Musa al-Kadhim

Musa al-Kadhim

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(6 November 745 AD – 1 September 799 // Safar
Safar
Safar is the second month in the Islamic calendar.The root of the name, صفر ṣafr, has three basic areas of meaning: 1) whistle, hiss, chirp; 2) be yellow, pale ; 3) to be empty, devoid, vacant...

 7, 128 AH – Rajab
Rajab
Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

 25, 183 AH) was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam
{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2011}}
{{about||the Twelver Shī‘ah scholar|Musa al-Sadr|the African-American Muslim activist|Abdul Alim Musa}}

{{wikiquote-inline|Musa al-Kadhim|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}}
{{unicode|Mūsà ibn Ja‘far al-Kāẓim / al-Kādhim}} ({{lang-ar|موسى بن جعفر الكاظم}}) (6 November 745 AD – 1 September 799 //
Safar
Safar
Safar is the second month in the Islamic calendar.The root of the name, صفر ṣafr, has three basic areas of meaning: 1) whistle, hiss, chirp; 2) be yellow, pale ; 3) to be empty, devoid, vacant...

 7, 128 AH – Rajab
Rajab
Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

 25, 183 AH) was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam
{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2011}}
{{about||the Twelver Shī‘ah scholar|Musa al-Sadr|the African-American Muslim activist|Abdul Alim Musa}}

{{wikiquote-inline|Musa al-Kadhim|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}}
{{unicode|Mūsà ibn Ja‘far al-Kāẓim / al-Kādhim}} ({{lang-ar|موسى بن جعفر الكاظم}}) (6 November 745 AD – 1 September 799 //
Safar
Safar
Safar is the second month in the Islamic calendar.The root of the name, صفر ṣafr, has three basic areas of meaning: 1) whistle, hiss, chirp; 2) be yellow, pale ; 3) to be empty, devoid, vacant...

 7, 128 AH – Rajab
Rajab
Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

 25, 183 AH) was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam {{unicode
Ja'far al-Sadiq
Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq was a descendant of Muhammad and a prominent Muslim jurist. He is revered as an Imam by the adherents of Shi'a Islam and as a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims. The Shi'a Muslims consider him to be the sixth Imam or leader and spiritual...

 and his mother was Hamidah Khātūn, a student and former Zanj
Zanj
Zanj was a name used by medieval Arab geographers to refer to both a certain portion of the coast of East Africa and its inhabitants, Bantu-speaking peoples called the Zanj...

iyyah slave. His wife Najmah was also a former slave purchased and freed by Hamidah, his mother.

{{unicode|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}} was born during the power struggles between the Umayyad and the ‘Abbasid Calpihates. Like his father, he was assassinated by the ‘Abbasids. He had three notable children: the eighth Twelver Imām, {{unicode, and two daughters, Fātima bint Mūsā and {{unicode|Hājar Khātūn}}.

The Festival of Imam Musa al-Kadhim
Festival of Imam Musa al-Kadhim
The Festival of Imam Musa al Kadhim is a Twelver Shia Muslim festival dedicated to the memory of the Imam Musa al-Kadhim. It occurs on the seventh day of the month of Rajab in the Islamic calendar....

 celebrates his life and death.

Background


{{unicode|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}} was born in Abwa between Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 and Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

. His mother was originally a Berber
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

, but was freed and trained as an Islamic scholar through his father.

Designation of the Imamate


{{unicode|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}} became the seventh Shi’ah Imam at the age of 21. According to the Kitab al-Irshad of Sheikh al-Mufid:{{quote|Among the shaykhs of the followers of Abu Abd Allah {{unicode|Ja‘far aṣ-Ṣādiq}}, peace be on him, his special group (khassa), his inner circle and the trustworthy righteous legal scholars, may God have mercy on them, who report the clear designation of the Imamate by Abu Abd Allah Jafars peace be on him, for his son, Abu al-Hasan Musa, peace be on him, are: al-Mufaddal b. Umar al-Jufi, Mu'adh b. Kathir, Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj, al-Fayd b. al-Mukhtar, Yaqub al-Sarraj, Sulayman b. Khalid, Safwan al-Jammal... [That designation] is also reported by his two brothers, Ishaq and Ali, sons of Jafar, peace be on him.}}

Some Muslims believe that the eldest son of Imam Ja‘far, namely Isma'il ibn Jafar, received the Imamate rather than {{unicode|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}}. These groups comprise the Ismaili Shi'a. Isma'il predeceased his father, causing a division among the Shi'a as to who was to succeed as the next Imam. Some radical Ismaili groups believed that Isma'il had not died, but rather gone into hiding; this view is not held by any living Shi'a groups but was central to the theology of the Qarmatians
Qarmatians
The Qarmatians were a Shi'a Ismaili group centered in eastern Arabia, where they attempted to established a utopian republic in 899 CE. They are most famed for their revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate...

, who described Isma'il as having entered into Occultation
The Occultation
The Occultation in Shia Islam refers to a belief that the messianic figure, or Mahdi, who in Shi'i thought is an infallible male descendant of the founder of Islam, Muhammad, was born but disappeared, and will one day return and fill the world with justice. Some Shi'is, such as the Zaidi and...

.

Another group of Shi'a, Aftahiyya or Fathiyyah, chose a third candidate as successor: al-Sadiq's eldest surviving son, Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq was the eldest surviving son of Ja'far al-Sadiq and the full-brother of Isma'il ibn Jafar...

. This sect was unsuccessful and its adherents eventually abandoned it.

His death


In 795, Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Hārūn al-Rashīd was the fifth Arab Abbasid Caliph in Iraq. He was born in Rey, Iran, close to modern Tehran. His birth date remains a point of discussion, though, as various sources give the dates from 763 to 766)....

 imprisoned {{unicode|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}}; according to Twelver Shia tradition, four years later, he ordered Sindi ibn Shahiq to poison Musa. {{unicode|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}}'s body is now said to rest within al Kadhimiya Mosque
Al Kadhimiya Mosque
The Al-Kādhimiya Mosque is a shrine located in the Kādhimayn suburb of Baghdad, Iraq.It contains the tombs of the seventh Twelver Shī‘ah Imām Mūsā al-Kādhim and the ninth Twelver Shī‘ah Imām Muhammad at-Taqī....

 in Kadhimayn, Iraq. He left nineteen sons and eighteen daughters.

A small group of people rejected the death of {{unicode|Mūsà al-Kāẓim}}. They were called the Waqifite Shia
Waqifite Shia
The Waqifite Shia were a Shia sect who accepted the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim, but refused to accept the Imamate of his successor Ali ar-Ridha.-Beliefs:The Waqifites believed in the Mahdism and the occultation of Imam Mūsà ibn Ja‘far al-Kāẓim...

. They believed {{unicode|Mūsà}} was the Mahdi and was alive, but in occultation. This group, however, is now extinct.

Quotes

  • The best generosity is the help to the oppressed.
  • The world is soft and beautiful like a snake but there is a fatal poison hidden inside.
  • Reliance on Allah has grades. One of them is that you rely on Him in every matter and be pleased with whatever He decides for you and know that He never hesitates in providing you any good and grace and that every decision is from Him so leave every affair to His Will and rely and put trust only in Him
  • One who gives circulation to a sin is banished and forsaken and the one who covers a sin will be forgiven by God
  • Every person who strives to obtain Halaal (permissible) sustenance or provision is like a fighter in the path of God
  • After the acknowledgement of God, the best acts of the offertory to God are the prayers, piety to the parents, and evasion of envy, self-conceit, and pride
  • The few deeds of the intelligent will be accepted and doubled, while the many deeds of the followers of passions and the ignorant will be rejected.

Timeline


{{start}}
{{A-hou|Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
Banū Hāshim was a clan in the Quraysh tribe. Muhammad, was a member of this clan; his great-grandfather was Hashim, for whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to by the Anglicised version of their name as Hashemites, or Huseini or Hasani...

|7th Safar
Safar
Safar is the second month in the Islamic calendar.The root of the name, صفر ṣafr, has three basic areas of meaning: 1) whistle, hiss, chirp; 2) be yellow, pale ; 3) to be empty, devoid, vacant...

 128 AH
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

|
Approximation
An approximation is a representation of something that is not exact, but still close enough to be useful. Although approximation is most often applied to numbers, it is also frequently applied to such things as mathematical functions, shapes, and physical laws.Approximations may be used because...

 6 November 745 CE
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

|25th Rajab
Rajab
Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

 183 AH
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

|
Approximation
An approximation is a representation of something that is not exact, but still close enough to be useful. Although approximation is most often applied to numbers, it is also frequently applied to such things as mathematical functions, shapes, and physical laws.Approximations may be used because...

 1 September 799 CE
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

|Banu Quraish}}
{{s-rel|sh}}
{{s-bef|before = Jafar al-Sadiq}}
{{s-ttl|title = 7th Imam
Imamah (Shi'a doctrine)
Imāmah is the Shia doctrine of religious, spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. The Shīa believe that the A'immah are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muḥammad, and further that Imams are possessed of divine knowledge and authority as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt,...

 of Twelver Shi'a Islam
Shi'a Islam
Shia Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam. The followers of Shia Islam are called Shi'ites or Shias. "Shia" is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatu ʻAlī , meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali".Like other schools of thought in Islam, Shia Islam is...

|years = 765–799}}
{{s-aft|after = Ali al-Ridha}}
{{end}}

See also

  • Musavi (name)
    Musavi (name)
    Moosavi is a patronymic, common among Iranian Shi'a Muslims, though it is originally an Arabic name. The name implies that the person is a direct descendant to the seventh of the Shi'a twelver Imams: Musa al-Kazim ibn Jafar as Sadiq...

  • Hajar Khatoon Mosque
    Hajar Khatoon Mosque
    Hajar Khatoon Mosque is architecturally a unique and ancient Muslim mosque in the city of Sanandaj in the Iranian Kurdistan....

  • Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq (Al-Dibaj)
    Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq (Al-Dibaj)
    Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq , the younger full brother of Musa al-Kadhim, appeared in Mecca in the year 200 A.H. / 815 C.E. claiming that he was the Awaited Mahdi. He believed in a Zaydl Shia type of Imamate and declared himself as the Caliph of the Muslims and took the oath of allegiance from...