National Transitional Council

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The National Transitional Council of Libya ( ), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, the Interim National Council, or the Libyan National Council,
is the current de facto government of Libya
Libya
Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

, established by anti-Gaddafi forces
Anti-Gaddafi forces
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process. These opposition forces included organised and armed militia groups, participants in the 2011 Libyan civil war, Libyan diplomats who switched their...

 during the 2011 Libyan civil war
2011 Libyan civil war
The 2011 Libyan civil war was an armed conflict in the North African state of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Benghazi beginning on 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security...

, which has pitted these forces against the government of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...

. The NTC has issued a Constitutional Declaration
Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration
Libya's National Transitional Council on 3 August 2011 passed a "Constitutional Declaration". The document was publicly announced at a press conference of 10 August by Abdul Hafiz Ghoga, Vice President and official spokesman of the NTC ....

 in August 2011 in which it sets up a road-map for the transition of the country to a constitutional democracy with an elected government.

The formation of the NTC was announced in the city of Benghazi
Benghazi
Benghazi is the second largest city in Libya, the main city of the Cyrenaica region , and the former provisional capital of the National Transitional Council. The wider metropolitan area is also a district of Libya...

 on 27 February 2011 and its intended purpose is to act as the "political face of the revolution". On 5 March 2011, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".

An executive board, chaired by Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally , also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the 2011 Libyan civil war, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 to 23...

, was formed by the council on 23 March 2011 after being de facto assembled as an "executive team" since 5 March 2011. The council has international recognition as the legitimate governing authority in Libya until an interim authority is in place and occupies the country's seat at the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

. Several other countries have established unofficial ties with the National Transitional Council, with a number of those countries establishing a permanent diplomatic presence in Benghazi to liaise with council officials.

The council uses the name Libya for the Libyan state and has used the long-form name Libyan Republic, while the Gaddafi government's name for the Libyan state was the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

2011 uprising and civil war



After popular movements
Arab Spring
The Arab Spring , otherwise known as the Arab Awakening, is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Saturday, 18 December 2010...

 overturned the rulers of Tunisia
Tunisian revolution
The Tunisian Revolution is an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia. The events began in December 2010 and led to the ousting of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011...

 and Egypt
2011 Egyptian revolution
The 2011 Egyptian revolution took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and is still continuing as of November 2011. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil...

, Libya's immediate neighbours to the west and east, Libya experienced a full-scale uprising
Uprising
-In music:* Uprising * Uprising , album by Concord Dawn* Uprising , album by Entombed* Uprising , album by Universal Poplab...

 beginning in February 2011. By 20 February, the unrest had spread to Tripoli. As of late February 2011, much of Libya had slipped out of Gaddafi's control, falling to anti-Gaddafi forces
Anti-Gaddafi forces
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process. These opposition forces included organised and armed militia groups, participants in the 2011 Libyan civil war, Libyan diplomats who switched their...

. Eastern Libya
Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica is the eastern coastal region of Libya.Also known as Pentapolis in antiquity, it was part of the Creta et Cyrenaica province during the Roman period, later divided in Libia Pentapolis and Libia Sicca...

, centred around the second largest city and vital port of Benghazi, was firmly under the control of the opposition. The opposition began to organise themselves into a functioning government. Anti-Gaddafi forces
Anti-Gaddafi forces
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process. These opposition forces included organised and armed militia groups, participants in the 2011 Libyan civil war, Libyan diplomats who switched their...

 Forces marched on Sirte
Sirte
Sirte is a city in LibyaSirte may also refer to:* Sirte Declaration, a 1999 resolution to create the African Union* Sirte Oil Company, a Libyan oil companyIn geography:* Gulf of Sirte, alias for Gulf of Sidra on Libya's coast...

 (Gaddafi's hometown) on 28 September 2011. Gaddafi loyalists delayed the attack with the use of their snipers. The fight for Sirte
Sirte
Sirte is a city in LibyaSirte may also refer to:* Sirte Declaration, a 1999 resolution to create the African Union* Sirte Oil Company, a Libyan oil companyIn geography:* Gulf of Sirte, alias for Gulf of Sidra on Libya's coast...

 ended on 20 October with the capture of the town and the death of Colonel Gaddafi.

Early efforts to form a government



On 24 February 2011, politicians, former military officers, tribal leaders, academics and businessmen held a meeting in the eastern city of Bayda. The meeting was chaired by former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil or Abdul-Jalil is the Chairman of the National Transitional Council of Libya, and as such serves as head of state in Libya's caretaker government which was formed as a result of the 2011 Libyan civil war. He is also a spokesman for the city of Bayda...

, who quit the government a few days before. The delegates discussed proposals for interim administration with many delegates asking for UN intervention in Libya. The podium at the meeting displayed the pre-Jamahiriya flag.

On 25 February 2011, Al-Jazeera TV reported that talks are taking place between "personalities from eastern and western Libya" to form an interim government for the post-Gaddafi era. On 26 February, it was reported that former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil was leading the process of forming an interim body, to be based in Benghazi. Mr Jalil stated that "Gaddafi alone bore responsibility for the crimes that have occurred" in Libya; he also insisted on the unity of Libya and that Tripoli is the capital. The efforts to form an alternative government have been supported by the Libyan ambassador in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Ali Suleiman Aujali. The Libyan deputy ambassador to the United Nations, Ibrahim Omar Al Dabashi, has stated that he supported a new alternative government "in principle".

Establishment of a national council


A National Transitional Council was formed on 27 February to act as "the political face of the revolution". Its spokesman, Hafiz Ghoga, made clear at the launch press conference that the national council was not a provisional government and added that the newly formed council was not in contact with foreign governments and did not want them to intervene. He later clarified that an airstrike mandated by the United Nations would not be considered a foreign intervention.

An Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera is an independent broadcaster owned by the state of Qatar through the Qatar Media Corporation and headquartered in Doha, Qatar...

 English journalist in Benghazi has reported that a fully fledged interim government will not be formed until Tripoli is under opposition control. This is in contrast to claims made by former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil or Abdul-Jalil is the Chairman of the National Transitional Council of Libya, and as such serves as head of state in Libya's caretaker government which was formed as a result of the 2011 Libyan civil war. He is also a spokesman for the city of Bayda...

 on the previous day about the formation of a provisional government. These comments have now been clarified by the council as his "personal views".

On 5 March, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "sole representative of all Libya". It was also stated that Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil or Abdul-Jalil is the Chairman of the National Transitional Council of Libya, and as such serves as head of state in Libya's caretaker government which was formed as a result of the 2011 Libyan civil war. He is also a spokesman for the city of Bayda...

 was chairman of the council.

On 10 March, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 became the first country to recognise the National Interim Council as Libya's only legitimate government.

Formation of an executive board



On 23 March, the council established an Executive Board to act as a transitional government for Libya. Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally , also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the 2011 Libyan civil war, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 to 23...

, who served as chairman of the informal "executive team" since 5 March, was appointed as Chairman of that board stating that council now serves as the "legislative body", and the new Executive Board will serve as the "executive body". Jibril led the meeting and negotiations with French President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy is the 23rd and current President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. He assumed the office on 16 May 2007 after defeating the Socialist Party candidate Ségolène Royal 10 days earlier....

, a meeting that resulted in France officially recognizing the council as the sole representative of the Libyan people.

Aims and objectives



The "Declaration of the founding of the Transitional National Council" states the main aims of the council are as follows:
  • Ensure the safety of the national territory and citizens
  • Coordination of national efforts to liberate the rest of Libya
  • Support the efforts of local councils to work for the restoration of normal civilian life
  • Supervision of the Military Council to ensure the achievement of the new doctrine of the Libyan People's Army in the defense of the people and to protect the borders of Libya.
  • Facilitate the election of a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution for the country; be put to a popular referendum
  • Form a transitional government to pave the holding of free elections
  • Guide the conduct of foreign policy, and the regulation of relations with other countries and international and regional organizations, and the representation of the Libyan people


In another statement clarifying the goals for a post-Gaddafi Libya, the council has committed itself an eight-point plan to hold free and fair elections, draft a national constitution, form political and civil institutions, uphold intellectual and political pluralism, and guarantee citizens' inalienable human rights and the ability of free expression of their aspirations. The council also emphasized its rejection of racism, intolerance, discrimination, and terrorism. Article 1 further declares Tripoli
Tripoli
Tripoli is the capital and largest city in Libya. It is also known as Western Tripoli , to distinguish it from Tripoli, Lebanon. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean , describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three...

 the state capital and Arabic the official language while reserving the linguistic and cultural rights of ethnic minorities as well as the freedom of religion
Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any...

 for religious minorities.

The stated aim of the NTC is to form a de jure interim government based in Tripoli
Tripoli
Tripoli is the capital and largest city in Libya. It is also known as Western Tripoli , to distinguish it from Tripoli, Lebanon. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean , describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three...

 and hold elections for a Public National Conference to replace it. The PNC will then elect a prime minister, appoint a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution subject to its approval by the PNC and by referendum, and then oversee free elections for a representative government.

Legislative body


The National Transitional Council is a body that claims to be, and is widely recognized as
International recognition of the National Transitional Council
International recognition of the National Transitional Council of Libya is general but not absolute.Currently, 101 United Nations members have announced they recognise the NTC as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people and some of them have indicated that they are recognising the NTC as...

, the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state". Starting off at 33 members, it has now risen to 51, with proposals to increase its size further to 75 or even 125.

Al Jazeera English reported that each city or town under opposition control will be given five seats on the new council and that contact will be established with new cities that come under opposition control to allow them to join the council. The identities of members of the council were not disclosed at the launch conference. Human Rights lawyer Hafiz Ghoga was the spokesperson for the new council. An Al Jazeera English journalist in Benghazi stated that Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil or Abdul-Jalil is the Chairman of the National Transitional Council of Libya, and as such serves as head of state in Libya's caretaker government which was formed as a result of the 2011 Libyan civil war. He is also a spokesman for the city of Bayda...

 still had a leadership role within the new council. The Council declared that Jalil was the head of the council. The council met formally for the first time on 5 March 2011 when it was announced that the council has 33 members. The names of some of the members were kept secret to prevent threats to their families that were still in government held areas of Libya.

As of September 2011, some of the NTC's members are in Benghazi
Benghazi
Benghazi is the second largest city in Libya, the main city of the Cyrenaica region , and the former provisional capital of the National Transitional Council. The wider metropolitan area is also a district of Libya...

, while some have moved to the de jure capital Tripoli
Tripoli
Tripoli is the capital and largest city in Libya. It is also known as Western Tripoli , to distinguish it from Tripoli, Lebanon. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean , describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three...

. On 8 September, the head of government Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally , also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the 2011 Libyan civil war, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 to 23...

 became the highest-ranking NTC official yet to move to Tripoli. Prior to Jibril's relocation, Deputy Chairman Ali Tarhouni
Ali Tarhouni
Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni is a Libyan economist and politician. Tarhouni served as the minister for oil and finance on the National Transitional Council, the provisional governing authority in Libya, from 23 March 2011 to 22 November 2011...

 was the de facto leader of the NTC in Tripoli.

Members


The council has 51 members, of which 40 names have been released; the identities of several members has not been made public to protect their own safety. Only 3 of the council members are women, and of them Salwa Fawzi El-Deghali
Salwa El-Deghali
Salwa Fawzi El-Deghali is a Libyan academic and a member of the National Transitional Council representing women and in charge of legal affairs. El-Deghali possess a Doctor of Philosophy in constitutional law...

 is the only one whose identity has been publically released.

The members of the council include:

  • Mustafa Abdul Jalil
    Mustafa Abdul Jalil
    Mustafa Abdul Jalil or Abdul-Jalil is the Chairman of the National Transitional Council of Libya, and as such serves as head of state in Libya's caretaker government which was formed as a result of the 2011 Libyan civil war. He is also a spokesman for the city of Bayda...

     – Chairman of the Council, Spokesman, and City of Bayda
  • Abdul Hafiz Ghoga
    Abdul Hafiz Ghoga
    Abdul Hafiz Ghoga is a Libyan human rights lawyer, who rose to prominence as the spokesman for the National Transitional Council, a body formed in Benghazi during the 2011 Libyan civil war...

     – Vice Chairman of the Council, Spokesman, and City of Benghazi
  • Ali Tarhouni
    Ali Tarhouni
    Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni is a Libyan economist and politician. Tarhouni served as the minister for oil and finance on the National Transitional Council, the provisional governing authority in Libya, from 23 March 2011 to 22 November 2011...

     – Deputy Chairman of the Council, Finance, and Oil
  • Fatih Turbel
    Fathi Terbil
    Fathi Terbil, also romanized as Fatih Turbel, is a Libyan lawyer and human rights activist and member of the National Transitional Council representing Libyan youth. He represents the relatives of over 1000 prisoners allegedly killed by Libyan security forces in Abu Salim Prison in 1996...

     – Youth
  • Omar El-Hariri
    Omar El-Hariri
    Omar Mokhtar El-Hariri was a leading figure of the National Transitional Council of Libya who formerly served as the Minister of Military Affairs. He controlled the National Liberation Army and the Free Libyan Air Force from March to May 2011...

     - Military Affairs
  • Zubeir Ahmed El-Sharif
    Ahmed al-Senussi
    Ahmed Al-Zubair al-Senussi, also known as Zubeir Ahmed El-Sharif, is a Libyan member of the Senussi house and a member of the National Transitional Council representing political prisoners. He is a great-nephew of Idris of Libya, the only king of Libya, and was named after his grandfather Ahmed...

     – Political Prisoners
  • Fathi Mohammed Baja
    Fathi Baja
    Fathi Mohammed Baja , also called Fatih Baja, is a Libyan academic and a member of the National Transitional Council in charge of political affairs and representing Benghazi. Baja attended college in Morocco, where he earned a PhD in political science at Mohammed V University. He taught at...

     – Political Affairs and City of Benghazi
    Benghazi
    Benghazi is the second largest city in Libya, the main city of the Cyrenaica region , and the former provisional capital of the National Transitional Council. The wider metropolitan area is also a district of Libya...

  • Salwa Fawzi El-Deghali
    Salwa El-Deghali
    Salwa Fawzi El-Deghali is a Libyan academic and a member of the National Transitional Council representing women and in charge of legal affairs. El-Deghali possess a Doctor of Philosophy in constitutional law...

     – Legal Affairs and Women
  • Abdullah Moussa Al-Mayhoub
    Abdullah Al-Mayhoub
    Abdullah Moussa Al-Mayhoub , also known as Abdelallah Moussa El-myehoub is a member of the Libyan National Transitional Council representing the city of Al Qubah. He received a Doctor of Philosophy from a university in France and previously served as Dean of the law school at Benghazi...

     – City of Qubba
  • Ahmed Al-Abbar
    Ahmed Al-Abbar
    Ahmed Al-Abbar is a member of the Libyan National Transitional Council in charge of Economics. In this capacity, he is in charge of administering the Council's funds and opening lines of credit from other nations. He resides in Benghazi and runs a company that imports agricultural goods, through...

     – Economics
  • Ashour Bourashed
    Ashour Bourashed
    Ashour Hamed Bourashed is a member of the Libyan National Transitional Council representing the city of Derna.-References:...

     – City of Derna
  • Uthman Megrahi
    Uthman Megrahi
    Uthman Suleiman al-Megrahi is a member of the Libyan National Transitional Council representing the city of Batnan.-References:...

     – City of Batnan
  • Suleiman Al-Fortia
    Suleiman Fortia
    Suleiman Al-Fortia is a member of the Libyan National Transitional Council representing the city of Misrata. Fortia received his undergraduate degree from the University of Tripoli and a Doctor of Engineering in architecture from a British university. He has taught at King Faisal University for...

     – City of Misrata

  • Mohamed Al-Muntasir
    Mohamed Al-Muntasir
    Mohamed Al-Muntasir is a Libyan businessman who represents the city of Misrata on the National Transitional Council.-References:...

     – City of Misrata
  • Abdel Megid Seif El-Nasr - City of Sabha
  • Hassan Ali al-Dirwai - City of Sirte
    Sirte
    Sirte is a city in LibyaSirte may also refer to:* Sirte Declaration, a 1999 resolution to create the African Union* Sirte Oil Company, a Libyan oil companyIn geography:* Gulf of Sirte, alias for Gulf of Sidra on Libya's coast...

  • Hassan Mohammed al-Saghir - City of Al-Shati
  • Farhat El-Sharshare - City of Sorman
    Sorman
    Sorman or Surman is a town near the Mediterranean Sea coast, in the Zawiya District of the Tripolitania region in northwestern Libya.-2011 civil war:...

  • Mustafa El-Salheen El-Huni - City of Jufra
  • Ali Qlma Mohamed Ali - City of Murzuk
    Murzuk
    Murzuk is an oasis town and the capital of the Murzuq District in the Fezzan region of southwest Libya. Murzuk lies on the northern edge of the Murzuq Desert, a desert of ergs or great sand dunes, and section of the Sahara Desert.-History:...

  • Fawzy Abdel Ali - City of Misrata
  • Abdel Naset Abu Bakr Naama - City of Tarhuna
  • Abdel Razeq Mukhtar - City of Tripoli
    Tripoli
    Tripoli is the capital and largest city in Libya. It is also known as Western Tripoli , to distinguish it from Tripoli, Lebanon. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean , describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three...

  • Abdel Razaq Abdel Salam Al Aradi - City of Tripoli
  • El-Sadeeq Amr Al-Kabeer - City of Tripoli
  • Alamin Belhaj - City of Tripoli
  • Mohamed Nasr El-Hareezi - City of Tripoli
  • Khaled Mohamed Nasrat - City of Zawiya

  • Emad Nour El-Din Naseer - City of Zawiya
  • Salem Qnan - City of Nalut
    Nalut
    Nalut is the capital of the Nalut District in Libya and is home to a Berber granary and community.Nalut lies approximately half way between Tripoli and Ghadames, at the western end of the Nafusa Mountains coastal range, in the Tripolitania region.-Architecture:Nalut is home to the Ksar Nalut,...

  • Khaled Ali Zakri - City of Jadu
    Jadu, Libya
    Jadu [p] , in other languages also: Giado and Gado, is a mountain town in western Libya, in the Jabal al Gharbi District and the Nafusa Mountains. Jadu was the site of an Italian concentration camp during the Second World War...

  • Ibrahim Bin Ghashir - City of Misrata
  • Abdullah El-Turki - City of Zintan
  • Ahmed Miftah Hassan El-Zouwi - City of Kufra
    Kufra
    Kufra is a basin and oasis group in Al Kufrah District, southeastern Cyrenaica in Libya. Kufra is historically important above all because at the end of nineteenth century it became the center and holy place of the Senussi order...

  • Othman bin Sasi - City of Zuwara
  • Mohamed El-Sa’eh - City of Jufra
  • Moussa El-Kouna - City of Ubari
    Ubari
    Ubari is an oasis town and the capital of the Wadi al Hayaa District, in the Fezzan region of southwestern Libya. It is in the Libyan section of the Sahara Desert...

  • Taher Salem Theyab - City of Marj
  • Mohamed Zein El-Abdeen - City of Baten El Jabl
  • Ali Al-Manea - City of Ghadames
    Ghadames
    Ghadames or Ghadamis is an oasis town in the Nalut District of the Fezzan region in southwestern Libya.-Geography:Ghadames lies roughly to the southwest of Tripoli, near the borders with Algeria and Tunisia. Ghadames borders Illizi Province, Algeria and Tataouine Governorate, Tunisia.The oasis...

  • Idris Abu Fayed - City of Gharyan
    Gharyan
    Gharyan District or Garian District was one of the districts of Libya. It was located in the northwest part of the country and its capital was Gharyan. Under the 2007 reorganization of districts, it became part of Jabal al Gharbi District....

  • Mubarak El-Fatmani - City of Bani Walid
    Bani Walid
    Bani Walid or Ben Walid, prior to 2007, was one of the districts of Libya. In the 2007 administrative reorganization the territory formerly in Bani Walid District was transferred to Misrata District.Bani Walid bordered the following districts:...



Executive Board



On 5 March 2011, a crisis committee was set up to act as the executive arm of the council. An Executive Board was announced on 23 March 2011. It originally had 15 members, but a minor reorganisation apparently removed the post of Military Affairs from the council proper and created a successor position for Defence on the board, expanding the bureau to 16 members.

The Executive Board was dismissed on 8 August 2011 due to administrative mistakes in investigating the assassination in July of army commander General Abdel-Fatah Younes. Chairman Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally , also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the 2011 Libyan civil war, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 to 23...

, the only designated member of the Executive Board who was not fired, was tasked with forming a new Board.

Members (March–August 2011)


Prior to the re-shuffle in August 2011, the board members were:
  • Mahmoud Jibril
    Mahmoud Jibril
    Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally , also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the 2011 Libyan civil war, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 to 23...

     – Chairman and Head of International Affairs
  • Ali Al-Issawi
    Ali Abd-al-Aziz al-Isawi
    Ali Abd-al-Aziz al-Isawi is a Libyan politician who is a leading figure of the National Transitional Council of Libya and was the Vice-Chairman of the Executive Board of the NTC until his dismissal along with the board's other ministers on 8 August 2011. He previously served as the Minister of...

     – Vice-Chairman
  • Ahmed Hussein Al-Darrat – Internal Affairs and Local Government
  • Jalal al-Digheily
    Jalal al-Digheily
    Jalal Muhammad Mansur al-Digheily, sometimes transliterated al-Dogheily, is a Libyan politician who served as the Defence Minister of Libya under the National Transitional Council during the 2011 Libyan civil war...

     – Defence (formerly Military Affairs)
  • Mahmoud Shammam – Media
  • Naji Barakat – Health
  • Mohammed Al-Allagi – Justice and Human Rights
  • Hania Al-Gumati – Social Welfare

  • Abdullah Shamia – Economic
  • Ali Tarhouni
    Ali Tarhouni
    Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni is a Libyan economist and politician. Tarhouni served as the minister for oil and finance on the National Transitional Council, the provisional governing authority in Libya, from 23 March 2011 to 22 November 2011...

     – Finance and Oil
  • Anwar Elfeitori – Transportation and Communications
  • Abulgassim Nimr – Environment
  • Atia Lawgali – Culture and Community
  • Abdulsalam Al-Shikhy – Religious Affairs and Endowments
  • Ahmed Al-Jehani – Reconstruction and Infrastructure
  • Suliman El-Sahli – Education


Members (October 2011)


A new cabinet was unveiled in early October 2011, though not all of its members were announced at once. Individuals confirmed to be part of the new board include Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally , also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the 2011 Libyan civil war, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 to 23...

 as prime minister, Ali Tarhouni
Ali Tarhouni
Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni is a Libyan economist and politician. Tarhouni served as the minister for oil and finance on the National Transitional Council, the provisional governing authority in Libya, from 23 March 2011 to 22 November 2011...

 as deputy prime minister, and Jalal al-Digheily
Jalal al-Digheily
Jalal Muhammad Mansur al-Digheily, sometimes transliterated al-Dogheily, is a Libyan politician who served as the Defence Minister of Libya under the National Transitional Council during the 2011 Libyan civil war...

 as defence minister. On 23 October, Jibril resigned as Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Mustafa Abdul Jalil or Abdul-Jalil is the Chairman of the National Transitional Council of Libya, and as such serves as head of state in Libya's caretaker government which was formed as a result of the 2011 Libyan civil war. He is also a spokesman for the city of Bayda...

 declared an end to the civil war
2011 Libyan civil war
The 2011 Libyan civil war was an armed conflict in the North African state of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Benghazi beginning on 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security...

, and Abdurrahim El-Keib
Abdurrahim El-Keib
Abdurrahim Khaled Abdulhafiz El-Keib, Ph.D., is a professor of electrical engineering, entrepreneur, and Libyan politician from the city of Sabratha...

 succeeded him as prime minister on 31 October.

The Executive board was dissolved on 22 November 2011 as per Interim constitution which states the Executive board be dissolved upon the formation of the Interim Government.

Interim government


El-Keib unveiled the interim government on 22 November 2011:

  • Abdurrahim El-Keib
    Abdurrahim El-Keib
    Abdurrahim Khaled Abdulhafiz El-Keib, Ph.D., is a professor of electrical engineering, entrepreneur, and Libyan politician from the city of Sabratha...

     – Prime Minister
  • Mustafa Abushagur
    Mustafa A.G. Abushagur
    Dr. Mustafa A.G. Abushagur is the founding president of RIT Dubai, a professor of electrical engineering and an entrepreneur. He was named the interim Deputy Prime Minister of Libya on November 22, 2011.- Early Life :Abushagur was born in Gherian on February 15, 1951...

    - Deputy Prime Minister
  • Ashour Bin Khayal
    Ashour Bin Khayal
    Ashour Bin Khayal , sometimes romanised Bin Hayal, is a Libyan diplomat and politician who was born in the Cyrenaican city of Derna. He was named Foreign Minister on 22 November 2011 by Abdurrahim El-Keib in a surprise move, as the position was originally reported to be filled by United Nations...

     – Foreign Minister
  • Fawzi Abdel A'al
    Fawzi Abdel A'al
    Fawzi Abdel A'al, M.A., Fawzi Abdel A'al, M.A., Fawzi Abdel A'al, M.A., (Arabic ‎‫ (فوزي عبدالعال‬; is a prosecutor and a Libyan politician born in the city of Misrata in 1971. He was named Interior Minister on 22 November 2011 by Abdurrahim El-Keib. Prior to the 2011 Libyan Uprising Fawzi worked...

     – Interior Minister
  • Osama al-Juwali
    Osama al-Juwali
    Osama al-Juwali is a Libyan commander who serves as Minister of Defence in the government of Abdurrahim El-Keib, Libya's interim prime minister. He fought in the 2011 uprising against the government of Muammar Gaddafi...

     – Defence Minister
  • Hasan Zeglam – Finance Minister
  • Abdulrahman Ben Yezza
    Abdulrahman Ben Yezza
    Abdulrahman Ben Yezza is a Libyan businessman and politician who is the Oil Minister in the government of Abdurrahim El-Keib. Prior to the 2011 Libyan civil war, Ben Yezza served as "chairman of the operator's management committee" for Italian oil company Eni...

     – Oil Minister
  • Issa Twayjr – Planning Minister
  • Taher Sharkass – Economy Minister

  • Hamza Abu Faris – Awqaf & Islamic Affairs Minister
  • Abd al-Nasser Hamed – Martyrs and Missing Minister
  • Mabrouka Gibril – Social Affairs Minister
  • Suleiman Sahli – Education Minister
  • Mustafa Rugibani
    Mustafa Rugibani
    Mustafa Rugibani , is a Libyan businessman and politician who was born in 1941. He was named Labor Minister on 22 November 2011 by Abdurrahim El-Keib.Prior to the uprising that toppled the Gaddafi government of Libya, Mr...

     – Labour Minister
  • Ali Ashour
    Ali Ashour
    Ali Ihmayda Ashour Shaaban, M.A., Ali Ihmayda Ashour Shaaban, M.A., Ali Ihmayda Ashour Shaaban, M.A., (Arabic ‫ (علي احميدة عاشور شعبان‬; is a judge and a Libyan politician born in the city of Khums in 1960. He was named Justice Minister on 22 November 2011 by Abdurrahim El-Keib. Prior to the 2011...

     – Justice Minister
  • Fatima Hamroush
    Fatima Hamroush
    Fatima Hamroush, Fatima Hamroush, Fatima Hamroush, (Arabic ‫ (فاطمة الحمروش‬; MA, MB BS, DO, FRCSEd, is an ophthalmologist and Libyan politician. Born in the city of Benghazi, Libya on 14th February 1960, she moved to Ireland in 1996 and later became and Irish citizen.-Personal life:...

     – Health Minister
  • Mohamed Hrari – District Administration Minister
  • Ibrahim Sgoutri – Housing Minister

  • Anwar Elfeitori – Communications and Information Technology Minister
  • Yousef Wahayshi – Transport Minister
  • Suleiman Abu Kharuba – Agriculture Minister
  • Mohamed Ftaysi – Industry Minister
  • Naeem Gheriany
    Naeem Gheriany
    Naem Gheriany, P.h.D., Naem Gheriany, P.h.D., Naem Gheriany, P.h.D., (Arabic ‫ (نعيم عبدالرحمن الغرياني‬; is a nuclear engineer and a Libyan politician. He was named Higher Education Minister on 22 November 2011 by Abdurrahim El-Keib.-References:...

     – Higher Education and Scientific Research Minister
  • Fathi Terbil
    Fathi Terbil
    Fathi Terbil, also romanized as Fatih Turbel, is a Libyan lawyer and human rights activist and member of the National Transitional Council representing Libyan youth. He represents the relatives of over 1000 prisoners allegedly killed by Libyan security forces in Abu Salim Prison in 1996...

     – Youth and Sport Minister
  • Abd al-Rahman Habil – Culture and Civil Society Minister
  • Awad al-Baraasi
    Awad al-Baraasi
    Awad Ibraik Ibrahim Al-Baraasi, Ph.D., Awad Ibraik Ibrahim Al-Baraasi, Ph.D., Awad Ibraik Ibrahim Al-Baraasi, Ph.D., (Arabic ‎‫ (عوض ابريك ابراهيم البرعصي‬; is an electrical engineer and Libyan politician born in the city of Benghazi on 28 June 1966. He was named Electricity and Renewable Energy...

     – Electricity and Renewable Energy Minister


Local government


During the war
2011 Libyan civil war
The 2011 Libyan civil war was an armed conflict in the North African state of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Benghazi beginning on 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security...

, in opposition-held Benghazi, a 15-member "local committee" made up of lawyers, judges and respected local people was formed in order to provide civic administration and public services within the city. Residents have organised to direct traffic and collect refuse. Many shops and businesses have opened again. A newspaper and two local radio stations were also established.

Similar "local committees" were formed in other cities controlled by opposition groups.

Commercial bodies


The council has established the following commercial bodies to manage its financial affairs:
  • The Central Bank of Benghazi – to act as the "monetary authority competent in monetary policies in Libya"
  • Libyan Oil Company – to act as the "supervisory authority on oil production and policies in the country"

Armed forces



The Anti-Gaddafi forces
Anti-Gaddafi forces
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan groups that opposed and militarily defeated the government of Muammar Gaddafi, killing him in the process. These opposition forces included organised and armed militia groups, participants in the 2011 Libyan civil war, Libyan diplomats who switched their...

 are Libyan armed forces which were constituted during the 2011 Libyan civil war
2011 Libyan civil war
The 2011 Libyan civil war was an armed conflict in the North African state of Libya, fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Benghazi beginning on 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security...

 by defected military members and armed citizens in order to engage in battle against remaining members of the Libyan Armed Forces, hired mercenaries and paramilitary loyal to the rule of Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi or "September 1942" 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.He seized power in a...

. The National Liberation Army, formerly known as the Free Libyan Army, is the NTC's military arm, with the small Free Libyan Air Force
Free Libyan Air Force
The Free Libyan Air Force is the air force of the National Transitional Council, a collection of defected Loyalist Military personnel and captured aircraft that have aligned themselves with the Anti-Gaddafi forces of the 2011 Libyan civil war.-Operations:...

 operating assets including captured and defected fighter jets and helicopters.

Omar El-Hariri
Omar El-Hariri
Omar Mokhtar El-Hariri was a leading figure of the National Transitional Council of Libya who formerly served as the Minister of Military Affairs. He controlled the National Liberation Army and the Free Libyan Air Force from March to May 2011...

 was the first military affairs minister the NTC named, holding that position from 23 March 2011 forward. By 19 May 2011, however, Jalal al-Digheily
Jalal al-Digheily
Jalal Muhammad Mansur al-Digheily, sometimes transliterated al-Dogheily, is a Libyan politician who served as the Defence Minister of Libya under the National Transitional Council during the 2011 Libyan civil war...

 had replaced El-Hariri. Then on 8 August 2011, Jalala along with 14 other members of the Executive Board were fired and the position left vacant, but was reappointed in early October 2011 after continuing in the role of interim defense minister for almost two months. Then on 22 November 2011, the Executive Board was was dissolved for the formation of the Interim Government and Osama al-Juwali
Osama al-Juwali
Osama al-Juwali is a Libyan commander who serves as Minister of Defence in the government of Abdurrahim El-Keib, Libya's interim prime minister. He fought in the 2011 uprising against the government of Muammar Gaddafi...

 became the new Defense Minister.

On 1 April 2011, Abdul Fatah Younis
Abdul Fatah Younis
Abdul Fatah Younis , sometimes transliterated Fattah Younis or Fattah Younes or Fatah Younes, was a senior military officer in Libya. He held the rank of Major General and the post of Minister of Interior, but resigned on 22 February 2011 to defect to the rebel side in what was to become the 2011...

 was announced as commander of the armed forces, in an attempt to insert an organized fighting structure due to a string of failures. Younis was killed in an attack on 29 July 2011 which has been variously blamed on pro-Gaddafi agents, rogue rebel militiamen, and the NTC itself. Suleiman Mahmoud
Suleiman Mahmoud
Suleiman Mahmoud al-Obeidi is a senior military officer in Libya. He was formerly a commander in Muammar Gaddafi's army. He was commander of the Tobruk Military Region. He was amongst the first of the army hierarchy to support the 2011 Libyan civil war...

, Younis's top lieutenant, replaced him as army commander.

Foreign relations


In July 2011, the Libya Contact Group
Libya Contact Group
The Libya Contact Group , was an international umbrella organization set up by its member nations and international organizations to make contacts within Libya as part of attempts to resolve the 2011 Libyan civil war.-Formation:The Contact Group was set up following the London Conference on Libya in...

 of representatives of many nations announced its participants' agreement to deal with the National Transitional Council as the "legitimate governing authority in Libya". The council has also received the backing of the Arab League
Arab League
The Arab League , officially called the League of Arab States , is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia . It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan , Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a...

 and the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. On 16 September 2011, the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly, see:* General Assembly members* General Assembly observersThe United Nations General Assembly is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation...

 voted to award Libya's UN
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 seat to the NTC. On 20 September 2011, the African Union
African Union
The African Union is a union consisting of 54 African states. The only all-African state not in the AU is Morocco. Established on 9 July 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity...

 officially recognised the NTC as the legitimate representative of Libya.

Mohammed El Senussi, the pretender
Pretender
A pretender is one who claims entitlement to an unavailable position of honour or rank. Most often it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival, or has been abolished....

 to the throne of Libya, has also voiced his support for the NTC.

Military intervention



United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011. The Security Council resolution was proposed by France, Lebanon, and the United Kingdom....

 authorised a multi-national effort to establish a no-fly zone. On 19 March, British, French and US air forces began attacking targets in Gaddafi-controlled Libya, thereby initiating the UN military intervention
2011 military intervention in Libya
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, which was taken in response to events during the 2011 Libyan civil war...

. Operations were led by NATO under Operation Unified Protector
Operation Unified Protector
Operation Unified Protector was an NATO operation enforcing United Nations Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973 concerning the 2011 Libyan civil war and adopted on 17 February and 17 March respectively...

, after initially being led by a joint UK, US and French command. Non-NATO states such as Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

, Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

, and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

 also contributed to the military mission.

External links