Muhammad al-Taqi

Muhammad al-Taqi

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Muhammad al-Taqī or Muhammad al-Jawād (Arabic: الإمام محمد التقي الجواد) (Rajab
Rajab
Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

 10, 195 AH – Dhu al-Qi'dah
Dhu al-Qi'dah
Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu'l-Qadah, or Dhu al-Qi'dah is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name ‘Master of Truce’.- Timing :...

 29, 220 AH; approximately April 8, 811 AD – November 24, 835 AD) was the ninth of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'ism. His given name was Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā, and among his titles, al-Taqī and al-Jawād are the most renowned. Muhammad al-Taqī was the shortest-lived of the Twelve Imāms, dying at the age of 25.

Birth and family life


He was born on the tenth of Rajab
Rajab
Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", of which Rajab is a derivative.This month is regarded as one of the four sacred months in Islam in which battles are prohibited...

, 195 AH. His mother was Khaizaran, a woman from the family of Maria al-Qibtiyya
Maria al-Qibtiyya
Maria al-Qibtiyya , or Maria the Copt, was an Egyptian Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628. Some sources say she became his wife, taking the title "Mother of the Believers"...

.

Hakima, the sister of Ali ar Rida, is reported saying that on the night of al-Taqi’s birth her brother advised her to be present beside his wife. According to a tradition, al-Taqi at his birth looked at the sky and uttered confirmation of the Oneness of Allah
Tawhid
Tawhid is the concept of monotheism in Islam. It is the religion's most fundamental concept and holds God is one and unique ....

 and the prophethood of Muhammad and Walaya of Imam Ali.

Early maturity


He undertook the responsibility of Imamate at the age of eight years.

He was a child when his father was killed. By reports, he did not act upon childish or whimsical impulses and he accepted adult responsibility and behaviours at an early age. Shi'a writers have propagated claims about his possession of extraordinary knowledge at a young age by likening his circumstances to that of the Islamic tradition of Jesus
Islamic view of Jesus
In Islam, Jesus is considered to be a Messenger of God and the Masih who was sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new scripture, the Injīl or Gospel. The belief in Jesus is required in Islam, and a requirement of being a Muslim. The Qur'an mentions Jesus twenty-five times, more often, by...

 – a figure called to leadership and prophetic mission while still a child.

The story of Mamun al-Rashid's first meeting with Imam Muhammad Taqi is interesting. Once Mamun was passing a street in Baghdad with his soldiers. When the other children saw the caliph, they ran away but Imam Taqi did not.

Noting this, Mamun al-Rashid stopped his carriage and asked, "Young man, why did you not run away like the other children?"

Taqi replied calmly, "Neither had I committed a crime, nor was I blocking the way. Why should I have run away or be afraid? And I also know that you will not cause any unnecessary trouble when your way is not blocked."

Mamun al-Rashid was surprised with this mature reply and asked, "What is your name?"

"Muhammad," came the reply. Whose son are you? asked Mamun al-Rashid. "Son of Imam Ali Ridha."

Mamun al-Rashid rode on. During his hunt the hawk returned to him with a fish in its beak. Mamun al-Rashid was surprised. He returned back toward the city. Once again, he found children playing on the same spot, who ran away seeing the caliph's soldiers, except this young man who said he was Muhammad son of Imam Ali Ridha (as) who remained where he was.

Mamun al-Rashid hid the fish in his palm, stopped his carriage near Imam Taqi (as) and said, "Tell me, what is there in my fist?"

Imam Taqi replied, "Allah has created tiny fish in the river. The hawks of kings sometimes catch fish from there and bring it to the Kings. They hide it in their fist and ask a member of the Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet, "Tell me what is there in my fist."

Mamun al-Rashid said, "Truly, you are the worthy son of Imam Ali Ridha (as). Mamun al-Rashid took the young Imam Taqi (as) with him, and let him live in a nearby house next to the Royal Palace.

Since Imam inherited the responsibility of Imamate at a very small age, people became suspicious of his ability to lead the Muslim Ummah. To clear this misconception Yahya ibn Aaktham who was serving as the Chief Justice of the Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 empire and was the most learned man of that time was called by Mamun al-Rashid to test his knowledge. Muhammad al-Taqi was asked a question concerning Islamic jurisprudence. The Imam was asked, "What is atonement for a person who hunts a game while he is dressed in the pilgrimage garb (‘Ahram)." Muhammad al-Taqi responded by saying, "Your question is utterly vague and lacks definition. You should first clarify :
whether the game killed was outside the sanctified area or inside it;
whether the hunter was aware of his sin or did so in ignorance;
did he kill the game purposely or by mistake,
was the hunter a slave or a free man,
was he adult or minor,
did he commit the sin for the first time or had he done so before,
was the hunted game a bird or something else,
was it a small animal or a big one,
is the sinner sorry for the misdeed or does he insist on it,
did he kill it secretly at night or openly during daylight,
was he putting on the pilgrimage garb for Hajj or for the Umra?
Unless you clarify and define these aspects, how can you have a definite answer?"

According to Twelver Shi’ah Islam, the Imams are perfectly able to give judgment on all matters of religious law and their judgment is always legally correct. To that end al-Taqi supposedly receive a miraculous transfer of knowledge at the moment of the death of the previous Imam To that end it is reported, for example, that during his time in Baghdad he performed creditably in a public debate with one of the leading scholars of the city.

Marriage and lifestyle during Abbasid rule


After Al-Ma'mun had poisoned Ali al-Raza to death he endeavored to show that the death had come by a natural cause. Al-Ma'mun also brought al-Taqi from Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 to Baghdad with the plan of marrying him to his daughter, Umul Fazal. Although the Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

s made strenuous attempts to forestall it, the marriage was duly solemnised.

After living in Baghdad for eight years, al-Taqi and Umul Fazal returned to Medina. There he found his relationship with his wife strained and upon the death of al-Ma'mun in 833 his fortunes deteriorated. The successor to his father-in-law was Al-Mu'tasim
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

. With the new Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 ruler in power al-Taqi was no longer protected and his interests and position were imperilled by the dislike that al-Mu'tasim had for him.

In 835, al-Mu'tasim called al-Taqi back to Baghdad. The latter left his son Ali al-Hadi
Ali al-Hadi
‘Alī al-Hādī , also known as ‘Alī an-Naqī was the tenth of the Twelve Imams. His full name is ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī. The exact date of his birth and death are unknown, but it is generally accepted that he was born between 827–830 CE and he died in 868 CE.- Early years :‘Alī al-Hādī was born...

 (the tenth Shi’ah Imam) with Somaneh (the mother of Ali al-Hadi) in Medina and set out for Baghdad. He resided there for one more year, becoming a well known scholar and popular in debates.

Death


There are various accounts of the circumstances of his death.

Ibn Sheher Ashoob records that Al-Mu'tasim
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

 encouraged Umul Fazal to murder him. She duly poisoned him to death on the twenty-ninth of Dhu al-Qi'dah
Dhu al-Qi'dah
Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu'l-Qadah, or Dhu al-Qi'dah is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months in Islam during which warfare is prohibited, hence the name ‘Master of Truce’.- Timing :...

, 220 Hijra
Hijra (Islam)
The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

 (the 26th year after his birth).

Muhammad at-Taqi is buried beside the grave of his grandfather Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
' was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam and his mother was Hamidah Khātūn, a student and former Zanjiyyah slave...

 (the seventh Shi’ah Imam
Imamah (Shi'a doctrine)
Imāmah is the Shia doctrine of religious, spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. The Shīa believe that the A'immah are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muḥammad, and further that Imams are possessed of divine knowledge and authority as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt,...

) within Al Kadhimiya Mosque
Al Kadhimiya Mosque
The Al-Kādhimiya Mosque is a shrine located in the Kādhimayn suburb of Baghdad, Iraq.It contains the tombs of the seventh Twelver Shī‘ah Imām Mūsā al-Kādhim and the ninth Twelver Shī‘ah Imām Muhammad at-Taqī....

, in Kadhimayn, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 – a popular site for visitation and pilgrimage by Shi’a Muslims.

Timeline


See also

  • Holiest sites in Islam (Shia)
    Holiest sites in Islam (Shia)
    In addition to the three Mosques accepted by all Muslims as holy sites, Shī'ah Muslims consider sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants , their companions, and the Prophets as holy places...

  • ‘Alī ibn Muḥammad
    Ali al-Hadi
    ‘Alī al-Hādī , also known as ‘Alī an-Naqī was the tenth of the Twelve Imams. His full name is ‘Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī. The exact date of his birth and death are unknown, but it is generally accepted that he was born between 827–830 CE and he died in 868 CE.- Early years :‘Alī al-Hādī was born...

  • ‘Alī ibn Musa
    Ali al-Rida
    ‘Alī ibn Mūsā al-Rizā was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams, according to Shia sect of Islam...

  • Kazmain shrine

External links