National Research Council of Canada

National Research Council of Canada

Overview
The National Research Council (NRC) is an agency of the Government of Canada
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada, formally Her Majesty's Government, is the system whereby the federation of Canada is administered by a common authority; in Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council...

 which conducts scientific research and development.

The NRC was established in 1916 under the pressure of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 to advise the government on matters of science and industrial research. In 1932, laboratories were built on Sussex Drive in Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

.

With the impetus of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the NRC grew rapidly and for all practical purposes became a military science and weapons research organization.
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Encyclopedia
The National Research Council (NRC) is an agency of the Government of Canada
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada, formally Her Majesty's Government, is the system whereby the federation of Canada is administered by a common authority; in Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council...

 which conducts scientific research and development.

History


The NRC was established in 1916 under the pressure of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 to advise the government on matters of science and industrial research. In 1932, laboratories were built on Sussex Drive in Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

.

With the impetus of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the NRC grew rapidly and for all practical purposes became a military science and weapons research organization. It undertook a number of important projects, which included participation with the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 in the development of chemical and germ warfare agents, the explosive RDX
RDX
RDX, an initialism for Research Department Explosive, is an explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications. It was developed as an explosive which was more powerful than TNT, and it saw wide use in WWII. RDX is also known as cyclonite, hexogen , and T4...

, the proximity fuse, radar
Radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

, and submarine detection techniques. A special branch known as the Examination Unit was involved with cryptology and the interception of enemy radio communications. The NRC was also engaged in atomic fission research at the Montreal Laboratory, then the Chalk River Laboratories
Chalk River Laboratories
The Chalk River Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility located near Chalk River, about north-west of Ottawa in the province of Ontario.CRL is a site of major research and development to support and advance nuclear technology, in particular CANDU reactor...

  Ontario.

Post-WWII, the NRC reverted to its pre-war civilian role and a number of wartime activities were spun off to newly formed organizations. Military research continued under a new organization, the Defence Research Board
Defence Research and Development Canada
Defence Research and Development Canada, also Defence R&D Canada or DRDC , is an agency of the Department of National Defence , whose purpose is to respond to the scientific and technological needs of the Canadian Forces...

. Atomic research went to the newly created Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited or AECL is a Canadian federal Crown corporation and Canada's largest nuclear science and technology laboratory...

. Foreign signal intelligence gathering was passed on to the newly created Communications Research Establishment
Communications Security Establishment
The Communications Security Establishment Canada is the Canadian government's national cryptologic agency. Administered under the Department of National Defence , it is charged with the duty of keeping track of foreign signals intelligence , and protecting Canadian government electronic...

. During the 1950s, the medical research funding activities of the NRC were handed over to the newly formed Medical Research Council of Canada
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Canadian Institutes of Health Research is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. It is the successor to the Medical Research Council of Canada. It aims to create new health knowledge, and to translate that knowledge from the research setting into real world...

. Finally, on May 1, 1978, with the rapid post-war growth of Canadian universities the NRC's role in university research funding in the natural sciences was passed to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

Under financial pressure in the 1980s, the federal government produced what popularly became known as the Neilson Report, which recommended across-the-board financial cuts to all federal government organizations, including the NRC. This led to staff and program cutbacks. Recovery was slow, but the NRC has managed to regain its status as Canada's single most important scientific and engineering research institution among many other Canadian government scientific research organizations
Canadian government scientific research organizations
Expenditures by federal and provincial organizations on scientific research and development accounted for about 10% of all such spending in Canada in 2006...

.

Today, much of the NRC's focus is on developing partnerships with private and public-sector technology companies, both nationally and internationally. The Council will be celebrating its centenary in 2016.

Product innovations


Some of the many innovations by NRC personnel included the artificial pacemaker
Artificial pacemaker
A pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart...

, development of canola (rapeseed)
Canola
Canola refers to a cultivar of either Rapeseed or Field Mustard . Its seeds are used to produce edible oil suitable for consumption by humans and livestock. The oil is also suitable for use as biodiesel.Originally, Canola was bred naturally from rapeseed in Canada by Keith Downey and Baldur R...

 in the 1940s, the Crash Position Indicator in the 1950s, and the Cesium Beam atomic clock
Atomic clock
An atomic clock is a clock that uses an electronic transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element...

 in the 1960s.

The NRC played a key role in the birth of computer animation
Computer animation
Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images by using computer graphics. The more general term computer generated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images....

, working with the National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
The National Film Board of Canada is Canada's twelve-time Academy Award-winning public film producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary, animation, alternative drama and digital media productions...

 and animator Peter Foldès
Peter Foldes
Peter Foldes, born in 1924 in Budapest, Hungary and died March 29, 1977 in Paris, was a director and animator of British nationality.-Biography:...

 on the 1971 experimental film Metadata and the 1974 short film Hunger
Hunger (1974 film)
Hunger/La Faim is a 1974 animated short film produced by the National Film Board of Canada. It was directed by Peter Foldes and is one of the first computer animation films...

.

More recently, the NRC has been highly influential in the field of audio. A great deal of research at the NRC has gone into the designs of many popular speakers from Canadian speaker manufacturers like Energy Loudspeakers and Paradigm Electronics
Paradigm Electronics
Paradigm is a Canadian company specializing in the production of in-wall, on-wall and freestanding loudspeakers as well as subwoofers.Founded in 1982 by Jerry VanderMarel and Scott Bagby in Toronto, Ontario, in 1999 all manufacturing for Paradigm was moved to a new facility in Mississauga,...

. Some of their research has also influenced speaker designs around the world.

At National Research Council - Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC) an ongoing research study on solid-state lighting is investigating this promising lighting technology and its effects on human beings

Agencies with special relationships with the NRC


Specialized agencies and services which have branched out of the NRC include:
  • Canadian Space Agency
  • Defence Research Board
    Defence Research and Development Canada
    Defence Research and Development Canada, also Defence R&D Canada or DRDC , is an agency of the Department of National Defence , whose purpose is to respond to the scientific and technological needs of the Canadian Forces...

  • Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited or AECL is a Canadian federal Crown corporation and Canada's largest nuclear science and technology laboratory...

  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. It is the successor to the Medical Research Council of Canada. It aims to create new health knowledge, and to translate that knowledge from the research setting into real world...

  • Communications Security Establishment
    Communications Security Establishment
    The Communications Security Establishment Canada is the Canadian government's national cryptologic agency. Administered under the Department of National Defence , it is charged with the duty of keeping track of foreign signals intelligence , and protecting Canadian government electronic...

  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
    Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
    The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada is a Canadian government agency that provides grants for research in the natural sciences and in engineering. Its mandate is to promote and assist research....


Planning and reporting


The NRC reports yearly within the Treasury Board Secretariat's Results-Based Management Framework. The NRC is currently guided by a strategic plan for 2006-2011: Science at Work for Canada.

Employment


Close to 4,000 people across Canada are employed by the NRC. In addition, the Council also employs guest workers from universities, companies, and public and private-sector organizations. http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/aboutUs/facts_e.html

Governance




The NRC is managed by a governing council. Current members of the council are: Patricia Béretta, Louis Brunel, John McDougall (President and Chairman), Delwyn Fredlund, Wayne Gulliver, James Hatton, Joseph Hubert, Pascale Michaud, Gilles Patry, Alan Pelman, Louise Proulx, René Racine, Salma Rajwani, Inge Russell, Barbara Stanley, Howard Tennant, Jean-Claude Villiard, and Louis Visentin.

Cold War


According to the Canadian Security Intelligence Service
Canadian Security Intelligence Service
The Canadian Security Intelligence Service is Canada's national intelligence service. It is responsible for collecting, analyzing, reporting and disseminating intelligence on threats to Canada's national security, and conducting operations, covert and overt, within Canada and abroad.Its...

 website, the NRC headquarters in Ottawa "was a prime espionage target" during the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

.

Scientific Research

  • Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics
    Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics
    The NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics is the leading Canadian centre for astronomy and astrophysics.Named for the Nobel laureate Gerhard Herzberg, it was formed in 1975 as part of the National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa, Ontario...

     (NRC-HIA) - Penticton and Victoria, BC
  • Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences (NRC-SIMS) - Ottawa and Chalk River, ON
  • Canadian Neutron Beam Centre
    Canadian Neutron Beam Centre
    The NRC Canadian Neutron Beam Centre is Canada's national centre for materials research using neutrons, and is one of the Chalk River Laboratories. Neutrons are a unique and versatile tool for research in materials of all kinds. This field of science is known as neutron scattering....

     (NRC-SIMS) - Chalk River, ON
  • National Institute for Nanotechnology
    National Institute for Nanotechnology
    The National Institute for Nanotechnology is a research institution located on the University of Alberta main campus, in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Its primary purpose is nanotechnological research....

     (NINT) - Edmonton, AB
  • Institute for National Measurement Standards (NRC-INMS) - Ottawa, ON
  • Institute for Biological Sciences (NRC-IBS) - Ottawa, ON
  • Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) - Montreal, QC
  • Institute for Biodiagnostics
    Institute for Biodiagnostics
    The National Research Council Institute for Biodiagnostics is a research laboratory located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was established in 1992 to develop noninvasive medical devices and techniques to increase prospects for prevention, earlier diagnosis, improved treatment and prognosis of...

     (NRC-IBD) - Winnipeg, MB; Calgary, AB; Halifax, NS
  • Plant Biotechnology Institute (NRC-PBI) - Saskatoon, SK
  • Institute for Marine Biosciences (NRC-IMB) - Halifax, NS
  • Institute for Nutrisciences and Health (NRC-INH) - Charlottetown, PEI

Engineering Research

  • Institute for Aerospace Research (NRC-IAR) - Ottawa, ON; Montreal, QC
  • Centre for Surface Transportation Technology
    Centre for Surface Transportation Technology
    The Centre for Surface Transportation Technology conducts surface transportation research, development engineering and vehicle and systems testing of rail and road transportation...

     (NRC-CSTT) - Ottawa, ON; Vancouver, BC
  • Canadian Hydraulics Centre (NRC-CHC) - Ottawa, ON
  • Institute for Ocean Technology (NRC-IOT) - St. John's, NL
  • Institute for Microstructural Sciences (NRC-IMS) - Ottawa, ON
  • Industrial Materials Institute (NRC-IMI) - Boucherville, QC; London, ON; Saguenay (Chicoutimi), QC
  • Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology (NRC-ICPET) - Ottawa, ON
  • Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation (NRC-IFCI) - Vancouver, BC
  • Institute for Information Technology (NRC-IIT) - Ottawa, ON; Gatineau, QC; Fredericton and Moncton, NB
  • Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC) - Ottawa, ON; London, ON; Regina, SK (Centre for Sustainable Infrastructure Research)

Support Institutes

  • Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), Canada's National Science Library - Ottawa, ON
  • Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP) - Ottawa, ON; and across Canada

NRC Aerospace Fleet


The NRC has a fleet of aircraft for their research purposes:
  • Bell 412
    Bell 412
    The Bell 412 is a utility helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It is a development of the Bell 212 model, the major difference being the composite four-blade main rotor.-Design and development:...

     Advanced Systems Research Aircraft
  • Bell 205 airborne simulator
  • Convair 580 - for atmospheric testing
  • Falcon 20 - aerospace and geoscience testing
  • Twin Otter - atmospheric and biospheric studies, and for flight mechanics and flight systems development
  • Harvard 4
    T-6 Texan
    The North American Aviation T-6 Texan was a single-engine advanced trainer aircraft used to train pilots of the United States Army Air Forces, United States Navy, Royal Air Force and other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II and into the 1950s...

     - trainer and experimental platform for avionics research http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/obj/iar-ira/doc/harvard_eng.pdf
  • Canadair T-33
    Canadair T-33
    |-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* "Canada's Fab Four". Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Key Publishing Limited, August, 2003. ISSN 0955-7091....

     - flight training
  • Extra 300 - studying pilot perception in a dynamic environment

See also

  • National Research Council Time Signal
    National Research Council Time Signal
    The National Research Council Time Signal is Canada's longest running but shortest radio programme. Heard every day since November 5, 1939 , shortly before 13:00 Eastern Time across the CBC Radio One network, it lasts between 15 and 45 seconds, ending exactly at 13:00...

  • Canadian government scientific research organizations
    Canadian government scientific research organizations
    Expenditures by federal and provincial organizations on scientific research and development accounted for about 10% of all such spending in Canada in 2006...

  • Canadian university scientific research organizations
    Canadian university scientific research organizations
    Expenditures by Canadian universities on scientific research and development accounted for about 40% of all spending on scientific research and development in Canada in 2006....

  • Canadian industrial research and development organizations
    Canadian industrial research and development organizations
    Expenditures by Canadian corporations on research and development accounted for about 50% of all spending on scientific research and development in Canada in 2007....

  • List of presidents of the National Research Council of Canada
  • Science and technology in Canada
    Science and technology in Canada
    Science and technology in Canada consists of three distinct but closely related phenomena:* the diffusion of technology in Canada,* scientific research in Canada* innovation, invention and industrial research in Canada...

  • sanofi-aventis international BioGENEius Challenge
    Sanofi-aventis international BioGENEius Challenge
    The sanofi-aventis International BioGENEius Challenge is a competition for high school students that recognizes original research in biotechnology. Held each year at the Biotechnology Industry Organization convention and organized by the Biotechnology Institute, it is considered the most...

  • Herbert Yardley
    Herbert Yardley
    Herbert Osborne Yardley was an American cryptologist best known for his book The American Black Chamber . The title of the book refers to the Cipher Bureau, the cryptographic organization of which Yardley was the founder and head...

     - American
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    cryptologist who help establish the Examination Unit in 1941

NRC and Its Institutes


Other