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Mycobacterium

Mycobacterium

Overview
Mycobacterium is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content. They can be terrestrial or aquatic. Actinobacteria is one of the dominant phyla of the bacteria....

, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. The genus includes pathogen
Pathogen
A pathogen gignomai "I give birth to") or infectious agent — colloquially, a germ — is a microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus that causes disease in its animal or plant host...

s known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

 (Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic bacterial species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis . First discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch, M...

) and leprosy
Leprosy
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions...

 (Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s coccus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy . It is an intracellular, pleomorphic, acid-fast bacterium. M. leprae is an aerobic bacillus surrounded by the characteristic waxy coating unique to mycobacteria...

). The Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 prefix "myco—" means fungus, alluding to the way mycobacteria have been observed to grow in a mould-like fashion on the surface of liquids when cultured.

Mycobacteria are aerobic
Aerobic organism
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.Faculitative anaerobes grow and survive in an oxygenated environment and so do aerotolerant anaerobes.-Glucose:...

 and nonmotile bacteria (except for the species Mycobacterium marinum
Mycobacterium marinum
Mycobacterium marinum is a free-living bacterium, which causes opportunistic infections in humans.- History :Although Aronson isolated this mycobacterium in 1926 from a fish, it was not until 1951 that it was found to be the cause of human disease by Linell and Norden...

, which has been shown to be motile within macrophage
Macrophage
Macrophages are cells produced by the differentiation of monocytes in tissues. Human macrophages are about in diameter. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes. Macrophages function in both non-specific defense as well as help initiate specific defense mechanisms of vertebrate animals...

s) that are characteristically acid-alcohol fast
Acid-fast
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacteria, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during staining procedures.Acid-fast organisms are difficult to characterize using standard microbiological techniques Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacteria,...

.
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Encyclopedia
Mycobacterium is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content. They can be terrestrial or aquatic. Actinobacteria is one of the dominant phyla of the bacteria....

, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. The genus includes pathogen
Pathogen
A pathogen gignomai "I give birth to") or infectious agent — colloquially, a germ — is a microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus that causes disease in its animal or plant host...

s known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

 (Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic bacterial species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis . First discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch, M...

) and leprosy
Leprosy
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions...

 (Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s coccus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy . It is an intracellular, pleomorphic, acid-fast bacterium. M. leprae is an aerobic bacillus surrounded by the characteristic waxy coating unique to mycobacteria...

). The Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 prefix "myco—" means fungus, alluding to the way mycobacteria have been observed to grow in a mould-like fashion on the surface of liquids when cultured.

Microbiologic characteristics


Mycobacteria are aerobic
Aerobic organism
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.Faculitative anaerobes grow and survive in an oxygenated environment and so do aerotolerant anaerobes.-Glucose:...

 and nonmotile bacteria (except for the species Mycobacterium marinum
Mycobacterium marinum
Mycobacterium marinum is a free-living bacterium, which causes opportunistic infections in humans.- History :Although Aronson isolated this mycobacterium in 1926 from a fish, it was not until 1951 that it was found to be the cause of human disease by Linell and Norden...

, which has been shown to be motile within macrophage
Macrophage
Macrophages are cells produced by the differentiation of monocytes in tissues. Human macrophages are about in diameter. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes. Macrophages function in both non-specific defense as well as help initiate specific defense mechanisms of vertebrate animals...

s) that are characteristically acid-alcohol fast
Acid-fast
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacteria, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during staining procedures.Acid-fast organisms are difficult to characterize using standard microbiological techniques Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacteria,...

. Mycobacteria do not contain endospores or capsules and are usually considered Gram-positive
Gram-positive
Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain and appearing red or pink...

. A recent paper in PNAS showed sporulation in Mycobacterium marinum and perhaps in M. bovis. However, this has been strongly contested by other scientists. While mycobacteria do not seem to fit the Gram-positive category from an empirical
Empirical
The word empirical denotes information gained by means of observation or experimentation. Empirical data are data produced by an experiment or observation....

 standpoint (i.e. they generally do not retain the crystal violet
Crystal violet
Crystal violet or Gentian violet is a triarylmethane dye. The dye is used as a histological stain and in Gram’s method of classifying bacteria. Crystal violet has antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties and was formerly important as a topical antiseptic...

 stain well), they are classified as an acid-fast Gram-positive bacterium due to their lack of an outer cell membrane
Cell membrane
The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. It basically protects the cell...

. All Mycobacterium species share a characteristic cell wall
Cell wall
The cell wall is the tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells. It is located outside the cell membrane and provides these cells with structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. A major function of the cell wall is to...

, thicker than in many other bacteria, which is hydrophobic, waxy, and rich in mycolic acids/mycolates. The cell wall consists of the hydrophobic mycolate layer and a peptidoglycan
Peptidoglycan
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria , forming the cell wall. The sugar component consists of alternating residues of β- linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid...

 layer held together by a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan
Arabinogalactan
Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. Two classes of arabinogalactans are found in nature: plant arabinogalactan and microbial arabinogalactan. In plants, it is a major constituent of many gums, including gum arabic, gum gutti and so on...

. The cell wall makes a substantial contribution to the hardiness of this genus. The biosynthetic pathways of cell wall components are potential targets for new drugs for tuberculosis.

Many Mycobacterium species adapt readily to growth on very simple substrates
Substrate (biology)
In biology a substrate is the surface a plant or animal lives upon and grows on. A substrate can include biotic or abiotic materials and animals. For example, encrusting algae that lives on a rock can be substrate for another animal that lives on top of the algae. See also substrate .-External...

, using ammonia
Ammonia
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula . It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or...

 or amino acid
Amino acid
Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and a side-chain that varies between different amino acids. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen...

s as nitrogen sources and glycerol
Glycerol
Glycerol is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. The glycerol backbone is central to all lipids...

 as a carbon source in the presence of mineral salts. Optimum growth temperatures vary widely according to the species and range from 25 °C to over 50 °C.

Some species can be very difficult to culture
Microbiological culture
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested,...

 (i.e. they are fastidious), sometimes taking over two years to develop in culture. Further, some species also have extremely long reproductive cycles — M. leprae, may take more than 20 days to proceed through one division cycle (for comparison, some E. coli strains take only 20 minutes), making laboratory culture a slow process. In addition, the availability of genetic manipulation techniques still lags far behind that of other bacterial species.

A natural division occurs between slowly
Slowly growing Mycobacteria
Mycobacteria that form colonies clearly visible to the naked eye in more than 7 days on subculture are termed slow growers.They can cause disease in humans.-Rough:* Mycobacterium africanum* Mycobacterium bovis* Mycobacterium caprae* Mycobacterium lacus...

– and rapidly–growing
Rapidly growing Mycobacteria
Mycobacteria that form colonies clearly visible to the naked eye in less than 7 days on subculture are termed rapid growers.-List of rapidly growing Mycobacteria: Mycobacterium fortuitum Mycobacterium chelonei Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycobacterium abscessus...

 species. Mycobacteria that form colonies clearly visible to the naked eye within seven days on subculture are termed rapid growers, while those requiring longer periods are termed slow growers. Mycobacteria cells are straight or slightly curved rods between 0.2-0.6 µm wide by 1.0-10 µm long.

Pigmentation


Some mycobacteria produce carotenoid
Carotenoid
Carotenoids are tetraterpenoid organic pigments that are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria, and some types of fungus. Carotenoids can be synthesized fats and other basic organic metabolic building...

 pigments without light. Others require photoactivation for pigment production.

Photochromogens (Group I)
Produce nonpigmented colonies when grown in the dark and pigmented colonies only after exposure to light and reincubation.
  • Ex: M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. simiae.


Scotochromogens (Group II)
Produce deep yellow to orange colonies when grown in the presence of either the light or dark.
  • Ex: M. scrofulaceum, M. gordonae, M. xenopi, M. szulgai.


Non-chromogens (Groups III & IV)
Nonpigmented in the light and dark or have only a pale yellow, buff or tan pigment that does not intensify after light exposure.
  • Ex: M. tuberculosis, M. avium-intra-cellulare, M. bovis, M. ulcerans
  • Ex: M. fortuitum, M. chelonae

Staining characteristics


Mycobacteria are classical acid-fast
Acid-fast
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacteria, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during staining procedures.Acid-fast organisms are difficult to characterize using standard microbiological techniques Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacteria,...

 organisms. Stains used in evaluation of tissue specimens or microbiological specimens include Fite's stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stain
Ziehl-Neelsen stain
The Ziehl–Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two German doctors; Franz Ziehl , a bacteriologist and Friedrich Neelsen , a pathologist. It is a special bacteriological stain used to identify acid-fast organisms, mainly Mycobacteria...

, and Kinyoun stain
Kinyoun stain
The Kinyoun stain is a method of staining acid-fast microorganisms, specifically mycobacterium. The procedure for Kinyoun staining is similar to the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, but does not involve heating the slides being stained.1 The Kinyoun staining method uses carbolfuchsin as a primary stain,...

.

Mycobacteria appear phenotypically most closely related to members of Nocardia
Nocardia
Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. It forms partially acid-fast beaded branching filaments . It has a total of 85 species. Some species are non-pathogenic while others are responsible for nocardiosis. Nocardia are found worldwide in soil...

, Rhodococcus
Rhodococcus
Rhodococcus is a genus of aerobic, nonsporulating, nonmotile Gram-positive bacteria closely related to Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria. While a few species are pathogenic, most are benign and have been found to thrive in a broad range of environments, including soil, water, and eukaryotic cells...

 and Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria. They are widely distributed in nature and are mostly innocuous. Some are useful in industrial settings such as C. glutamicum. Others can cause human disease. C...

.

Ecological characteristics


Mycobacteria are widespread organisms, typically living in water (including tap water
Tap water
Tap water is a principal component of "indoor plumbing", which became available in urban areas of the developed world during the last quarter of the 19th century, and common during the mid-20th century...

 treated
Water purification
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose...

 with chlorine
Chlorine
Chlorine is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is the second lightest halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. The element forms diatomic molecules under standard conditions, called dichlorine...

) and food sources. Some, however, including the tuberculosis and the leprosy organisms, appear to be obligate parasite
Obligate parasite
An obligate parasite is a parasitic organism that cannot complete its life cycle without dependence on its host.-See also:*Obligate intracellular parasite*Parasitism*Parasitic plant*Facultative parasite...

s and are not found as free-living members of the genus.

Pathogenicity


Mycobacteria can colonize their hosts without the hosts showing any adverse signs. For example, billions of people around the world have asymptomatic infections of M. tuberculosis.

Mycobacterial infections are notoriously difficult to treat. The organisms are hardy due to their cell wall, which is neither truly Gram negative
Gram-negative
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol. In a Gram stain test, a counterstain is added after the crystal violet, coloring all Gram-negative bacteria with a red or pink color...

 nor positive
Gram-positive
Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain and appearing red or pink...

. Additionally, they are naturally resistant to a number of antibiotics that disrupt cell-wall biosynthesis, such as penicillin
Penicillin
Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. They include penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, and penicillin V....

. Due to their unique cell wall, they can survive long exposure to acids, alkalis, detergents, oxidative bursts, lysis by complement
Complement system
The complement system helps or “complements” the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens from an organism. It is part of the immune system called the innate immune system that is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual's lifetime...

, and many antibiotic
Antibiotic
An antibacterial is a compound or substance that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria.The term is often used synonymously with the term antibiotic; today, however, with increased knowledge of the causative agents of various infectious diseases, antibiotic has come to denote a broader range of...

s. Most mycobacteria are susceptible to the antibiotics clarithromycin
Clarithromycin
Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia , skin and skin structure infections...

 and rifamycin
Rifamycin
The rifamycins are a group of antibiotics that are synthesized either naturally by the bacterium Amycolatopsis mediterranei or artificially. They are a subclass of the larger family Ansamycin...

, but antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged.

As with other bacterial pathogens, surface and secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis contribute significantly to the virulence of this organism. There is an increasing list of extracytoplasmic proteins proven to have a function in the virulence of M. tuberculosis.

Medical classification


Mycobacteria can be classified into several major groups for purpose of diagnosis and treatment: M. tuberculosis complex, which can cause tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

: M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, and M. microti; M. leprae, which causes Hansen's disease
Leprosy
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions...

 or leprosy; Nontuberculous mycobacteria
Nontuberculous mycobacteria
Nontuberculous mycobacteria , also known as environmental mycobacteria, atypical mycobacteria and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis , are mycobacteria which do not cause tuberculosis or Hansen's disease ....

 (NTM) are all the other mycobacteria, which can cause pulmonary disease resembling tuberculosis, lymphadenitis, skin disease, or disseminated disease.

Phenotypic testing


Various phenotypic tests can be used to identify and distinguish different Mycobacteria species and strains.

Phenotypic testing of Mycobacteria
Phenotypic testing of Mycobacteria
A variety of phenotypic tests can be used to identify and distinguish mycobacteria strains and species from each other.The most commonly used tests are described below:Acetamide, use as solce C and N source...


Mycosides


Mycosides are phenolic alcohols (such as phenolphthiocerol) that were shown to be components of mycobacterium glycolipids that are termed glycosides of phenolphthiocerol dimycocerosate (Smith DW et al., Nature 1960, 186, 887) There are 18 and 20 carbon atoms in mycosides A, and B, respectively.

Species



In older systems, mycobacteria are grouped based upon their appearance and rate of growth. However, these are symplesiomorphies
Symplesiomorphy
In cladistics, a symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is a trait which is shared between two or more taxa, but which is also shared with other taxa which have an earlier last common ancestor with the taxa under consideration...

, and more recent classification is based upon cladistics
Cladistics
Cladistics is a method of classifying species of organisms into groups called clades, which consist of an ancestor organism and all its descendants . For example, birds, dinosaurs, crocodiles, and all descendants of their most recent common ancestor form a clade...

.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically closely related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis.It includes:* Mycobacterium tuberculosis* Mycobacterium africanum* Mycobacterium bovis...

     (MTBC) members are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. Species in this complex include:
    M. tuberculosis
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic bacterial species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis . First discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch, M...

    , the major cause of human tuberculosis
    Tuberculosis
    Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

    M. bovis
    Mycobacterium bovis
    Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing , aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle...

    M. bovis BCG
    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin
    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis, that has lost its virulence in humans by being specially subcultured in an artificial medium for 13 years, and also prepared from...

    M. africanum
    Mycobacterium africanum
    Mycobacterium africanum is a species of Mycobacterium that is most commonly found in West African countries. The symptoms of infection resemble those of M. tuberculosis.It is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.-Epidemiology:M...

    M. canetti
    Mycobacterium canetti
    Mycobacterium canettii, a novel pathogenic taxon of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex , was first reported in 1969 by the French microbiologist Georges Canetti from which the organism has been named. It formed smooth and shiny colonies, which is highly exceptional for the MTBC. It was...

    M. caprae
    Mycobacterium caprae
    Mycobacterium capraeType strain: strain spc-1 = gM-1 = ATCC BAA-824 = CIP 105776.Basonym: ¤ Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999.Other synonym: ¤ Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae Niemann et al. 2002....

    M. microti
    Mycobacterium microti
    Mycobacterium microti*Member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex *Also known as the 'Vole bacillus'*Etymology: microtus is a genus that includes the vole.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods....

    M. pinnipedii
    Mycobacterium pinnipedii
    Mycobacterium pinnipedii is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which primarily infects seals. It is a slowly growing Mycobacterium. The species is named after the Pinnipeds, the organisms from which M. pinnipedii was first isolated....


Mycobacterium avium complex

  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)
    Mycobacterium avium complex
    Mycobacterium avium complex is a group of genetically related bacteria belonging to the genus Mycobacterium. It includes Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare....

    , is a group of species that, in a disseminated infection but not lung infection, used to be a significant cause of death in AIDS
    AIDS
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus...

     patients. Species in this complex include:
    M. avium
    Mycobacterium avium avium
    Mycobacterium avium subsp. aviumType strain: strain ATCC 25291 = CCUG 20992 = CIP 104244 = DSM 44156 = NCTC 13034.The subspecies name Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Chester 1901 is automatically created by the valid publication of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the valid...

    M. avium paratuberculosis, which has been implicated in Crohn's disease
    Crohn's disease
    Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms...

     in humans and Johne's disease
    Johne's disease
    Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection that primarily affects the small intestine of ruminants. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis...

     in cattle
    Cattle
    Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

     and sheep
    M. avium silvaticum
    Mycobacterium avium silvaticum
    Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticumType strain: strain 6409 = ATCC 49884 = CCUG 47446 = CIP 103317 = DSM 44175.Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum Thorel et al. 1990 was previously known as Mycobacterium avium strain wood pigeon....

    M. avium "hominissuis"
    Mycobacterium avium hominissuis
    "Mycobacterium avium hominissuis"Suggested name for Mycobacterium avium avium isolates from humans and pigs.Based on differences in IS1245 RFLP, 16S-23S rDNA ITS and growth temperature, Mijs et al. 2002. propose to reserve the designation Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium for bird-type isolates...

    M. colombiense
    Mycobacterium colombiense
    Mycobacterium colombienseEtymology: colombiense, pertaining to Colombia, the South American country where the strains were first isolated.-References:...


Mycobacterium gordonae clade

  • M. asiaticum
    Mycobacterium asiaticum
    Mycobacterium asiaticum is a slowly growing photochromogenic mycobacterium first isolated from monkeys in 1965. M. asiaticum can, but rarely, causes human pulmonary disease.-Description:Microscopy...

  • M. gordonae
    Mycobacterium gordonae
    Mycobacterium gordonae is a species of Mycobacterium named for Ruth E. Gordon.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and moderate to long acid-fast rods....


Mycobacterium kansasii clade

  • M. gastri
    Mycobacterium gastri
    Mycobacterium gastri-Description:Moderately long to long, Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics...

  • M. kansasii
    Mycobacterium kansasii
    Mycobacterium kansasii is a bacterium in the Mycobacterium family. The genus includes species known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis and leprosy, but this species is generally not dangerous to healthy people....


Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum/terrae clade

  • M. hiberniae
    Mycobacterium hiberniae
    Mycobacterium hiberniaeEtymology Hibernia, Latin for Ireland where it was first isolated.-Description:Polymorphic, beaded, gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods .Colony characteristics...

  • M. nonchromogenicum
    Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum
    Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. terrae
    Mycobacterium terrae
    Mycobacterium terrae is a slow-growing species of Mycobacterium. It is an ungrouped member of the third Runyon...

  • M. triviale
    Mycobacterium triviale
    Mycobacterium triviale is a species of Mycobacterium....


Mycolactone-producing mycobacteria

  • M. ulcerans
    Mycobacterium ulcerans
    Mycobacterium ulcerans is a slow-growing mycobacterium that classically infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent nonulcerated and ulcerated lesions. After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacteriosis of humans. M...

    , which causes the "Buruli", or "Bairnsdale, ulcer"
    Buruli ulcer
    The Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The genus also includes the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy...

  • M. pseudoshottsii
    Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii
    Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii, a slowly growing chromogenic species was isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass during an epizootic of mycobacteriosis.Taxonomic name not approved yet....

  • M. shottsii
    Mycobacterium shottsii
    Mycobacterium shottsii is a slowly growing, non-pigmented mycobacteria isolated from striped bass during an epizootic of mycobacteriosis in the Chesapeake Bay. Growth characteristics, acid-fastness and results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were consistent with those of the genus Mycobacterium...


Mycobacterium simiae clade

  • M. triplex
    Mycobacterium triplex
    Mycobacterium triplex is a species of Mycobacterium.It is closely related to Mycobacterium genavense.It causes disease in immunocompromised patients....

  • M. genavense
    Mycobacterium genavense
    -Description:A slow-growing subspecies of Mycobacterium.Nonmotile, acid-fast coccobacilli . No formation of spores, capsules or aerial hyphae.Colony characteristics...

  • M. florentinum
    Mycobacterium florentinum
    Mycobacterium florentinum is a strain of bacteria found in humans that can cause infections and other disease conditions, and prolong sickness. It presents a high resistance to antimycobacterial drugs...

  • M. lentiflavum
    Mycobacterium lentiflavum
    Mycobacterium lentiflavumEtymology: Lentus from Latin for slow, flavus, Latin for yellow.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast coccobacilli.Colony characteristics...

  • M. palustre
    Mycobacterium palustre
    Mycobacterium palustre is a slowly growing mycobacterium first isolated from an environmental source in Finland. It is potentially pathogenic, and has been isolated from human and veterinary clinical specimens.-Type strain:...

  • M. kubicae
    Mycobacterium kubicae
    Mycobacterium kubicae-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods. Cells are typically rod-shaped, with some coccoid forms.Colony characteristics...

  • M. parascrofulaceum
  • M. heidelbergense
    Mycobacterium heidelbergense
    Mycobacterium heidelbergense is a Gram-positive, nonmotile, acid-fast, coccobacilli.-Description:Dimensions : 0.5-0.8 µm x 2.0-3.0 µmColony characteristics...

  • M. interjectum
    Mycobacterium interjectum
    Mycobacterium interjectum is a bacterium of genus Mycobacterium.-Description:Mycobacterium interjectum is Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods...

  • M. simiae

Ungrouped

  • M. branderi
    Mycobacterium branderi
    Mycobacterium branderi is a slowly growing, nonchromogenic Mycobacterium first isolated from patients in Finland. Etymology: of Brander, referring to Eljas Brander, the former head of the Tuberculosis Laboratory of the National Public Health Institute, Finland, who collected the...

  • M. cookii
    Mycobacterium cookii
    Mycobacterium cookii-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and polymorphic acid-fast rods . Forms clumps, but not cords or cross bands...

  • M. celatum
    Mycobacterium celatum
    Mycobacterium celatum is a mycobacterium.Type strain: strain ATCC 51131 = CCUG 39185 = CDC 90-0899 = CIP 106109 = DSM 44243 = JCM 12373.-References:...

  • M. bohemicum
    Mycobacterium bohemicum
    Mycobacterium bohemicumType strain: strain CIP 105808 = CIP 105811 = DSM 44277 = JCM 12402.-References:REISCHL , EMLER , HORAK , KAUSTOVA , KROPPENSTEDT , LEHN and NAUMANN : Mycobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., a new slow-growing scotochromogenic mycobacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48,...

  • M. haemophilum
    Mycobacterium haemophilum
    Mycobacterium haemophilum-Description:Short, occasionally curved, gram-positive, nonmotile and strongly acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Nonpigmented and rough to smooth colonies.Physiology...

  • M. malmoense
    Mycobacterium malmoense
    Mycobacterium malmoense is a bacterium. Etymology: malmoense, from the city of Malmö, Sweden where it was first isolated.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile, acid-fast and coccoid to short rods.*Environmental reservoir: soil and water....

  • M. szulgai
    Mycobacterium szulgai
    Mycobacterium szulgai is a species of Mycobacterium. It is a Scotochromogen and is currently ungrouped. It is known to cause skin infections....

  • M. leprae
    Mycobacterium leprae
    Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s coccus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy . It is an intracellular, pleomorphic, acid-fast bacterium. M. leprae is an aerobic bacillus surrounded by the characteristic waxy coating unique to mycobacteria...

    , which causes leprosy
    Leprosy
    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions...

  • M. lepraemurium
    Mycobacterium lepraemurium
    Mycobacterium lepraemurium is a causative agent of feline leprosy. It causes granulomatous lesions, characteristic of the Mycobacterium genus.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and strongly acid-fast rods...

  • M. lepromatosis
    Mycobacterium lepromatosis
    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is a bacterium that, along with Mycobacterium leprae, causes leprosy . It was only recently discovered, in 2008. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene confirms that the species is distinct from Mycobacterium leprae.M.lepromatosis is an Acid Fast Bacilli which causes diffuse...

    , another (less significant) cause of leprosy, described in 2008
  • M. africanum
    Mycobacterium africanum
    Mycobacterium africanum is a species of Mycobacterium that is most commonly found in West African countries. The symptoms of infection resemble those of M. tuberculosis.It is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.-Epidemiology:M...

  • M. botniense
    Mycobacterium botniense
    Mycobacterium botniense is a slowly growing Mycobacterium, which produces a yellow pigment. It was first isolated from a stream of water. M. botniense is most closely related to Mycobacterium xenopi...

  • M. chimaera
    Mycobacterium chimaera
    Mycobacterium chimaeraType strain: strain FI-01069 = CCUG 50989 = CIP 107892 = DSM 44623.Etymology: L. fem. n. chimaera, the chimaera, the mythological being made up of parts of three different animals, referring to the apparent mix of genetic features characterizing the...

  • M. conspicuum
    Mycobacterium conspicuum
    Mycobacterium conspicuum-Description:Gram-positive and nonmotile acid-fast coccobacilli. Does not form spores, capsules or aerial hyphae.Colony characteristics*Dysgonic and nonphotochromogenic, pale yellow colonies on Löwenstein-Jensen agar....

  • M. doricum
    Mycobacterium doricum
    Mycobacterium doricum is a species of Mycobacterium.It is scotochromogenic...

  • M. farcinogenes
    Mycobacterium farcinogenes
    Mycobacterium farcinogenes is a species of Mycobacterium.Although slow-growing, it is similar to fast-growing species, and is usually classified with them.-Description:...

  • M. heckeshornense
    Mycobacterium heckeshornense
    Mycobacterium heckeshornense-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods. Cells are typically rod-shaped, with some coccoid forms.Colony characteristicsSmooth, yellow scotochromogenic colonies appear after 4 weeks of culture....

  • M. intracellulare
    Mycobacterium intracellulare
    Mycobacterium intracellulare is a species of Mycobacterium.-Description:"Gram-positive", nonmotile and acid-fast short to long rods.Colony characteristics*Usually smooth, rarely rough and nonpigmented colonies...

  • M. lacus
    Mycobacterium lacus
    Mycobacterium lacus-Description:Large, dispersed acid-fast bacilli with prominent beadingColony characteristics*Colonies on Löwenstein-Jensen medium were nonchromogenic, small, with a dry appearance....

  • M. marinum
    Mycobacterium marinum
    Mycobacterium marinum is a free-living bacterium, which causes opportunistic infections in humans.- History :Although Aronson isolated this mycobacterium in 1926 from a fish, it was not until 1951 that it was found to be the cause of human disease by Linell and Norden...

  • M. monacense
    Mycobacterium monacense
    Mycobacterium monacenseEtymology: monacense, from Monacum, the Latin name of the German city Munich where the first strain was isolated.It is yellow.-Type strain:*First isolated in Munich, GermanyStrain B9-21-178 = CIP 109237 = DSM 44395....

  • M. montefiorense
    Mycobacterium montefiorense
    Mycobacterium montefiorense has been demonstrated to be an etiologic agent of a granulomatous skin disease of moray eels. Sequence analysis, of the 16S rRNA gene reveals M. montefiorense is most closely related to Mycobacterium triplex, an opportunistic pathogen of humans.M...

  • M. murale
    Mycobacterium murale
    Mycobacterium murale-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods or coccobacilli .Colony characteristicsSmooth and scotochromogenic colonies of saffron yellow color.Physiology...

  • M. nebraskense
    Mycobacterium nebraskense
    Mycobacterium nebraskense is a slowly growing yellow pigmented mycobacterium that was first isolated from human sputum in Nebraska, USA....

  • M. saskatchewanense
    Mycobacterium saskatchewanense
    Mycobacterium saskatchewanense is a species of Mycobacterium.It is closely related to Mycobacterium interjectum....

  • M. scrofulaceum
    Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
    Mycobacterium scrofulaceum is a species of Mycobacterium.It is the most common cause of cervical lymphadenitis in children.It is sometimes included in the "MAIS group" with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare....

  • M. shimoidei
    Mycobacterium shimoidei
    Mycobacterium shimoidei is a slowly growing non-pigmented species of mycobacteria. It is rarely associated with lung disease in humans. It was first isolated in 1975....

  • M. tusciae
    Mycobacterium tusciae
    Mycobacterium tusciae is a slow-growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterium first isolated from a lymph node of an immunocompromised child and subsequently from tap water and from a respiratory specimen of a patient with chronic fibrosis....

  • M. xenopi
    Mycobacterium xenopi
    Mycobacterium xenopi is a slow-growing scotochromogenic species of Mycobacterium. It was first reported by Schwabacher in 1959, having been isolated in lesions found on a Xenopus laevis, but the possibility of human infection was not confirmed until 1965.It has low pathogenicity in humans, and...


Mycobacterium chelonae clade

  • M. abscessus
  • M. chelonae
    Mycobacterium chelonae
    Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium, that is found all throughout the environment including sewage and tap water. It can occasionally cause opportunistic infections of humans.It is grouped in Runyon group IV....

  • M. bolletii
    Mycobacterium bolletii
    Mycobacterium bolletiiType strain: strain BD = CCUG 50184 = CIP 108541.Etymology: N.L. gen. n. bolletii, of Bollet, to honour Claude Bollet, a famous clinical microbiologist and taxonomist.-References:...


Mycobacterium fortuitum clade

  • M. fortuitum
    Mycobacterium fortuitum
    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium.-Background:Mycobacterium fortuitum is a fast-growing species that can cause infections. The term "fast growing" is a reference to a growth rate of 3 or 4 days, when compared to other Mycobacteria that may take weeks to grow out on...

  • M. fortuitum subsp. acetamidolyticum
  • M. boenickei
    Mycobacterium boenickei
    Mycobacterium boenickeiMycobacterium boenickei is a member of the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex. They are rapidly growing ubiquitous environmental organisms that normally inhabit soil, dust and water. These organisms frequently are human pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of...

  • M. peregrinum
  • M. porcinum
    Mycobacterium porcinum
    Mycobacterium porcinum is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. senegalense
    Mycobacterium senegalense
    Mycobacterium senegalense is a species of Mycobacterium.It is closely related to Mycobacterium farcinogenes....

  • M. septicum
    Mycobacterium septicum
    Mycobacterium septicum is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. neworleansense
    Mycobacterium neworleansense
    Mycobacterium neworleansense is a member of the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex....

  • M. houstonense
    Mycobacterium houstonense
    Mycobacterium houstonense is a member of the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex. The specific epithet houstonense refers to Houston, Texas, where the first isolate of the M. fortuitum third biovariant was identified....

  • M. mucogenicum
    Mycobacterium mucogenicum
    Mycobacterium mucogenicumEtymology: mucogenicum, from the organism's highly mucoid appearance.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile, curved and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Highly mucoid behavior of most strains on solid agar...

  • M. mageritense
    Mycobacterium mageritense
    Mycobacterium mageritenseEtymology: Magerit, is Arabic for Madrid, where the it was first isolated from human sputum.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and strongly acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics...

  • M. brisbanense
    Mycobacterium brisbanense
    Mycobacterium brisbanense is a member of the Mycobacterium fortuitum third biovariant complex. They are rapidly growing ubiquitous environmental organisms that normally inhabit soil, dust and water. These organisms frequently are human pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of clinically significant...

  • M. cosmeticum
    Mycobacterium cosmeticum
    Mycobacterium cosmeticum is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that was first isolated from cosmetic patients and sites performing cosmetic procedures....


Mycobacterium parafortuitum clade

  • M. parafortuitum
    Mycobacterium parafortuitum
    Mycobacterium parafortuitum is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. austroafricanum
    Mycobacterium austroafricanum
    Mycobacterium austroafricanumType strain: strain E9789-SA12441 = ATCC 33464 = CCUG 37667 = CIP 105395 = DSM 44191 = HAMBI 2271 = JCM 6369.-References:...

  • M. diernhoferi
    Mycobacterium diernhoferi
    Mycobacterium diernhoferi-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods .Colony characteristics*White smooth and non-photochromogenic colonies.Physiology...

  • M. hodleri
    Mycobacterium hodleri
    Mycobacterium hodleri-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods .Colony characteristics...

  • M. neoaurum
    Mycobacterium neoaurum
    Mycobacterium neoaurum is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. frederiksbergense
    Mycobacterium frederiksbergense
    Mycobacterium frederiksbergenseEtymology: frederiksbergense, of Frederiksberg, Denmark, referring to the place of isolation.-Type strain:First isolated in Frederiksberg, Denmark.Strain FAn9 = CIP 107205 = DSM 44346 = NRRL B-24126.-References:...


Mycobacterium vaccae clade

  • M. aurum
    Mycobacterium aurum
    Mycobacterium aurum is a species of acid fast, gram positive bacteria that forms long chains. Though related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it does not cause tuberculosis.-Genotype:*ATCC 23366*CCUG 37666*CIP 104465*DSM 43999*HAMBI 2275...

  • M. vaccae
    Mycobacterium vaccae
    Mycobacterium vaccae is a nonpathogenic species of the Mycobacteriaceae family of bacteria that lives naturally in soil. Its name originates from the Latin word, vacca , since it was first cultured from cow dung in Austria...


Ungrouped

  • M. confluentis
    Mycobacterium confluentis
    Mycobacterium confluentis is a non-pathogenic bacterium of the oral cavity.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile, acid-fast coccobacillus , does not form spores, capsules or aerial hyphae.-Physiology:...

  • M. flavescens
    Mycobacterium flavescens
    Mycobacterium flavescensEtymology: Latin, flavescens = becoming golden yellow.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Soft, yellow-orange scotochromogenic, butyrous colonies.Physiology...

  • M. madagascariense
    Mycobacterium madagascariense
    Mycobacterium madagascarienseEtymology: madagascariense, relating to Madagascar where it was first isolated.-Description:Polymorphic, gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics...

  • M. phlei
    Mycobacterium phlei
    Mycobacterium phlei is an acid-fast bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium. They are named this way because they contain mycolic acids, which is also the reason that simple staining or Gram staining does not give good results with this microbe...

  • M. smegmatis
    Mycobacterium smegmatis
    Mycobacterium smegmatis is 3.0 to 5.0 µm long with a bacillus shape, an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinobacteria. It can be stained by Ziehl-Neelsen method and the auramine-rhodamine fluorescent method. It was first reported in November 1884 by Lustgarten, who found a bacillus...

    • M. goodii
      Mycobacterium goodii
      Mycobacterium goodii-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Smooth to mucoid, off-white to cream coloured colonies...

    • M. wolinskyi
      Mycobacterium wolinskyi
      Mycobacterium wolinskyi is a rapidly growing mycobacterium most commonly seen in post-traumatic wound infections, especially those following open fractures and with associated osteomyelitis...

  • M. thermoresistibile
    Mycobacterium thermoresistibile
    Mycobacterium thermoresistibile is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. gadium
    Mycobacterium gadium
    Mycobacterium gadium-Description:Short gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Yellow-orange, scotochromogenic colonies, but the pigmentation deepens with exposure to light...

  • M. komossense
    Mycobacterium komossense
    Mycobacterium komossense-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile, short to moderately long and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Eugonic, smooth, glistening and yellow-beige pigmented colonies...

  • M. obuense
    Mycobacterium obuense
    Mycobacterium obuense is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. sphagni
    Mycobacterium sphagni
    Mycobacterium sphagni is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. agri
    Mycobacterium agri
    Mycobacterium agri-Description:Microscopy*Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods . Frequently join to grow in long threads.Colony characteristics*Rough, and nonphotochromogenic colonies.Physiology...

  • M. aichiense
    Mycobacterium aichiense
    Mycobacterium aichiense is a yellow-orange scotochromogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium first isolated from soil and human sputum in Japan. It has not been formally associated with disease in humans.-Description:Microscopy...

  • M. alvei
    Mycobacterium alvei
    Mycobacterium alvei-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods .Colony characteristics*Colonies are eugonic, rough and nonpigmented.Physiology...

  • M. arupense
    Mycobacterium arupense
    Mycobacterium arupense is a rapidly growing mycobacterium first isolated from soil and human sputum samples in Spain. Etymology: arupense, pertaining to the ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, where the type strain was characterized....

  • M. brumae
    Mycobacterium brumae
    Mycobacterium brumae is a rapidly growing environmental mycobacterial species identified in 1993. Aside from one 2004 report of a catheter related bloodstream infection no other infections by this organism have been reported...

  • M. canariasense
    Mycobacterium canariasense
    Mycobacterium canariasense is a rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium first isolated from blood samples obtained from 17 patients with febrile syndrome...

  • M. chubuense
    Mycobacterium chubuense
    Mycobacterium chubuenseType strain: strain 48013 = ATCC 27278 = CCUG 37670 = CIP 106810 = DSM 44219 = JCM 6374 = NCTC 10819.-References:...

  • M. conceptionense
    Mycobacterium conceptionense
    Mycobacterium conceptionense is a non pigmented rapidly growing mycobacterium was first isolated from wound liquid outflow, bone tissue biopsy, and excised skin tissue from a 31-year-old woman who suffered an accidental open right tibia fracture and prolonged stay in a river...

  • M. duvalii
    Mycobacterium duvalii
    Mycobacterium duvalii-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and pleomorphic acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Bright yellow pigmented, scotochromogenic and rough or smooth colonies on Löwenstein-Jensen medium.Physiology...

  • M. elephantis
  • M. gilvum
    Mycobacterium gilvum
    Mycobacterium gilvumEtymology: gilvum, Latin for pale yellow.-Description:Pleomorphic gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.Colony characteristics*Pale yellow, Scotochromogenic, and smooth pleomorphic colonies.Physiology...

  • M. hassiacum
    Mycobacterium hassiacum
    Mycobacterium hassiacum is a rapid-growing thermophilic mycobacterium that was isolated in human urine in 1997 by researchers at the German University of Regensburg. It is not believed to cause disease in humans.-Description:...

  • M. holsaticum
    Mycobacterium holsaticum
    Mycobacterium holsaticum-References:*Richter et al. 2002. Mycobacterium holsaticum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 52, 1991-1996. PMID 12508858...

  • M. immunogenum
    Mycobacterium immunogenum
    These non-tuberculous mycobacteria are sometimes found in fouling water-based cutting fluids, often causing hypersensitivity pneumonitis to the machinists in the affected grinding plants.-Type strain:Strain BH29 = MC 779 = ATCC 700505 = CCUG 47286 = CIP 106684...

  • M. massiliense
    Mycobacterium massiliense
    Mycobacterium massiliense is a rapidly growing Mycobacteria species sharing an identical 16S rRNA sequence with Mycobacterium abscessus.Etymology: massiliense, pertaining to Massilia, the Latin name of Marseille, France where the organism was isolated....

  • M. moriokaense
    Mycobacterium moriokaense
    Mycobacterium moriokaenseEtymology: moriokaense, from Morioka, Japan where the organism was first isolated.-Description:Gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods .Colony characteristics...

  • M. psychrotolerans
    Mycobacterium psychrotolerans
    Mycobacterium psychrotolerans is a rapidly growing mycobacterium first isolated from pond water near a uranium mine in Spain. It was able to grow at 4C and is therefore considered to be psychrotolerant...

  • M. pyrenivorans
    Mycobacterium pyrenivorans
    Mycobacterium pyrenivorans is a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium, first isolated from an enrichment culture obtained from soil that was highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons . The soil sample was collected on the site of a former coking plant at Ubach-Palenberg,...

  • M. vanbaalenii
    Mycobacterium vanbaalenii
    Mycobacterium vanbaalenii is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that can use polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It was first isolated from petroleum-contaminated estuarine sediments and has been shown by 16S rRNA gene sequencing to be closely related to Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium vaccae. M...

  • M. pulveris
    Mycobacterium pulveris
    Mycobacterium pulveris is a species of Mycobacterium....


Ungrouped

  • M. arosiense
    Mycobacterium arosiense
    Mycobacterium arosiense is a species of Mycobacterium.It can cause osteomyelitis....

  • M. aubagnense
    Mycobacterium aubagnense
    Mycobacterium aubagnenseType strain: strain U8 = CCUG 50186 = CIP 108543.Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. aubagnense, pertaining to Aubagne, the city from where the first patient originated.-References:...

  • M. caprae
    Mycobacterium caprae
    Mycobacterium capraeType strain: strain spc-1 = gM-1 = ATCC BAA-824 = CIP 105776.Basonym: ¤ Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999.Other synonym: ¤ Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae Niemann et al. 2002....

  • M. chlorophenolicum
    Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum
    Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum is a species of Mycobacterium.Type strain: strain PCP-I = ATCC 49826 = CIP 104189 = DSM 43826 = HAMBI 2278 = IEGM 559 = IFO 15527 = JCM 7439 = NRRL B-16528.-References:...

  • M. fluoroanthenivorans
  • M. kumamotonense
    Mycobacterium kumamotonense
    Mycobacterium kumamotonenseEtymology: kumamotonense, pertaining to Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan, where the type strain was isolated.-Type strain:*First isolated in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan from a clinical specimen....

  • M. novocastrense
  • M. parmense
    Mycobacterium parmense
    Mycobacterium parmense is a species of Mycobacterium.It is closely related to Mycobacterium heidelbergense.It is also closely related to Mycobacterium lentiflavum and Mycobacterium simiae....

  • M. phocaicum
    Mycobacterium phocaicum
    Mycobacterium phocaicum is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. poriferae
    Mycobacterium poriferae
    Mycobacterium poriferae is a species of Mycobacterium....

  • M. rhodesiae
  • M. seoulense
    Mycobacterium seoulense
    Mycobacterium seoulense is a species of Mycobacterium.A closely related species with the proposed name of "Mycobacterium paraseoulense" has also been identified....

  • M. tokaiense
    Mycobacterium tokaiense
    Mycobacterium tokaiense is a species of Mycobacterium....


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