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Nainital

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| colspan="2" style="line-height: 1.15em; font-size: 1.30em; text-align: center;" |Nainital

नैनीताल
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Naintal, Uttarakhand

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नैनीताल
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—  city  —

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Naintal, Uttarakhand

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नैनीताल
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—  city  —

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Naintal, Uttarakhand

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Nainital



Location of Nainital

in Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...


|-
| Coordinates
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represent vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent horizontal position...


|
{{About|the municipality in Uttarakhand, India|its namesake district|Nainital district}}
{{merge from|Pt. G.B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital|date=November 2011}}
{| class="infobox vcard" style="width: 22em; line-height: 1.40em; text-align: left;"
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| colspan="2" style="line-height: 1.15em; font-size: 1.30em; text-align: center;" |Nainital

नैनीताल
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—  city  —

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Naintal, Uttarakhand

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{{About|the municipality in Uttarakhand, India|its namesake district|Nainital district}}
{{merge from|Pt. G.B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital|date=November 2011}}
{| class="infobox vcard" style="width: 22em; line-height: 1.40em; text-align: left;"
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| colspan="2" style="line-height: 1.15em; font-size: 1.30em; text-align: center;" |Nainital

नैनीताल
|-
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—  city  —

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Naintal, Uttarakhand

|-
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{{About|the municipality in Uttarakhand, India|its namesake district|Nainital district}}
{{merge from|Pt. G.B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital|date=November 2011}}
{| class="infobox vcard" style="width: 22em; line-height: 1.40em; text-align: left;"
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| colspan="2" style="line-height: 1.15em; font-size: 1.30em; text-align: center;" |Nainital

नैनीताल
|-
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—  city  —

|-
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Naintal, Uttarakhand

|-
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Nainital



Location of Nainital

in Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...


|-
| Coordinates
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represent vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent horizontal position...


|
{{About|the municipality in Uttarakhand, India|its namesake district|Nainital district}}
{{merge from|Pt. G.B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital|date=November 2011}}
{| class="infobox vcard" style="width: 22em; line-height: 1.40em; text-align: left;"
|-
| colspan="2" style="line-height: 1.15em; font-size: 1.30em; text-align: center;" |Nainital

नैनीताल
|-
|-

—  city  —

|-
|-
|-
| colspan=2 |
Naintal, Uttarakhand

|-
| colspan=2 |


{{About|the municipality in Uttarakhand, India|its namesake district|Nainital district}}
{{merge from|Pt. G.B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital|date=November 2011}}
{| class="infobox vcard" style="width: 22em; line-height: 1.40em; text-align: left;"
|-
| colspan="2" style="line-height: 1.15em; font-size: 1.30em; text-align: center;" |Nainital

नैनीताल
|-
|-

—  city  —

|-
|-
|-
| colspan=2 |






Naintal, Uttarakhand

|-
| colspan=2 |


{{About|the municipality in Uttarakhand, India|its namesake district|Nainital district}}
{{merge from|Pt. G.B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital|date=November 2011}}
{| class="infobox vcard" style="width: 22em; line-height: 1.40em; text-align: left;"
|-
| colspan="2" style="line-height: 1.15em; font-size: 1.30em; text-align: center;" |Nainital

नैनीताल
|-
|-

—  city  —

|-
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Naintal, Uttarakhand

|-
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Nainital



Location of Nainital

in Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...


|-
| Coordinates
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represent vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent horizontal position...


| {{#if:29.38|http://toolserver.org/~geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Nainital¶ms=29.38_N_79.45_E_type:city(38560)_region:IN-UL_29°23′N 79°27′E / 29.38°N 79.45°E / 29.38; 79.45]Coordinates
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represent vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent horizontal position...

: http://toolserver.org/~geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Nainital¶ms=29.38_N_79.45_E_type:city(38560)_region:IN-UL_29°23′N 79°27′E / 29.38°N 79.45°E / 29.38; 79.45]

|-
|- class=mergedrow
| | Country
| | India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...


|- class=mergedrow
|- class=mergedrow
| | State
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...


| | Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...


|- class=mergedrow
|- class=mergedrow
| | District(s)
Districts of India
A district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. Districts are further subdivided, in some cases into Sub-Divisions, and otherwise directly into tehsils or talukas.District officials include:...


| | Nainital
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| | Population

Density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...


| | 38,560 (2001)

3,827 /km2 (9,912 /sq mi)
|- class=mergedrow
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| | Time zone
Time zone
A time zone is a region on Earth that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. In order for the same clock time to always correspond to the same portion of the day as the Earth rotates , different places on the Earth need to have different clock times...


| | IST
Indian Standard Time
Indian Standard Time is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a time offset of UTC+05:30. India does not observe daylight saving time or other seasonal adjustments, although DST was used briefly during the Sino–Indian War of 1962 and the Indo–Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971...

 (UTC+05:30)
|- style="white-space: nowrap"
| | Area
Geography of India
The geography of India describes the physical features of India, a country in South Asia, that lies entirely on the Indian Plate in the northern portion of the Indo-Australian Plate. The country lies to the north of the equator between 8°4' and 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' east...



Elevation
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...


| | 11.73 km2 (5 sq mi)

2,084 metres (6,837 ft)
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Nainital ({{lang-hi|नैनीताल}}) is a popular hill station in the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 and headquarters of Nainital district in the Kumaon
Kumaon Division
For Kumaoni/Kumauni People see Kumauni PeopleKumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar...

 foothills
Foothills
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in elevation at the base of a mountain range. They are a transition zone between plains and low relief hills to the adjacent topographically high mountains.-Examples:...

 of the outer Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

. Situated at an altitude of 1938 metres (6,358.3 ft) above sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

, Nainital is set in a valley containing a pear-shaped lake, approximately two miles in circumference, and surrounded by mountains, of which the highest are Naina (2615 m (8,579.4 ft)) on the north, Deopatha (2438 m (7,998.7 ft)) on the west, and Ayarpatha (2278 m (7,473.8 ft)) on the south. From the tops of the higher peaks, "magnificent views can be obtained of the vast plain to the south, or of the mass of tangled ridges lying north, bounded by the great snowy range which forms the central axis of the Himalayas.".

Geography


Nainital is located at 29.38°N 79.45°E. It has an average elevation of 2,084 metres (6,837 feet).

Climate


Nainital has temperate summers, maximum temperature 27 °C (81 °F); minimum temperature 7 °C (45 °F), during which its population increases more than fivefold with an annual influx of tourists predominantly from the plains of Northern India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

. In the winter, Nainital receives snowfall between December and February with the temperatures varying between a maximum of 15 °C (59 °F) and a minimum of -3 °C.

Demographics


As of the 2001 Indian census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, Nainital had a population of 38,559. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Nainital has an average literacy rate of 91%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 98%, and female literacy is 86%. In Nainital, 1% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kumaonies form the major part of the town's population along with people from all over India.

Nainital in Mythology



It is believed that Nainital figures in some ancient myths of India. In the Manas Khand of the Skand Puranas
Puranas
The Puranas are a genre of important Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography.Puranas...

, Nainital Lake is called Tri-Rishi-Sarovar, hinting at the story of three sages (or rishi
Rishi
Rishi denotes the composers of Vedic hymns. However, according to post-Vedic tradition, the rishi is a "seer" to whom the Vedas were "originally revealed" through states of higher consciousness. The rishis were prominent when Vedic Hinduism took shape, as far back as some three thousand years...

s), Atri, Pulastya and Pulaha, who, upon finding no water in Nainital, dug a large hole at the location of the present day lake (sarovar = lake) and filled it with water from the holy lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar, Mapam Yumco , or Manasa Sarovar/Lake Manas , is a fresh-water lake in Tibet Autonomous Region of China approximately from Lhasa. To the west of Lake Manasa Sarovar is Lake Rakshastal and towards the north is Mount Kailash...

 in Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

. According to lore, a dip in Naini Lake, "the lesser Manasarovar," earns merit equal to a dip in the great lake.

It is also believed that The Naini Lake is one of the 64 Shakti
Shakti
Shakti from Sanskrit shak - "to be able," meaning sacred force or empowerment, is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe in Hinduism. Shakti is the concept, or personification, of divine feminine creative power, sometimes...

 Peeths,
or religious sites where parts of the charred body of Sati
Dakshayani
Dākshāyani or Satī is a Hindu Goddess of marital felicity and longevity. She is worshipped particularly by Hindu women to seek the long life of their husbands...

 (Parvati) fell on earth while being carried by Lord Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

. The spot where Sati's eyes (or Nain) fell, came to be called Nain-tal or lake of the eye. The goddess Shakti is worshipped at the Naina Devi Temple on the north shore of the present day lake.

Early Construction



The Kumaon
Kumaon Division
For Kumaoni/Kumauni People see Kumauni PeopleKumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar...

 Hills came under British
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom during the period when what is now the Republic of Ireland formed a part of it....

 rule after the Anglo-Nepalese War
Gurkha War
The Gurkha War , sometimes called the Gorkha War or the Anglo–Nepalese War, was fought between the Kingdom of Nepal and the British East India Company as a result of border tensions and ambitious expansionism...

 (1814–16), but the hill station
Hill station
A hill station is a town located at a higher elevation than the nearby plain or valley. The term was used mostly in colonial Asia , but also in Africa , for towns founded by European colonial rulers as refuges from the summer heat, up where temperatures are cooler...

 town of Naini Tal was founded only in 1841, with the construction of the first European house (Pilgrim Lodge) by P. Barron, a sugar trader from Shahjahanpur
Shahjahanpur
Shahjahanpur is a municipal board, town and district headquarters of Shahjahanpur District in Uttar Pradesh, India.-History:During the reign of Shahjahan, Mughal forces demolished the city of Kant...

. In his memoir, he wrote: "It is by far the best site I have witnessed in the course of a 1500 miles (2,414 km) trek in the Himalayas." In 1846, when a Captain Madden of the Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

 Artillery
Artillery
Originally applied to any group of infantry primarily armed with projectile weapons, artillery has over time become limited in meaning to refer only to those engines of war that operate by projection of munitions far beyond the range of effect of personal weapons...

 visited Naini Tal, he recorded that "houses were rapidly springing up in most parts of the settlement: some towards the crest of the limitary ranges were nearly 7500 ft (2,286 m) above sea level: the rugged and woody Anyarpatta (Anyar-patt - in Kumaoni means - complete blackout. The reason for this nomenclature by the localites was because there were minimal sun rays due to its location and dense forests) was being gradually planted and that the favourite sites were on the undulating tract of forest land which stretched back from the head of the lake to the base of China and Deopatta (Camel's Hump). The Church, St. John in the Wilderness, had been built, ..." Soon, the town became a health resort favoured both by British soldiers and by colonial officials and their families trying to escape the heat of the plains. Later, the town also became the summer residence of the Governor
Governor
A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

 of the United Provinces
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces, by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of...

.

The Landslip of 1880



In September 1880 a landslide
Landslide
A landslide or landslip is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as rockfalls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments...

 (the Landslip of 1880) occurred at the north end of the town, burying 151 people. The first known landslide had occurred in 1866, and in 1879 there was a larger one at the same spot, Alma Hill, but "the great slip occurred in the following year, on Saturday 18 September 1880." "Two days preceding the slip there was heavy rain, ... 20 inches (508 mm) to 35 in (889 mm) fell during the 40 hours ending on Saturday morning, and the downpour still lasted and continued for hours after the slip. This heavy fall naturally brought down streams of water from the hill side, some endangering the Victoria Hotel, ... (which) was not the only building threatened ... Bell's shop, the Volunteer Orderly Room and the Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 (Naina Devi) temple were scenes of labour with a view to diverting streams. At a quarter to two the landslip occurred burying those in and around the buildings mentioned above." The total number of dead and missing were 108 Indian and 43 British nationals. (See poem by Hannah Battersby on the page Literary references to Nainital
Literary references to Nainital
The town of Nainital , India was founded in 1841 by P. Barron, a sugar trader from Shahjahanpur. By 1846 the church St John's in the Wilderness was founded and a hill station had begun to flourish. Among the authors who referred to Nainital in their writings were Rudyard Kipling, Munshi...

). The Assembly Rooms and the Naina Devi Temple were both destroyed in the disaster. A recreation area known as 'The Flats' was later built on the site and a new temple was also erected. To prevent further disasters, storm water drains were constructed and building bylaws were made stricter.


Establishment of schools


In the latter half of the 19th century a number of "European" schools for boys and girls were founded in Nainital. During the Victorian
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 and Edwardian
Edwardian period
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period in the United Kingdom is the period covering the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910.The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 and the succession of her son Edward marked the end of the Victorian era...

 eras, students in these schools consisted largely of children of British colonial officials or soldiers. In 1906, for example, there were over half a dozen such schools, including the Diocesan Boys' School (later renamed Sherwood College
Sherwood College
Sherwood College is a co-educational residential school in Nainital, Uttarakhand, India, serving grades 3 - 12.-History:Sherwood was founded in July, 1867. This project was the brain-child of a Dr. Condon, Mr. H.S. Reid and others and under the patronage of the Rt. Rev. Robert Milman, DD, the...

).

Places of Interest


Naini Lake- Naini Lake is situated in the heart of the city and it is owing to this lake that Nainital earned its name. The eye-shaped lake is a tourist hotspot and acts as a magnet for all those visiting the hill resort. Here, a person can either take a leisurely stroll or indulge in boating and enjoy the surrounding beauty. The northern end of the lake is called Mallital, while the southern one is called Tallital. The Lake Bridge that connects the two banks has quite a few shops as well as a post office, the only one in the world to be located on a bridge.

Nakuchia Lake- Nakuchia Tal is a lake in Nainital, known for having nine corners. This lake is still untouched by majority of the tourist population and owing to this, has managed to maintain its serenity till date. Take a walk around the nine cornered lake to enjoy the beautiful natural setting. Otherwise, you can also go on a boating tour and explore the scenic surroundings.

Bhimtal Lake- Situated 22 km from the city center, Bhimtal Lake is the biggest lake of Nainital. It is named after one of the Pandav brothers Bhim. The lake boasts of an island within its precincts, which is home to a very famous temple. During the day, one can easily hear the chiming of temple bells, even from the embankment.

Naini Devi Temple- Nainital is believed to be one of the 64 Shaktipeeths, where one of the body parts of Goddess Sati fell, when Lord Shiva carried her body. In Nainital, the eyes (naina) of the Goddess are assumed to have fallen. The shrine of Naina Devi is a must visit for devout Hindus. The temple is located on the northern shore of Naini lake and was reconstructed after being destroyed in the infamous 1880 landslide. One can also get an amazing of the hill station, overlooking the lake, from the temple.

Governor's House- Built in 1899, Governor's House or Raj Bhavan is a marvelous reminiscent of the British era. Built in Victorian Gothic style, it served as the residence of the Governor of north-western province and later the United Province. Raj Bhavan is an architectural marvel and adding to its beauty are the well manicured lawns, a swimming pool and a golf course, situated within the premises. Presently, the structure serves as the guest house for the Governor of Uttarakhand. However, one has to take prior permission to visit the place.

St. John's Church- Built in 1844, 'St. John in the Wilderness' is one of the most tranquil places in the town of Nainital. The church is located on Mallital, the north end of the town. The Bishop of Calcutta, Daniel Wilson was the one who laid the foundation of the church in Nainital.

Snow View Point- Situated at an altitude of 2,260 m, Snow View Point is one of the coldest regions in Nainital. Here, you can capture breathtaking pictures of snow-covered peaks and mountains. The ideal time to visit snow point is during the months of October and November. A sojourn to Nainital is undoubtedly incomplete without a visit to the Snow Point.

Naina Peak- Overlooking the Naini Lake, Naina peak (2611mt) provides the most breathtaking view of the hill station of Nainital. Situated at a distance of about 6 km from the main town, Naina peak is the highest peak of the hill station. Horses or ponies can be hired from Snow View Point or Mallital, if one intends to visit the peak. Naina peak is also referred to as the China peak and is an absolute delight for trekking lovers