Multipath interference

# Multipath interference

Discussion

Encyclopedia
Multipath interference is a phenomenon in the physics of wave
Wave
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that travels through space and time, accompanied by the transfer of energy.Waves travel and the wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, often with no permanent displacement of the particles of the mediumâ€”that is, with little or no associated mass...

s whereby a wave from a source travels to a detector via two or more paths and, under the right condition, the two (or more) components of the wave interfere. Multipath interference is a common cause of "ghosting
Ghosting (television)
In television, a ghost is a replica of the transmitted image, offset in position, that is super-imposed on top of the main image on an analogue broadcast.-Common causes:Common causes of ghosts are:...

## Conditions

The condition necessary is that the components of the wave remain coherent
Coherence (physics)
In physics, coherence is a property of waves that enables stationary interference. More generally, coherence describes all properties of the correlation between physical quantities of a wave....

throughout the whole extent of their travel.

The interference will arise owing to the two (or more) components of the wave having, in general, travelled a different length (as measured by optical path length
Optical path length
In optics, optical path length or optical distance is the product of the geometric length of the path light follows through the system, and the index of refraction of the medium through which it propagates. A difference in optical path length between two paths is often called the optical path...

â€“ geometric length and diffraction
Diffraction
Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle. Italian scientist Francesco Maria Grimaldi coined the word "diffraction" and was the first to record accurate observations of the phenomenon in 1665...

(differing optical speed)), and thus arriving at the detector out of phase
Phase (waves)
Phase in waves is the fraction of a wave cycle which has elapsed relative to an arbitrary point.-Formula:The phase of an oscillation or wave refers to a sinusoidal function such as the following:...

with each other.

The signal due to indirect paths interfere with the required signal in amplitude as well as phase which is called multipath fading.