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Parties in various contexts have referred to themselves as National Socialist parties
. Because there is no clear definition of national socialism, the term has been used to mean very different things. Since the rise of German
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...
, which called itself "National Socialism", the term has been used in Europe and North America almost exclusively by political parties with combined authoritarian, racial
Racism is the belief that inherent different traits in human racial groups justify discrimination. In the modern English language, the term "racism" is used predominantly as a pejorative epithet. It is applied especially to the practice or advocacy of racial discrimination of a pernicious nature...
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...
However, in other parts of the world, which had little contact with German Nazism, the term "National Socialism" is sometimes used by parties that define themselves as socialist and patriotic, without being racist. In addition, the term was also used by non-racist groups in Europe before the rise of Nazism.
Parties that existed before the rise of Nazism and that are unrelated to Nazism
- National-Social Association
The National-Social Association was a political party in the German Empire, founded in 1896 by Friedrich Naumann.In the second half of the 19th century Germany underwent a rapid industrialization, which was connected with rising social problems...
, in Germany, founded by Friedrich Naumann in 1896. It is unrelated to Nazism. (Social liberal, progressive, pro-Germany, anti-Marxist)
- Czech National Social Party
Czech National Social Party was a civic nationalist political party established in 1898 within the Young Czech Party as a nominally socialist group with a stress on achieving Czech independence from Austria–Hungary Czech National Social Party (Czech: Česká strana národně sociální) was a civic...
, a quasi-socialist, left-wing party known as the Czech National Socialist Party between 1926 and 1948.
Racist parties predating German Nazism
- Parti Socialiste National, in France, founded by Pierre Biétry
Pierre Biétry was a French syndicalist and politician who initially followed orthodox socialism before moving to the right. He was the pioneer of 'Yellow socialism', a movement that has been portrayed as a forerunner of fascism...
in 1903. It became the "Fédération Nationale des Jaunes de France" (or the "Yellow socialists") in 1904. (Anti-Semitic, pro-unions, anti-Marxist)
- Austrian National Socialism
Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-German movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. The movement took a concrete form on November 15, 1903 when the German Worker's Party was established in Austria with its secretariat stationed in the town of Aussig...
Parties related to Nazi-style ideology
- Bulgarian National Socialist Party
The Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party was a Nazi party based in the Kingdom of Bulgaria....
- Canadian National Socialist Unity Party
The Parti National Social Chrétien was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with anti-semitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity...
- German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia)
The German National Socialist Workers' Party was a protofascist party of Germans in Czechoslovakia, successor of the German Workers' Party from Austria-Hungary. It was founded in November 1919 in Duchcov. Most important party activists were Hans Knirsch, Hans Krebs, Adam Fahrner, Rudolf Jung and...
(Sudeten German, anti-Semitic)
- Russian National Unity
Russian National Unity or All-Russian civic patriotic movement "Russian National Unity" , is a far right, fascist political party and paramilitary organization based in Russia and operating in states with Russian-speaking populations. It was founded by the ultra-nationalist Alexander Barkashov...
(pro-Russian, pro-Russia-apartheid, anti-Semitic, anti-non-Russian-indigeneous)
- Greek National Socialist Party (Italian-style fascist, pro-Hitler)
- Hungarian National Socialist Party
The Hungarian National Socialist Party was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War.-Early National Socialist groups:The initial HNSP was organised in the 1920s, but did not gain any influence...
(one of several such groups, 1920s-40s) (German-style National Socialist, anti-Semitic)
- Iranian National Socialist Party (est. 1952)(pro-Hitler, anti-Semitic, anti-Arab, anti-Turk)
- Libertarian National Socialist Green Party (United States)
- Nasjonal Samling (Norway, est. May 13, 1933 - dissolved May 8, 1945)(German-style National Socialist, anti-Semitic, anti-Masonic)
- National Socialist Action Party
The National Socialist Action Party was a minor British neo-Nazi political party in the early 1980s...
(United Kingdom, est. 1982)(British, possibly anti-immigrant)
- National Socialist Dutch Workers Party
The National Socialist Dutch Workers Party was a minor Dutch national socialist party founded in 1931 and led by Ernst Herman van Rappard...
(favored German annexation of the Netherlands)
- National Socialist German Workers Party
The National Socialist German Workers' Party , commonly known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. Its predecessor, the German Workers' Party , existed from 1919 to 1920...
(Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party)
- National Socialist Japanese Workers and Welfare Party
- National Socialist League
The National Socialist League was a short lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.-Formation:...
(United Kingdom 1930s) (British, pro-Hitler)
- National Socialist League (United States)
The National Socialist League, was a Neo-Nazi political party in the United States that existed from 1974 until the mid 1980s. It was founded by Russell Veh in Los Angeles in 1974. Veh financed the party using the profits from his printing business...
(gay, "Aryan", pro-Hitler)
- National Socialist Party of America
The National Socialist Party of America was a Chicago-based organization founded in 1970 by Frank Collin shortly after he left the National Socialist White People's Party. The NSWPP had been the American Nazi Party until shortly after the assassination of leader George Lincoln Rockwell in 1967...
(white, anti-Semitic, anti-black)
- National Socialist Party of New Zealand
The National Socialist Party of New Zealand, sometimes simply called the New Zealand Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in New Zealand. It promulgated the same basic views as Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in Germany, and had a particular focus on Jews and the banking sector.From 1969 the party...
(German-style National Socialist, anti-Semitic)
- National Socialist Party (Romania)
The National Socialist Party was a mimetic National socialist political party active in Romania during the early 1930s....
(German-style National Socialist)
- National Socialist People's Party of Sweden
Fascist People's Party of Sweden was a political party in Sweden. It was founded on September 3, 1926, by a circle around the publication Nationen. Its cadre was made up of members of the Fascist Struggle Organisation of Sweden.Konrad Hallgren, a former German officer, became the leader of the party...
(Italian/German style fascist/National Socialist)
- National Socialist White People's Party (Harold Covington) (Pacific Northwest secessionist, pro-apartheid, white, anti-Semitic)
- National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (German-style National Socialist, anti-Semitic)
- National Socialist Workers Party (Spain)
- National Socialist Workers Party (Sweden)
Nationalsocialistiska Arbetarpartiet was a Swedish political party which initially espoused Nazism before adopting a more indigenous form of Fascism....
(started as a German-style National Socialist party, but became more leftist and independently Swedish before declining during WWII)
- Russian National Socialist Party
The Russian National Socialist Party is a neo-Nazi party based in Russia. The group achieved international notoriety in 2007 when a video appeared on the internet purportedly showing members decapitating two immigrants.-Development:The party grew out of the followers of Konstantin Kasimovsky, a...
(Russian nationalist, fascist, theocratic (Orthodox Christian), socialist, anti-immigrant)
- Socialist Reich Party
The Socialist Reich Party of Germany was a West German far-right political party founded in the aftermath of the World War II in 1949 as an openly Nazi orientated split-off from the national conservative German Right Party...
(Germany) (pro-Hitler, pro-German-reunification, Holocaust-denying, anti-American, pro-Soviet but anti-communist and anti-capitalist, post-WWII)
- Sudeten German National Socialist Party
The Sudeten German Party was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront on October 1, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party...
(Sudeten German, pro-annexation-by-Germany)
- Swedish National Socialist Farmers' and Workers' Party (pro-Hitler)
Non-European parties unrelated to the Nazis
- National Revolutionary Socialist Party
National Revolutionary Socialist Party was a political party in Kerala, India. NRSP emerged through a split in the Revolutionary Socialist Party....
, India (Marxist
Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry that centers upon a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. Marxism was pioneered in the early to mid 19th...
- National Socialist Council of Nagaland
The Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland is a Naga nationalist militant group operating in Northeast India. Its aim is to establish a Christian socialist state based on Maoism in the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Burma.-Formation:The National Socialist Council of...
, India (Maoist)
- National Socialist Party of Tripura
National Socialist Party of Tripura is a political party in the Indian state of Tripura. NSPT was formed when Hirendra Tripura and others broke away from the Indigenous Nationalist Party of Tripura in the summer of 2003. One of the principal leaders of INPT, Shyamcharan Tripura, took the side of NSPT...
, India (Tripuri nationalist
Tripuri nationalism is an ideology that supports self-determination by the Tripuri people.-History:Tripuri political organizations and militant groups include:*All Tripura Tiger Force*Indigenous Nationalist Party of Tripura...
- National Socialist Party of India
- Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal
The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal is a political party in Bangladesh.The party founded in 1972 through the merger of socialist political activists and military officers. It was founded under the leadership of Major Abdul Jalil, a freedom fighter from Barisal District, and was also joined by pro-Awami...
(National Socialist Party), Bangladesh (socialist)
- National Socialist Party, Jordan
- National Socialist Party, Philippines (Filipino nationalist
Filipino nationalism is an upsurge of patriotic sentiments and nationalistic ideals in the 1800s Philippines that came consequently as a result of more than two centuries of Spanish rule and as an immediate outcome of the Filipino Propaganda Movement from 1872 to 1892...
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism or some variant thereof.The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology of these movements....
- Independent National Socialism
- National Socialist Movement (disambiguation)
National Socialist Movement may refer to:* The defunct National Socialist Movement of Chile .* The defunct National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * The contemporary National Socialist Movement of Denmark...