Naticidae

Naticidae

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Naticidae, common name
Common name
A common name of a taxon or organism is a name in general use within a community; it is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism...

 the moon snails, is a family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 of minute to large-sized predatory sea snail
Sea snail
Sea snail is a common name for those snails that normally live in saltwater, marine gastropod molluscs....

s, marine
Marine (ocean)
Marine is an umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology...

 gastropod molluscs in the clade
Clade
A clade is a group consisting of a species and all its descendants. In the terms of biological systematics, a clade is a single "branch" on the "tree of life". The idea that such a "natural group" of organisms should be grouped together and given a taxonomic name is central to biological...

 Littorinimorpha
Littorinimorpha
Littorinimorpha is a large clade of gastropods within Hypsogastropoda consisting primarily of marine species, but also aquatic and terrestrial species as well....

.

Naticidae is the only family in the superfamily Naticoidea.

It has been estimated that worldwide there are about 260–270 Recent species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of naticid snails. This group is assumed to have originated in the late Triassic
Triassic
The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Mya . As the first period of the Mesozoic Era, the Triassic follows the Permian and is followed by the Jurassic. Both the start and end of the Triassic are marked by major extinction events...

 or in the early Jurassic
Jurassic
The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Mya to  Mya, that is, from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic era, also known as the age of reptiles. The start of the period is marked by...

. Members of this family can be recognized by the shape of their shells, distinct appearance or by their predatory behavior.

Distribution


Naticids are widely distributed and occur world-wide. The greatest diversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions...

 of both species and genera is found in tropical regions. Even so, naticid snails are also plentiful in temperate, Arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

 and Antarctic
Antarctic
The Antarctic is the region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica and the ice shelves, waters and island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence...

 waters.

Habitat


Moon snails live on sandy substrates
Substrate (biology)
In biology a substrate is the surface a plant or animal lives upon and grows on. A substrate can include biotic or abiotic materials and animals. For example, encrusting algae that lives on a rock can be substrate for another animal that lives on top of the algae. See also substrate .-External...

, at a great variety of depths depending on the species (from the intertidal zone
Intertidal zone
The intertidal zone is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide . This area can include many different types of habitats, with many types of animals like starfish, sea urchins, and some species of coral...

 to thousands of meters in depth). They are often seen ploughing along in the sand searching for prey.

Life habits



Naticids are predatory, feeding mostly on bivalves. They will also attack almost any other shelled mollusk they encounter in the sand, such as scaphopods and other gastropods, including other moon snails. Additionally, Conuber sordidus
Conuber sordidus
Conuber sordidus is a species of predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Distribution:East coast of Australia, from Victoria to Queensland...

 was shown to prey on the soldier crab Mictyris longicarpus
Mictyris longicarpus
Mictyris longicarpus is a species of crab that lives on sandy beaches from the Bay of Bengal to Australia; with other members of the genus Mictyris, it is "one of the most loved crabs in Australia". Adults are across, white, with blue on their backs, and hold their claws vertically. They feed on...

 (Crustacea) by drilling predation. To catch soldier crabs, C. sordidus uses the same stereotyped behaviour as previously described for moon snails hunting shelled molluscan prey.

The moonsnail envelops the prey and then bores a hole through the shell using their radula
Radula
The radula is an anatomical structure that is used by molluscs for feeding, sometimes compared rather inaccurately to a tongue. It is a minutely toothed, chitinous ribbon, which is typically used for scraping or cutting food before the food enters the esophagus...

 and an acid
Acid
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7, where an acid of lower pH is typically stronger, and turn blue litmus paper red...

 secretion. Once the shell is bored open, the proboscis
Proboscis
A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate. In simpler terms, a proboscis is the straw-like mouth found in several varieties of species.-Etymology:...

 is used to consume the flesh of the prey. The hole in the shell, which has a "countersunk
Countersink
A countersink is a conical hole cut into a manufactured object, or the cutter used to cut such a hole. A common usage is to allow the head of a countersunk bolt or screw, when placed in the hole, to sit flush with or below the surface of the surrounding material...

" appearance with chamfer
Chamfer
A chamfer is a beveled edge connecting two surfaces. If the surfaces are at right angles, the chamfer will typically be symmetrical at 45 degrees. A fillet is the rounding off of an interior corner. A rounding of an exterior corner is called a "round" or a "radius"."Chamfer" is a term commonly...

ed edges and which varies in size according to the species, is a characteristic diagnostic sign of moon snail predation.

In the breeding season, the female moon snail lays a rather stiff egg mass which includes sand and mucus. These objects wash up on sandy beaches fairly often, and are known by the common name
Common name
A common name of a taxon or organism is a name in general use within a community; it is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism...

 "sand collar
Sand collar
Sand collars are the egg masses of certain sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, sometimes known as "moon snails".These egg masses often wash up on sandy beaches, either whole or sometimes in fragments. When they are whole, sand collars are shaped like an old-fashioned...

s" because of their resemblance to an old-fashioned removable shirt collar or false-collar
False-collar
A detachable collar is a shirt collar separate from the shirt, fastened to it by studs. The collar is usually made of a different fabric from the shirt, in which case it is almost always white, and, being unattached to the shirt, can be specially starched to a hard cardboard-like...

.

Traditional classification


Some authors have suggested a distinct separation of the Naticidae into four subfamilies: Ampullospirinae, Naticinae
Naticinae
The Naticinae are a subfamily of medium to large-sized predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon snails....

, Polinicinae and Sininae. This arrangement is mainly based on morphological
Morphology (biology)
In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features....

 data, such as details of the operculum
Operculum (gastropod)
The operculum, meaning little lid, is a corneous or calcareous anatomical structure which exists in many groups of sea snails and freshwater snails, and also in a few groups of land snails...

 including the material
Material
Material is anything made of matter, constituted of one or more substances. Wood, cement, hydrogen, air and water are all examples of materials. Sometimes the term "material" is used more narrowly to refer to substances or components with certain physical properties that are used as inputs to...

 (calcareous
Calcareous
Calcareous is an adjective meaning mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate, in other words, containing lime or being chalky. The term is used in a wide variety of scientific disciplines.-In zoology:...

 in the Naticinae, corneous
Corneous
Corneous is a biological and medical term meaning horny, in other words made out of a substance similar to that of horns and hooves in some mammals....

 in the Polinicinae and Sininae) and size, and also the morphology of the shell.

2005 taxonomy


The following three subfamilies were recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005)
Taxonomy of the Gastropoda (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005)
The taxonomy of the Gastropoda as it was revised by Philippe Bouchet and Jean-Pierre Rocroi is currently the most up-to-date overall system for classifying gastropod mollusks...

:
  • Naticinae
    Naticinae
    The Naticinae are a subfamily of medium to large-sized predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon snails....

     Guilding, 1834 - synonyms: Polinicinae Gray, 1847; Neveritinae Gray, 1857; Choristidae Verrill, 1882; Euspiridae Cossmann, 1907; Mammillinae Iredale & McMichael, 1962; Eunaticinini Oyama, 1469
  • Sininae Woodring, 1928 - synonyms: Sigaretidae Gary, 1827; Cryptostomidae Gray, 1827
  • Globisininae Powell
    Arthur William Baden Powell
    Dr Arthur William Baden Powell CBE was a New Zealand malacologist, naturalist and palaeontologist, a major influence in the study and classification of New Zealand molluscs through much of the twentieth century. He was known to his friends and family by his third name, "Baden".Powell was born at...

    , 1933

Genera


Genera in the family Naticidae include:

subfamily Naticinae
  • Eunaticina
    Eunaticina
    Eunaticina is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Eunaticina include:* Eunaticina africana Fernandes & Burnay* Eunaticina mienisi...

     Fischer, 1885
  • Euspira
    Euspira
    Euspira is a genus of medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon snails. - Species :Species within the genus Euspira include:* Euspira catena* Euspira fortunei...

     Agassiz in Sowerby, 1838
  • Natica
    Natica
    Natica is a genus of small to medium-sized predatory sea snails, marine gastropods in the family Naticidae, the moon snails. The genus is known from the Cretaceous to the Recent periods.- Species :...

     Scopoli
    Giovanni Antonio Scopoli
    Giovanni Antonio Scopoli was an Italian physician and naturalist.-Biography:...

    , 1777
  • Neverita
    Neverita
    Neverita is a genus of medium-sized to large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae known as moon snails The type species of this genus is Neverita josephinia Risso, 1826.-Species:...

     Risso, 1826 - its subgenus or synonym includes Glossaulax
    Glossaulax
    Glossaulax is a genus of large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.- Feeding habits :As is true of all naticid genera, species in this genus are carnivorous and predatory....

     Pilsbry, 1929
  • Polinices
    Polinices
    Polinices is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae known as moon shells. Glossaulax Pilsbry, 1929 is a synonym or a subgenus of Polinices.-Species:Species within the genus Polinices include:...

     Montfort
    Pierre Denys de Montfort
    Pierre Denys de Montfort, also sometimes spelled "Pierre Dénys de Montfort", was a French naturalist, in particular a malacologist, remembered today for his pioneering inquiries into the existence of the giant squid Architeuthis, which was thought to be an old wives' tale, and for which he was...

    , 1810


subfamily Sininae
  • Sinum
    Sinum
    Sinum is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Sinum include:* Sinum bifasciatum * Sinum concavum...

     Röding
    Peter Friedrich Röding
    Peter Friedrich Röding was a German malacologist who lived in Hamburg. Very little is known about this naturalist.Many of Röding's descriptions are of species which were first named by earlier authors such as Johann Hieronymus Chemnitz, Friedrich Wilhelm Martini and Martin Lister...

    , 1798


subfamily Globisininae
  • Globisinum
    Globisinum
    Globisinum is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Globisinum include:* Globisinum drewi * Globisinum venustum...

     Marwick
    John Marwick
    John Marwick MM was a New Zealand palaeontologist and geologist.John Marwick was born near Oamaru, New Zealand, on 3 February 1891, the son of Hugh Marwick, and his wife, Jane née Cuthbert. While at Waitaki Boys' High School he helped to collect fossil shells and learned the beginnings of how to...

    , 1924


subfamily ?
  • Acrybia Adams, 1853
  • Amauropsis
    Amauropsis
    Amauropsis is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Amauropsis include:* Amauropsis anderssoni...

     Mörch
    Otto Andreas Lowson Mörch
    Otto Andreas Lowson Mörch was a biologist, specifically a malacologist. He lived in Sweden, in Denmark, and in France.- Taxa described :Bibliography and taxa described by Otto Andreas Lowson Mörch include:...

    , 1857
  • Bulbus
    Bulbus
    Bulbus is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Bulbus include:* Bulbus benthicolus Dell, 1990* Bulbus carcellesi Dell, 1990...

     Brown, 1839
  • Calinaticina J. Q. Burch & Campbell, 1963
  • Conuber
    Conuber
    Conuber is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Conuber include:* Conuber conicus * Conuber incei...

     Finlay & Marwick, 1937
  • Cryptonatica
    Cryptonatica
    Cryptonatica is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Cryptonatica include:* Cryptonatica affinis...

     Dall
    W. H. Dall
    William Healey Dall was an American naturalist, a prominent malacologist, and one of the earliest scientific explorers of interior Alaska...

    , 1892
  • Falsilunatia
    Falsilunatia
    Falsilunatia is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, which are known as moon snails or moon shells.-Species:Species within the genus Falsilunatia include:* Falsilunatia ambigua...

     Powell
    Arthur William Baden Powell
    Dr Arthur William Baden Powell CBE was a New Zealand malacologist, naturalist and palaeontologist, a major influence in the study and classification of New Zealand molluscs through much of the twentieth century. He was known to his friends and family by his third name, "Baden".Powell was born at...

    , 1951
  • Friginatica
    Friginatica
    Friginatica is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon shells.-Species:Species within the genus Friginatica include:* Friginatica aldingensis * Friginatica amphiala...

     Hedley
    Charles Hedley
    Charles Hedley was a naturalist, active in Australia and winner of the 1925 Clarke Medal.-Early life:...

    , 1916
  • Gyrodes Conrad
    Timothy Abbott Conrad
    Timothy Abbott Conrad was an American geologist, malacologist and carcinologist.- External links :* at Internet Archive...

    , 1860
  • Haliotinella
    Haliotinella
    Haliotinella is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Haliotinella include:* Haliotinella patinaria Guppy, 1876...

     Souverbie, 1875
  • Lunatia Gray, 1847
  • Naticarius
    Naticarius
    Naticarius is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropods in the family Naticidae, the moon snails. The species within this genus were formally placed in the genus Natica, subgenus Naticarius...

     Duméril, 1806
  • Proxiuber
    Proxiuber
    Proxiuber is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon shells.-Species:Species within the genus Proxiuber include:* Proxiuber australe * Proxiuber hulmei Powell, 1954- References :...

     Powell
    Arthur William Baden Powell
    Dr Arthur William Baden Powell CBE was a New Zealand malacologist, naturalist and palaeontologist, a major influence in the study and classification of New Zealand molluscs through much of the twentieth century. He was known to his friends and family by his third name, "Baden".Powell was born at...

    , 1933
  • Sigatica
    Sigatica
    Sigatica is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Sigatica include:* Sigatica carolinensis...

     Meyer and Aldrich, 1886
  • Spironema
    Spironema (gastropod)
    †Spironema is a genus of extinct sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.- Description :...

     Meek, 1864
  • Stigmaulax
    Stigmaulax
    Stigmaulax is a genus of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Stigmaulax include:* Stigmaulax cancellatus...

     Mörch
    Otto Andreas Lowson Mörch
    Otto Andreas Lowson Mörch was a biologist, specifically a malacologist. He lived in Sweden, in Denmark, and in France.- Taxa described :Bibliography and taxa described by Otto Andreas Lowson Mörch include:...

    , 1852
  • Tanea
    Tanea
    Tanea is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon snails or necklace shells.-Species:Species within the genus Tanea include:* Tanea acinonyx * Tanea aerolata...

     Marwick
    John Marwick
    John Marwick MM was a New Zealand palaeontologist and geologist.John Marwick was born near Oamaru, New Zealand, on 3 February 1891, the son of Hugh Marwick, and his wife, Jane née Cuthbert. While at Waitaki Boys' High School he helped to collect fossil shells and learned the beginnings of how to...

    , 1931
  • Tasmatica
    Tasmatica
    Tasmatica, common name necklace shells, is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon snails or necklace shells.-Species:* Tasmatica modestina Ludbrook, 1958...

     Finlay & Marwick, 1937
  • Tectonatica
    Tectonatica
    Tectonatica is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon snails. -Species:Species within the genus Tectonatica include:* Tectonatica bougei * Tectonatica impervia...

     Sacco, 1890
  • Uberella
    Uberella
    Uberella is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Naticidae, the moon snails.-Species:Species within the genus Uberella include:* Uberella alacris Dell, 1956* Uberella barrierensis...

     Finlay
    Harold John Finlay
    Harold John Finlay was a New Zealand palaeontologist and conchologist. He was born in Comilla, India , on 22 March 1901....

    , 1928

Further reading

  • Powell A. W. B.
    Arthur William Baden Powell
    Dr Arthur William Baden Powell CBE was a New Zealand malacologist, naturalist and palaeontologist, a major influence in the study and classification of New Zealand molluscs through much of the twentieth century. He was known to his friends and family by his third name, "Baden".Powell was born at...

     1979. New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd
    HarperCollins
    HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. It is the combination of the publishers William Collins, Sons and Co Ltd, a British company, and Harper & Row, an American company, itself the result of an earlier merger of Harper & Brothers and Row, Peterson & Company. The worldwide...

    , Auckland, New Zealand ISBN 0-00-216906-1
  • Ponder W. & Lindberg D. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs; an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
    Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
    Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society is the scientific journal of the Linnean Society published by Wiley-Blackwell.According to EBSCOhost, it "[p]resents original papers on zoology with an emphasis on the diversity, systematics, interrelationships, and habits of animals both living and...

    , 119: 83-265, London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

    , .
  • Huelsken T. et al. 2006. Neverita delessertiana (Recluz in Chenu, 1843): a naticid species (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) distinct from Neverita duplicata (Say, 1822) based on molecular data, morphological characters, and geographical distribution. Zootaxa
    Zootaxa
    Zootaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for animal taxonomists. It is published by Magnolia Press . The journal was established by Zhi-Qiang Zhang in 2001 and new issues are published multiple times a week...

    , 1257:1-25.
  • Colgan D.J. et al. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda: Mollusca). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics. The journal is edited by D.E. Wildman.-Indexing:The journal is indexed in:*EMBiology*Journal Citation Reports*Scopus*Web of Science...

    , 42, 717-37.
  • Huelsken, T., Wägele, H., Peters, B., Mather, A., Hollmann, M. (2011) Molecular analysis of adults and egg masses reveals two independent lineages within the infaunal gastropod Naticarius onca (Röding, 1798) (Caenogastropoda: Naticidae). Molluscan Research, 31(3), 141-151. PDF

External links


  • CLEMAM - Taxonomic Database on European Marine Mollusca of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
    Muséum national d'histoire naturelle
    The Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle is the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, France.- History :The museum was formally founded on 10 June 1793, during the French Revolution...

     and the Department of Systematics & Evolution, Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    .
  • The Naticidae of Giglio Island at Morphobank - Homology of phenotypes over the web
    Morphobank
    MorphoBank is a Web application for collaborative evolutionary research, specifically phylogenetic systematics or cladistics, on the phenotype. Historically, scientists conducting research on phylogenetic systematics have worked individually or in small groups employing traditional single-user...

  • Malacolog 4.1.0 - A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca
  • Naturamediterraneo - Mediterranean fauna and flora
  • Publications and sequences of the Naticidae submitted to the NCBI
    National Center for Biotechnology Information
    The National Center for Biotechnology Information is part of the United States National Library of Medicine , a branch of the National Institutes of Health. The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper...