Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr'
Start a new discussion about 'Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (631–658) was the son of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

, who was the senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 and first Rashidun
Rashidun
The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs who established the Rashidun Caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the Abbasid Dynasty...

 Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

. His mother was Asma bint Umais. He became the adopted son of the fourth and last Rashidun
Rashidun
The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs who established the Rashidun Caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the Abbasid Dynasty...

 caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

, Ali ibn Abi Talib and became one of his supporters.

Life


When Abu Bakr died, Asma bint Umais married Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

 (Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

's cousin and son-in-law). Ali adopted Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, who later became one of his staunchest supporters.

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr had a son named, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr as-Siddiq was an important jurist in early Islam. He is considered the fourth in the Naqshbandi Golden Chain of Sufi masters. Naqshbandis also consider him to have passed the chain to his grandson Ja'far as-Sadiq...

 (not to be confused with the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

's son Qasim ibn Muhammad
Qasim ibn Muhammad
Qasim ibn Muhammad was the son of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. He died in 605 CE, before his second birthday and is buried in Jannatul Mualla cemetery, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.-Siblings:*Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad*Ibrahim ibn Muhammad...

). The daughter of Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, Umm Farwah, was the mother of the sixth Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad al-Sādiq was a descendant of Muhammad and a prominent Muslim jurist. He is revered as an Imam by the adherents of Shi'a Islam and as a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Sunni Muslims. The Shi'a Muslims consider him to be the sixth Imam or leader and spiritual...

.

After the Battle of Siffin
Battle of Siffin
The Battle of Siffin occurred during the First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Ar-Raqqah, Syria...

, Ali ibn Abi Talib appointed Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr as the Governor of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, then a newly conquered province of the Islamic empire. In 658 CE (38 A.H.), Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

, the then Governor of Syria, sent his general Amr ibn al-As and six thousand soldiers against Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Muhammad asked Ali ibn Abi Talib for help. Ali is said to have instructed his foster son to hand the governorship over to his best general and childhood friend, Malik ibn Ashter
Malik ibn Ashter
Malik Al-Ashtar was one of the most loyal companions of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of Muhammad. Al-Ashtar became a Muslim during Muhammad's time and rose to prominence during the caliphates of Uthman and Ali. During the caliphate of Ali he fought in the Battle of Jamal and Siffin during the...

, whom he judged better capable of resisting Amr ibn al-As. However, Malik died on his way to Egypt. The Shi’a and Institute for Shia Ismaili Studies in London's Shia'ism researcher Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung is a scholar of Islam. He was born in Stuttgart, Germany, where he completed his early education at Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium....

 believe that Malik was poisoned by Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

.

Ibn Abi Bakr was easily defeated by Amr. Amr's soldiers were ordered to capture him and bring him, alive, to Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

. However, a soldier named, Muawiya ibn Hudayj, is said to have quarreled with the prisoner and killed him out of hand. Ibn Hudayj was so incensed at Ibn Abi Bakr that he put his body into the skin of a dead donkey and burned both corpses together, so that nothing should survive of his enemy . However, Shi'a accounts say that the Muawiyah I who later became the first Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 Caliph was the actual killer of Ibn Abi Bakr .

Sunni Muslim view


Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was a pious Muslim who supported the Rightly Guided Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib. He had spent considerable time in Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 and was part of the delegation that complained about the activities of the governor of Egypt to the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan. The Caliph promised to immediately dismiss the Egyptian governor and replace him with Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. However, after sensing betrayal from Uthman
Uthman
Uthman ibn Affan was one of the companions of Islamic prophet, Muhammad. He played a major role in early Islamic history as the third Sunni Rashidun or Rightly Guided Caliph....

 (but actually perpetrated by Marwan ibn al-Hakam) against the Muslim petitioners from Egypt, ibn Abi Bakr rushed back with the petitioners to Madinah where he initially took part in the uprising against Uthman
Uthman
Uthman ibn Affan was one of the companions of Islamic prophet, Muhammad. He played a major role in early Islamic history as the third Sunni Rashidun or Rightly Guided Caliph....

. After realizing his error in getting involved in the Siege of Uthman
Siege of Uthman
The Third Rightly Guided Caliph, Uthman, was assasinated at the end of a Siege. When the rebels besieged the house of Uthman, the siege was not severe at the early stage. The rebels merely hovered around the house of Uthman, and did not place any restrictions on the movements of Uthman. Uthman went...

, he repented and withdrew from the uprising, although he had already led the group of rebels inside Uthman
Uthman
Uthman ibn Affan was one of the companions of Islamic prophet, Muhammad. He played a major role in early Islamic history as the third Sunni Rashidun or Rightly Guided Caliph....

's residence.

The history is related as follows:

A group of seven hundred Egyptians came to complain to Caliph `Uthman about their governor Ibn Abi Sarh’s tyranny, so `Uthman said: "Choose someone to govern you." They chose Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, so `Uthman wrote credentials for him and they returned. On their way back, at three days’ distance from Madinah, a messenger caught up with them with the news that he carried orders from `Uthman to the governor of Egypt. They searched him and found a message from `Uthman to ibn Abi Sarh ordering the death of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and some of his friends. They returned to Madinah and besieged `Uthman. `Uthman acknowledged that the camel, the slave, and the seal on the letter belonged to him, but he swore that he had never written nor ordered the letter to be written. It was discovered that the letter had been hand-written by Marwan ibn al-Hakam.

Shi'a Muslim view



The Shi'a praise Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr for his devotion to `Ali and his resistance to a caliph the Shi'a believe to be a tyrant. Though his father Abu Bakr and his sister Aisha were considered enemies of `Ali by Shi'a, Ibn Abi Bakr was faithful to his stepfather.

According to a Shi’a Muslim author:
`Ali loved Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr as his own son and his death was felt as another terrible shock. `Ali prayed for him, and invoked God's blessings and mercy upon his soul. .


His tomb is located in a Mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

 in Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

.

External links

  • Biography
  • http://www.livingislam.org/n/shb_e.html - "Nevertheless, he brought in those who killed [Uthman]!"
  • http://www.hermetic.com/sabazius/mohammed.htm -Uthman became quite unpopular, and he was murdered by insurgents lead by the son of Abu Bakr, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, in 656 e.v