Musharraf's airliner fearing a coup d'état. However, the Captain of the air line requested to re-fuel the air line, therefore, Sharif ordered the plane to land at Nawabshah Airport
Nawabshah Airport
Nawabshah Airport is located at Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan.- Services :Nawabshah Airport received its last commercial service in February 2007 operated by Air Blue, however scheduled flights to the airport started again from 19 August 2008 with PIA....

. Meanwhile in Nawabshah Airport, Musharraf contacted top Pakistan Army Generals who then took over the country and ousted Sharif's administration. Musharraf later assumed control of the government as Chief Executive. Initially, Prime minister's mindset was to remove the Chairman Joint Chiefs and the Chief of Army Staff first, then deposed the Chief of Naval Staff and the Chief of Air Staff, who had played the role destroying the credibility of prime minister. Hence, it was a move to deposed the senior military leadership of the Pakistan Armed Forces, that brutally backfired on the Prime minister.

No protest and demonstration were held in Pakistan in support of Sharif, including Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 who was the Leader of the Opposition during this time, remained silenced about this coup. . Many Of Mr.Sharifs allies remained silent and did not take sides during the court case and where divided as to how to react. The military police initiated massive arrests of Pakistan Muslim League's workers and the leaders of the parties. In Punjab and Sindh Provinces, the prisoners were held in Sindh and Punjab Police Prisons. Sharif was taken to Adiala Jail where a court trial headed by Military judge was set to began.

Trial of the Prime minister



The military placed him on military trial for "kidnapping, attempted murder, hijacking and terrorism and corruption". The military court quickly convicted him in a speedy trial and gave him a life sentence. Report began to surface that the military court was near to give Sharif a death sentence, previously had done by the military court in the trial of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

. Sharif was placed in Adiala Jail, infamous for hosting Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's trial, and his leading defense lawyer, Iqbal Raad, was gunned down in Karachi in mid-March. Sharif's defense team blamed the military for intentionally providing their lawyers with inadequate protection. The military court proceedings were widely accused of being a show trial
Show trial
The term show trial is a pejorative description of a type of highly public trial in which there is a strong connotation that the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant. The actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as...

. Sources from Pakistan claimed that Musharraf and his military government's officers were in full mood to exercise tough conditions on Sharif The trial went fast and speedy, and it became authenticated that the court is near to place her verdict on Navaz Sharif on his charges, and the court will sentenced Sharif to death. Sharif was also set face a case of "corruption", and received a 14 years life imprisonment additional. Sharif also forced to pay $
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

400,000. The case centered on a civilian helicopter, which he said to have owned during mid-1990s.
Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 and King Fahd
Fahd of Saudi Arabia
Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005...

 initially came in shock when the news reached to Saudi Arabia, prompting King Fahd to contact the Pakistan Army over this military coup. Pakistan, under Nawaz Sharif and Saudi Arabia, under King Fahd, enjoyed extremely close business and cultural relations that is sometimes attributed as special relationships. Amid pressure exerted by the U.S. President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

 and King of Saudi Arabia King Fahd
Fahd of Saudi Arabia
Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005...

 of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, the military court avoided the award death sentence to Sharif. During the state visit of General Musharraf, King Fahd showed his concern over the trial as the King was worried that the death sentence would provoke more and intense ethnic violence in Pakistan as it did in 1980s. Under an agreement facilitated by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, Sharif was placed in exile for the next 10 years and through the Saudi Arabian Airlines
Saudi Arabian Airlines
Saudi Arabian Airlines is the flag carrier airline of Saudi Arabia, based in Jeddah. It operates domestic and international scheduled flights to over 90 destinations in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Europe and North America...

. Mr Sharif has agreed not to take part in politics in Pakistan for 21 years. He has also forfeited property worth $8.3m (£5.7m) and agreed to pay a fine of $500,000 Sharif traveled to Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

 where he was received by the Saudi officials and taken to a residence managed and controlled by Saudi Government. At Jaddah, the Saudi Arabian government gave Sharif a loan to established a steel mill and Sharif bought a land where he went on to established the iron-steel mill foundry that is worth millions of dollars. During this episode of military coup, General Musharraf wrote in his memoirs that, thanks to Saudi Arabia and King Fahd, Sharif's life was spared by the military court otherwise Sharif would've met the same fate as of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 in 1979.

1999 Tax Evasion Scandal


The prosecution argued that helicopter worth $1Mil which he did paid, but not had paid the federal tax which is mandatory as required by the constitution. This case fought on a civilian Lahore High Court
Lahore High Court
The Lahore High Court is based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was established as a high court on March 21, 1919. The Lahore High Court has jurisdiction over Punjab...

 agreed with the prosecution and ordered Sharif to proof the evidences to have paid the tax which claimed by Sharif. Sharif failed to cite the proper evidences, the Lahore High Court ordered Sharif to pay additional $
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

400,000 as well as convicted with a tax eviction, and received a 14 years life imprisonment additional.

Failed attempt in Islamabad


On August 23, 2007, Pakistan's apex court— the Supreme Court of Pakistan
Supreme Court of Pakistan
The Supreme Court is the apex court in Pakistan's judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad. It has number of Branch Registries where cases are heard. It has a number of de jure powers which are outlined in the...

— ruled that former prime minister Nawaz Sharif and his brother, Shahbaz
Shahbaz Sharif
Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif is a well-known conservative Pakistani politician and currently President of Pakistan Muslim League . He is the brother of Nawaz Sharif, former Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is the chief minister of Pakistan's most populous province Punjab since 2008...

, were free to return. Both vowed to return soon.

On 8 September 2007, Lebanese
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 politician Saad Hariri
Saad Hariri
Saad-eddine Rafiq Al-Hariri is a Saudi-Lebanese billionaire who served as the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 2009 until 2011. He is the second son of Rafiq Hariri, the former Lebanese Prime Minister who was assassinated in 2005...

 and Saudi intelligence chief Prince Muqrin bin Abdul-Aziz addressed an unprecedented joint press conference at Army Combatant Generals Headquarters (GHQ) to discuss how Sharif's return would affect relations. Muqrin stated that the initial agreement was for 10 years but "these little things do not affect relations.” Muqrin expressed hope that Sharif would continue with the agreement.

On 10 September 2007, Sharif returned from exile in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 to Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. He was prevented from leaving the plane and he was deported to Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 within hours. His political career appeared to be over.

Successful return in Lahore


On 20 November 2007, Musharraf went to Saudi Arabia as he left the country for the first time since implementing emergency rule. He attempted to convince Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 to prevent Sharif from returning until after the elections in January 2008. The political role of Sharif returned to the fore after Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

's return a month earlier. Saudi Arabia appeared to argue that if Pakistan has allowed a democratic-socialist woman leader, Benazir Bhutto, to return to the country, then the conservative Sharif should be permitted to return too.

On 25 November 2007, Sharif returned to Pakistan. Thousands of supporters whistled and cheered as they hoisted Sharif and his brother Shahbaz on their shoulders through ranks of wary riot police officers. After an 11-hour procession from the airport, he reached a mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

 where he offered prayers as well as criticism against Musharraf.

His return to Pakistan came with only one day left to register for elections. This set the stage for an overnight shift of the political scene.

2008 Parliamentary Elections


Sharif called for the boycott of the January 2008 elections because he believed the poll would not be fair, given a state of emergency imposed by Musharraf. Sharif and the PML (N) decided to participate in the parliamentary elections after 33 opposition groups, including Benazir Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party, met in Lahore but failed to reach a joint position.

For the elections, he campaigned for the restoration of the independent judges removed by emergency government decree and Musharraf's departure.

Bhutto's assassination led to the postponement of the elections to 18 February 2008. During the elections, both parties, but the Pakistan Peoples Party in particular, rely on a mix of feudal relationships and regional sentiment for their voting bases - the Bhuttos in Sindh, Nawaz Sharif in Punjab. Sharif condemned Bhutto's assassination and called it the "gloomiest day in Pakistan's history".

Between Bhutto's assassination and the elections, the country faced a rise in attacks by militants. Sharif accused Musharraf of ordering anti-terror operations that have left the country "drowned in blood." Pakistan's government urged opposition leaders to refrain from holding rallies ahead of the elections, citing an escalating terrorist threat. Sharif's party quickly rejected the recommendation, accusing officials of trying block the campaign against Musharraf since large rallies have traditionally been the main way to drum up support in election campaigns.

On January 25, Musharraf initiated a failed four-day visit to London to use British mediation in Pakistani politics to reconcile with the Sharif brothers.

Zardari's Pakistan People's Party, boosted by the death of Benazir Bhutto, and Sharif's Pakistan Muslim League-N dominated the elections. PPP received 86 seats for the 342-seat National Assembly; the PML-N, 66; and the PML-Q, which backs President Pervez Musharraf, 40. Zardari and Sharif would later create a coalition government that ousted Musharraf.

Post-2008 elections


His party had joined a coalition led by PPP but the alliance had been strained by differences over the fate of judges Musharraf dismissed last year and over how to handle the unpopular president. Sharif won much public support for his uncompromising stand against Musharraf and for his insistence the judges be reinstated. The coalition successfully forced Musharraf's resignation. He also successfully pressured Zardari for the reinstatement of judges removed by Musharraf in emergency rule. This led to the courts cleansing Sharif of a criminal record rendering him eligible to re-enter parliament.

By-Elections


In June 2008 by-elections, Sharif's party won three National Assembly seats and eight provincial assembly seats, all but one in the country's political nerve center of Punjab province, where Shahbaz Sharif heads the provincial government. The Lahore seat election was postponed because of wrangling over whether Sharif was eligible to contest.

2008 Musharraf impeachment


On 7 August 2008, the coalition government agreed to impeach Musharraf. Zardari and Sharif sent a formal request for him to step down. A charge-sheet had been drafted, and was to be presented to parliament. It included Mr Musharraf’s first seizure of power in 1999—at the expense of Nawaz Sharif, the PML(N)’s leader, whom Mr Musharraf imprisoned and exiled—and his second last November, when he declared an emergency as a means to get re-elected president. The charge-sheet also listed some of Mr Musharraf’s contributions to the “war on terror”.

On 11 August, the National Assembly was summoned to discuss impeachment proceedings. On 18 August 2008, Musharraf resigned as President of Pakistan due to mounting political pressure from the impeachment proceedings. On 19 August 2008, Musharraf defended his nine-year rule in an hour long speech.

Musharraf is presently exiled to London and Sharif continues to demand he be prosecuted for treason.

Presidential election



The Election Commission
Election Commission of Pakistan
The Election Commission of Pakistan is an independent and autonomous constitutional body charged with the function of conducting transparent, free, fair and impartial elections to the National and Provincial Assemblies. The holding of elections to the office of the President and the Senate are,...

 on 22 August announced that Presidential elections would be held on 6 September 2008, and the nomination papers could be filed starting 26 August. In Pakistan, the president is elected by the two houses of parliament and the four provincial assemblies, all acted as the Electoral College
Electoral College of Pakistan
The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college, in Pakistan. According to article 41 of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, this electoral college consists of the Senate, the National Assembly of Pakistan, and the Members of the Provincial Assemblies. Members of the National Assembly...

. There was speculation that Sharif would run for President, but on 25 August, he announced that former Supreme Court Judge and former Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui
Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui
Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui or Saeed-uz-zaman Siddiqui in Lukhnow, British India; is a Pakistani Jurist and legislator who formerly served as the Chief Justice of Pakistan at the Supreme Court of Pakistan...

 would be the PML-N nominee for Presidency. During this election, Justice Siddiqui was defeated by Zardari for the presidency.

Reinstatement of judges



Sharif and Zardari supported the reinstatement of judges suspended by Musharraf in March 2007. Musharraf had dismissed 60 judges under the state of emergency and Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry in a failed bid to remain in power. Sharif had championed the cause of the judges since their dismissal. The new government that succeeded Musharraf which had campaigned on reinstatement had failed to restore the judges . This led to a collapse of the coalition government in late 2008 due to Zardari’s erstwhile refusal to reinstate the sacked judge. Zardari feared that Chaudhry would undo all Mr Musharraf’s edicts—including an amnesty that he had received from corruption charges.

On 25 February 2009, the Supreme Court disqualified Nawaz Sharif and Shahbaz Sharif, Punjab’s chief minister, from holding public office.
Zardari then dismissed the province’s legislature and declared president’s rule in Punjab. .
Lawyers and citizen groups in Pakistan and Pakistani lawyers, civil activists, and a coalition of political parties where planning to take to the streets in a protest march that started 13 March 2009. Zardari attempted to place Sharif on house arrest on 15 March 2009. But provincial police disappeared the same day from his house after an angry crowd gathered outside the house. The Punjab police’s decision to free Sharif from confinement was very likely in response to an army command. Sharif, with a large contingent of SUVs, began leading a march to Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

 but ended the march in Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Gujranwala is a industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province. It is the sixth largest city in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as on 24 June 2011...

. In a televised morning speech on 16 March 2009, Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 Yusuf Raza Gilani had promised to reinstate Iftikhar Chaudhry after pressure from Pakistan’s army, American and British envoys, and internal protests.PPP
PPP
PPP is an abbreviation for:In politics:* Pakistan Peoples Party** Pakistan Peoples Party ** Pakistan Peoples Party * Palestinian People's Party...

 also made secret Agreement to restore the PMLN Punjab Government. Sharif called off the "long march". The PPP-led government continued to survive.
Later it emerged that PMLN was not really interested in fre Judiciary but was justing it to put pressure on the PPP, and later hoped to end the free judiciary. A Senior PMLN leader had said "95 percent of the members of PML-N were against becoming part of the lawyers’ movement. But after the SC verdict, PML-N had no other choice but to support this movement. "

Removal of bar on third term


On 2 April 2010, the 18th Amendment Bill in the Parliament removed the bar on former prime ministers to stand for only two terms in office. This allows Sharif to become Prime Minister for a third time.

2011 Helicopter Scandal


In 2011 During an Election Campaign in Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir
Azad Jammu and Kashmir or Azad Kashmir for short, is the southernmost political entity within the Pakistani-administered part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir...

 Mr Sharif used government owned and funded helicopter, even though he does not hold public office.

Terrorism Funding Scandal


Malik Ishaq the Leader of the Terrorist group LEJ, which was responsible for Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing
Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing
The Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing occurred during the night of 20 September 2008, when a dump truck filled with explosives detonated in front of the Marriott Hotel in the Pakistani capital Islamabad, killing at least 54 people, injuring at least 266 and leaving a 60 ft wide, 20 ft ...

 and 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team enjoyed Punjab government’s financial payment ever since the Sharif’s came to power in 2008 according to civil servant speaking on condition of anonymity

2011 DG Khan Party Rally Scandal


In 2011 During an PMLN
PMLN
PMLN may refer to:* Pakistan Muslim League * Partido Morazanista de Liberación Nacional...

 Campaign Tour in Punjab lead by Mr.Sharif. The Punjab Government spent Rs4 million in arranging a rally for Mr.Sharif.Public Funds where used to prove Tents,9,000 Chairs,Renting a Stadium and People Attending the rally where also given free fuel.All at the cost of the Punjab Government. Despite the fact mr.sharif holds no Public Office. The use of public funds for a party rally was considered a major scandal.

2011 letters for Jobs Scandal


In the first week of February 2011, the Punjab Agriculture Research Department advertised almost 133 jobs in Faisalabad. Many thousands applied but it emerged jobs where given to individuals who had letters of recommendations from of PMLN
PMLN
PMLN may refer to:* Pakistan Muslim League * Partido Morazanista de Liberación Nacional...

 politicians .

2011 Faisalabad Party Rally Scandal


Punjab government employees where caught clearing ground and putting banners of PMLN , in violation of civil servants responsibility to not engage in political work. Government machinery such as trucks,vans and building equipment was used to set the stage for the party political rally for Nawaz Sharif.Even though Mr.Sharif holds no public office Video

Criticism


Despite Sharif's wide approval in 1997 elections and, his public reforms, industrialization and the nuclear tests in 1998, Sharif's personality and policies remained a subject of ongoing controversies. Sharif's criticism to former Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 declined his public rating in Pakistan, though Sharif did regard Bhutto a "great Prime minister" of his time to cover up the damage. During 1990s, Benazir Bhutto and the MQM referred Sharif's as "establishment's Prime minister", while Benazir and her allies such as MQM maintained that Punjab and Kashmir Provinces remained center of gravity for Sharif's policies. Former President General Perver Musharraf and Benazir claimed that in 1999 that, in 1989, Sharif had connections with the Islamic groups and allegedly accepted the funds allotted by Osama Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was the founder of the militant Islamist organization Al-Qaeda, the jihadist organization responsible for the September 11 attacks on the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets...

 for a secret operation, codename Operation Midnight Jackal
Operation Midnight Jackal
Operation Midnight Jackal was a political scandal in Pakistan in 1989 which members of the ISI were exposed in a sting operation as wanting to overthrow the government of Benazir Bhutto. Former ISI operative Brigadier Imtiaz Ahmed Billa is regarded as the mastermind of the plot...

, to topple the government of Benazir Bhutto. Though, Sharif did regard that he had never met with Bin Laden, or talked about any political cooperation. General Musharraf who was the Director-General for the Pakistan Army's Directorate-General for Military Operations (DGMO) in 1990 labeled Nawaz Sharif as "Closet Taliban", and had ties with extremist groups based in Punjab against India. Former member of Air Intelligence
Air Intelligence of Pakistan
The Directorate for the Air Intelligence of Pakistan, codename AI, is an air force staff corps and chief intelligence directorate of the Pakistan Air Force . The AI is responsible for the formulation of the aerial intelligence picture, and participates in forging the overall intelligence view as...

 Major
Major
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...

 Khalid Khawaja
Khalid Khawaja
Squadron Leader Khalid Khawaja was a former Air Force officer, and the former Air Force's intelligence officer of the Pakistan's Inter Services Intelligence agency....

 maintained that Nawaz Sharif did had meeting with Osama Bin Laden in three occasions in Saudi Arabia where plans where made to topple Benazir Bhutto's government. Secretary-General of Pakistan Muslim League, Ahsan Iqbal
Ahsan Iqbal
-External links:* * *...

 countered the claims dubbing it "claims as a pack of lies".

Sharif is often targeted for signing the agreement to flee the country to spare his and his brother's life, which many sees an act of cowardliness. In Pakistan, Sharif received criticism for allowing Chief of Army Staff and Chairman Joint Chief General Pervez Musharraf to drag Pakistan to an unpopular war, the Kargil War
Kargil War
The Kargil War ,, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control...

. Sharif responded this claim as "had no knowledge" of this conflict. In 2011, during the local bodies election campaign.

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Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif

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