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National Anthem of the Republic of China

National Anthem of the Republic of China

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"National Anthem of the Republic of China" is the current national anthem
National anthem
A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.- History :Anthems rose to prominence...

 of the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 (ROC).The Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 (ROC, commonly known as Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

) was recognized as the government of mainland China prior to 1949. Since then the Republic of China has controlled Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 and some other nearby islands. The Republic of China was replaced by the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 (PRC) at the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 in 1971.
It discusses how the vision and hopes of a new nation and its people can and should be achieved and maintained using the Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, or collectively San-min Doctrine, is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation...

.Informally, the song is sometimes known as "San Min Chu-i" or "Three Principles of the People" from its opening line, but this is never used in formal or official occasions.

History


The text of "National Anthem of the Republic of China" was the collaboration between several Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 (KMT) members,
  • Hu Han-min (胡漢民 Hú Hànmín),
  • Tai Chi-t'ao (戴季陶; Dài Jìtáo),
  • Liao Chung-k'ai (廖仲愷 Liáo Zhòngkǎi)
  • Shao Yüan-ch'ung (邵元沖 Shào Yuánchōng).


The text debuted on July 16, 1924 as the opening of a speech by Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

 at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
The Nationalist Party of China Army Officer Academy , commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy , was a military academy in the Republic of China that produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second...

.

After the success of the Northern Expedition, the Kuomintang chose the text to be its party anthem and publicly solicited for accompanying music. Ch'eng Mao-yün
Ch'eng Mao-yün
Cheng Maoyun , 25 Aug 1900 - 31 Jul 1957) was a Chinese composer and a professor at National Central University and Hangzhou Societal University . He composed the "National Anthem of the Republic of China"....

 (程懋筠; Chéng Màoyún) won in a contest of 139 participants.

On March 24, 1930, numerous Kuomintang members proposed to use the speech by Sun as the lyrics to the national anthem. Due to opposition over using a symbol of a political party to represent the entire nation, the National Anthem Editing and Research Committee (國歌編製研究委員會) was set up, which endorsed the KMT party song. On June 3, 1937, the Central Standing Committee (中央常務委員會) approved the proposal, and in 1943, the song officially became the national anthem of the Republic of China.

Lyrics


Traditional Chinese characters

三民主義,吾黨所宗;

以建民國,以進大同。

咨爾多士,為民前鋒;

夙夜匪懈,主義是從。

矢勤矢勇,必信必忠;

一心一德,貫徹始終。

Zhuyin Fuhao
Bopomofo
Zhuyin fuhao , often abbreviated as zhuyin and colloquially called bopomofo, was introduced in the 1910s as the first official phonetic system for transcribing Chinese, especially Mandarin....

Wade-Giles
Wade-Giles
Wade–Giles , sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for the Mandarin Chinese language. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade during the mid-19th century , and was given completed form with Herbert Giles' Chinese–English dictionary of 1892.Wade–Giles was the most...

Hanyu Pinyin Xiao'erjing

ㄙㄢ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄓㄨˇ ㄧˋ, ㄨˊ ㄉㄤˇ ㄙㄨㄛˇ ㄗㄨㄥ;

ㄧˇ ㄐㄧㄢˋ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄍㄨㄛˊ, ㄧˇ ㄐㄧㄣˋ ㄉㄚˋ ㄊㄨㄥˊ。

ㄗ ㄦˇ ㄉㄨㄛ ㄕˋ, ㄨㄟˋ ㄇㄧㄣˊ ㄑㄧㄢˊ ㄈㄥ;

ㄙㄨˋ ㄧㄝˋ ㄈㄟˇ ㄒㄧㄝˋ, ㄓㄨˇ ㄧˋ ㄕˋ ㄘㄨㄥˊ。

ㄕˇ ㄑㄧㄣˊ ㄕˇ ㄩㄥˇ, ㄅㄧˋ ㄒㄧㄣˋ ㄅㄧˋ ㄓㄨㄥ;

ㄧˋ ㄒㄧㄣ ㄧˋ ㄉㄜˊ, ㄍㄨㄢˋ ㄔㄜˋ ㄕˇ ㄓㄨㄥ。

San-min-chu-yi, Wu-tang so tsung;

yi-chien Min-kuo, yi-chin ta-t'ung.

Tzu erh to-shih, wei min ch'ien-feng;

su-yeh-fei-hsieh, chu-yi shih ts'ung.

Shih-ch'in-shih-yung, pi hsin pi chung;

yi-hsin-yi-te, kuan-ch'e-shih-chung.

Sānmínzhǔyì, wúdǎng suǒ zōng;

Yǐ jiàn Mínguó, yǐ jìn dà tóng.

Zī ěr duōshì, wèi mín qiánfēng;

Sùyèfěixiè, zhǔyì shì cóng.

Shǐqínshǐyǒng, bì xìn bì zhōng;

Yìxīnyìdé, guànchèshǐzhōng.

صً مٍ ﺟُﻮْ ىِ , ءُ دْا ﺻُﻮَع ذْﻮ

ىِ ﻛِﯿًﺎ مٍ ﻗُﻮَع , ىِ دٍ دَا ﺗْﻮ

ذِ ﻋَﺮ دُوَع شِ , وِ مٍ ﺛِﯿًﺎ ﻓْﻊ

ﺻُﻮْ اِئ ﻓُﻮِٔ ﺛِﻰٔ , ﺟُﻮْ ىِ شِ ﺿْﻮ

شِ شٍ شِ ﻳْﻮ , بِ سٍ بِ ﺟْﻮ

ىِ سٍ ىِ دْ , ﻗُﻮًا چْ شِ ﺟْﻮ


The lyrics are in classical literary Chinese. For example,
  • ěr (爾) is a literary equivalent of both singular and plural "you" (which are differentiated in modern Chinese) depending on the context. In this case, it is plural "you".
  • fěi (匪) is a classical synonym of "not" (不 bù). And
  • (咨) is a classical, archaic interjection
    Interjection
    In grammar, an interjection or exclamation is a word used to express an emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker . Filled pauses such as uh, er, um are also considered interjections...

    , and is not used in this sense in the modern vernacular language.

In this respect, the national anthem of the Republic of China
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 stands in contrast to the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

's "The March of the Volunteers", which was written a few years later entirely in modern vernacular Chinese
Vernacular Chinese
Written Vernacular Chinese refers to forms of written Chinese based on the vernacular language, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used from the Spring and Autumn Period to the early twentieth century...

.

As well as being written in classical Chinese, the national anthem follows classical poetic conventions. The style follows that of a four-character
Chinese character
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese , less frequently Korean , formerly Vietnamese , or other languages...

 poem
Chinese poetry
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language, which includes various versions of Chinese language, including Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese, Yue Chinese, as well as many other historical and vernacular varieties of the Chinese language...

 (四言詩), also called a four-character rhymed prose
Rhymed prose
Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. This form has been known in many different cultures. In some cases the rhymed prose is a distinctive, well-defined style of writing...

 (四言韻文), first appeared in the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
The Zhou Dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as...

. The last character of each line rhymes in -ong or -eng, which are equivalent in ancient Chinese. Because of the concise and compact nature of poetry, some words in the text have different interpretations, evident in the two translations below.

Translations


The official version, translated by Tu Ting-yi is used when the anthem lyrics are described in foreign-language guides to the ROC published by the government.

Official


San Min Chu-i,

Our aim shall be:

To found a free
Freedom (political)
Political freedom is a central philosophy in Western history and political thought, and one of the most important features of democratic societies...

 land,

World peace
World peace
World Peace is an ideal of freedom, peace, and happiness among and within all nations and/or people. World peace is an idea of planetary non-violence by which nations willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that prevents warfare. The term is sometimes used to...

, be our stand.

Lead on, comrade
Comrade
Comrade means "friend", "colleague", or "ally". The word comes from French camarade. The term is frequently used by left-wing organizations around the globe. "Comrade" has often become a stock phrase and form of address. This word has its regional equivalents available in many...

s,

Vanguards ye are.

Hold fast your aim,

By sun
Sun
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields...

 and star
Star
A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by gravity. At the end of its lifetime, a star can also contain a proportion of degenerate matter. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth...

.

Be earnest and brave,

Your country to save,

One heart, one soul,

One mind, one goal...

Literal


Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, or collectively San-min Doctrine, is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation...

,

The foundation of our party.

Using this, we establish the Republic;

Using this, we advance into a state of total peace.

Oh, you, warrior
Warrior
A warrior is a person skilled in combat or warfare, especially within the context of a tribal or clan-based society that recognizes a separate warrior class.-Warrior classes in tribal culture:...

s,

For the people, be the vanguard.

Without resting day or night,

Follow the Principles.

Swear to be diligent; swear to be courageous.

Obliged to be trustworthy; obliged to be loyal.

With one heart and one virtue,

We carry through until the very end.


Lines seven and eight of the Tu and literal translations seem to vary dramatically, but the Tu translation is actually just in inverse order, probably to suit a more natural English word order. The words "day" and "night" are replaced by the metonyms "sun" and "star". Also, classical Chinese poetry allows for a great amount of license in interpretation.

The real differences are caused by the official interpretations, where some political and martial words have had their other connotations emphasized:
  1. "Our party" (吾黨) has been extended to be "our alliance", meaning "of us together", including the non-party members. (Translated in the Tu version as "our")
  2. "Warriors" (多士) personifies the persistence and fighting spirits in all citizens, including the civilians. ("Comrades")
  3. "Vanguard" (前鋒) symbolizes the "model citizens".


Such is taught in ROC schools, but some consider the elaboration of those phrases to be an inconsistent and unfaithful interpretation of the original.

The "great unity
Great unity
The Great unity is a classical Chinese term found in classical Chinese philosophy which has been invoked many times in modern Chinese history...

" (大同) has been interpreted to mean "total world harmony" (世界大同) and is a Confucian term used in the Great Learning
Great Learning
The Great Learning was one of the "Four Books" in Confucianism. The Great Learning had come from a chapter in the Classic of Rites which formed one of the Five Classics. It consists of a short main text attributed to the teachings of Confucius and then ten commentary chapters accredited to one...

 as the ultimate aim that humans should strive for. However, the term was also occasionally used in the nineteenth century as a translation of the term "socialism
Socialism
Socialism is an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy; or a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to any one of, or a combination of, the following: cooperative enterprises,...

" (the term for "Communism
Communism
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

" 共産 was actually a Japanese word, and some scholars feel the more correct Chinese term for the translation should be 大同). Sun Yat-sen's philosophy was that by providing for a strong China which could relate to the world as an equal, world harmony could be achieved.

Use in the ROC



It is generally heard on important occasions such as graduations and flag-raising ceremonies. But for many years it was played before all movie performances. The song was once used to identify
Shibboleth
A shibboleth is a custom, principle, or belief distinguishing a particular class or group of people, especially a long-standing one regarded as outmoded or no longer important...

 illegal migrants to Taiwan from mainland Fujian
Fujian
' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

 as they would not be able to sing the anthem. Reportedly this is no longer effective, since migrants to Taiwan now learn the song before crossing the straits.

Because it was originally the party song of Kuomintang
Kuomintang
The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

 (KMT) and was drafted in Mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 as the speech to Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
The Nationalist Party of China Army Officer Academy , commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy , was a military academy in the Republic of China that produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second...

 (a military school founded by KMT), those strongly supporting Taiwan independence
Taiwan independence
Taiwan independence is a political movement whose goals are primarily to formally establish the Republic of Taiwan by renaming or replacing the Republic of China , form a Taiwanese national identity, reject unification and One country, two systems with the People's Republic of China and a Chinese...

 have objected to its use as the national anthem. To them, the phrase "our party" (吾黨) is taken to refer to the KMT. The moderate interpretation interprets "our party" (吾黨) to have the more general meaning as "we", as its original meaning in Chinese before the existence of political parties, where the word refers to a group people linked together by similar ideologies or common benefits.

The Democratic Progressive Party has accepted the current national anthem of the Republic of China but often plays it in a strongly Taiwanese context such as having it sung by a choir of Taiwanese aboriginals or in Taiwanese (Min Nan
Min Nan
The Southern Min languages, or Min Nan , are a family of Chinese languages spoken in southern Fujian, eastern Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan, and southern Zhejiang provinces of China, and by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora....

) or Hakka.

The song is banned in mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 and although not formally banned in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 and Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

, its public performance there is rare. At Chen Shui-bian's inauguration in 2000, the national anthem was sung by popular Taiwanese singer A-Mei
A-Mei
A-Mei , also known by her birth name Chang Hui-mei , is an aboriginal Taiwanese pop singer and occasional songwriter. She is also known by her aboriginal name Gulilai Amit . She was born in the rugged mountains of eastern Taiwan and is the third youngest of nine siblings. A-mei made her debut in...

, which led to her being banned from touring in mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 for a few months.

At international events such as Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 when the ROC is not allowed to use its official name, it uses the name Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei is the designated name used by the Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan, to participate in some international organizations and almost all sporting events, such as the Olympics, Paralympics, Asian Games and Asian Para Games...

instead. Furthermore, the National Banner Song
National Banner Song
The "National Flag Anthem" of the Republic of China is played during the raising and lowering of the Flag of the Republic of China...

 is played in place of the National Anthem of the Republic of China due to pressure from the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 over the political status of Taiwan
Political status of Taiwan
The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu should remain effectively independent as territory of the Republic of China , become unified with the territories now governed by the People's Republic of China , or formally declare...

.

See also


  • Historical Chinese anthems
    Historical Chinese anthems
    Historical Chinese anthems comprise a number of Chinese official and unofficial national anthems composed during the early 20th century. Today, there are only two remaining:- "Tune of Li Zhongtang" :Quasi-official...

  • History of the Republic of China
    History of the Republic of China
    The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule. The Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912...

  • Sun Yat-sen
    Sun Yat-sen
    Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese doctor, revolutionary and political leader. As the foremost pioneer of Nationalist China, Sun is frequently referred to as the "Father of the Nation" , a view agreed upon by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China...

  • Kuomintang
    Kuomintang
    The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...


External links