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Mountain rescue

Mountain rescue

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Mountain rescue refers to search and rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, mostly based upon terrain considerations...

 activities that occur in a mountainous environment, although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in other wilderness environments. The difficult and remote nature of the terrain in which mountain rescue often occurs has resulted in the development of a number of specific pieces of equipment and techniques. Helicopter
Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...

s are often used to quickly extract casualties, and search dog
Dog
The domestic dog is a domesticated form of the gray wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term is used for both feral and pet varieties. The dog may have been the first animal to be domesticated, and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and companion animal in...

s may be used to locate them.


Mountain rescue services may be paid professionals or volunteer professionals. Paid rescue services are more likely to exist in places with a high demand such as the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

, national park
National park
A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or...

s with mountain
Mountain
Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|right|The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everestrect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzorect 200 28 335 52 Makalurect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everestrect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateaurect 250 406 340 427 Rong River...

 terrain and many ski resort
Ski resort
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing and other winter sports. In Europe a ski resort is a town or village in a ski area - a mountainous area, where there are ski trails and supporting services such as hotels and other accommodation, restaurants, equipment rental and a ski lift system...

s. However, the labor-intensive and occasional nature of mountain rescue, along with the specific techniques and local knowledge required for some environments, means that mountain rescue is often undertaken by voluntary teams. These are frequently made up of local climbers and guides. Often paid rescue services may work in co-operation with voluntary services. For instance, a paid helicopter rescue team may work with a volunteer mountain rescue team on the ground. Mountain rescue is often free, although in some parts of the world rescue organizations may charge for their services. But there are also exceptions, e.g. Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

, where mountain rescue is highly expensive (some 2000 to 4000 USD) and will be charged to the patient. In more remote or less-developed
parts of the world organized mountain rescue services are often negligible or non-existent.



Mountain rescue in Canada


In the five national parks of the Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, extending from the Interior Plains of Alberta to the Rocky Mountain Trench of British Columbia. The southern end borders Idaho and Montana of the USA...

, mountain rescue is solely the responsibility of Parks Canada
Parks Canada
Parks Canada , also known as the Parks Canada Agency , is an agency of the Government of Canada mandated to protect and present nationally significant natural and cultural heritage, and foster public understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative...

's, Mountain Safety Program Specialists. Voluntary self-registration is available at information centers and warden offices whereby if a climbing party does not contact Parks Canada by a predetermined day and time, Parks Canada will initiate a search. However, parties should be self-reliant and not expect a search to begin until the next day (Parks Canada will usually initiate a search the same day if weather and daylight permits). Search and rescue costs are currently paid for by park entrance fees.

Mountain rescue in the United States


In the United States, mountain rescue is handled by professional teams within national parks or by volunteer teams. Parks with professional teams include Denali National Park, Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is a United States National Park spanning eastern portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa and Madera counties in east central California, United States. The park covers an area of and reaches across the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain chain...

, Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, U.S. The Park consists of approximately and includes the major peaks of the long Teton Range as well as most of the northern sections of the valley known as Jackson Hole. Only south of Yellowstone...

, and Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park is a United States National Park located in southeast Pierce County and northeast Lewis County in Washington state. It was one of the US's earliest National Parks, having been established on March 2, 1899 as the fifth national park in the United States. The park contains...

. Volunteer teams are part of the Mountain Rescue Association (MRA) and operate under the authority of the local sheriff's department. The teams will also assist on missions out-of-county or in a national park when requested.

Under the National Incident Management System
National Incident Management System
The National Incident Management System is emergency management doctrine used nationwide to coordinate emergency preparedness and incident management and response among the public and private sectors.NIMS is a comprehensive, national approach to incident management that is applicable at all...

, mountain rescue unit qualifications are standardized.

Mountain rescue in the United Kingdom


In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, mountain rescue is a free service, provided by volunteers. Each team is an independent charity, and are linked together by regional organizations and national bodies. In England and Wales, Mountain Rescue (England & Wales) and in Scotland, MRCofS.

Mountain rescue in Hong Kong


According to the website of Civil Aid Service
Civil Aid Service
The Civil Aid Service or CAS in short is a civil organisation that assist in a variety of auxiliary emergency roles, including search and rescue operations in Hong Kong:...

, Mountain Rescue Unit (M.R.U.) was established in 1967 due to the demand of mountain rescue service. At first, the M.R.U. has two separated command centre: one in Hong Kong Island, and the other one in Kowloon Peninsula. The two command centre merged in 1972 and headquartered in Kowloon. In 2005, the M.R.U. was renamed "The Mountain Search and Rescue Company". The Mountain Search and Rescue Company of the Civil Aid Service
Civil Aid Service
The Civil Aid Service or CAS in short is a civil organisation that assist in a variety of auxiliary emergency roles, including search and rescue operations in Hong Kong:...

 is responsible for rescue ground operations in the hills in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

. The Company has 83 officers and 163 members according the newest update data on their website CAS Hong Kong. The unit is aided by the Government Flying Service in the air and Hong Kong Fire Services on the ground. Beside rescue operations, they also help promote mountaineering safety.

Mountain rescue in Ireland


Mountain Rescue services in Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 operate under the umbrella association of Mountain Rescue Ireland
Mountain Rescue Ireland
Mountain Rescue services in Ireland operate under the umbrella association of Mountain Rescue Ireland ....

 (Cumann Tarrthála Sléibhte na h-Éireann in Irish) (Irish Mountain Rescue Association) (IMRA).

See also

  • Avalanche
    Avalanche
    An avalanche is a sudden rapid flow of snow down a slope, occurring when either natural triggers or human activity causes a critical escalating transition from the slow equilibrium evolution of the snow pack. Typically occurring in mountainous terrain, an avalanche can mix air and water with the...

  • Croatian Mountain Rescue Service
  • Helicopter rescue basket
    Helicopter rescue basket
    A helicopter rescue basket is a basket suspended below a helicopter in order to rescue people from a fire or other disaster site.-Uses:There are two main types of helicopter baskets. The smaller, more common type is used by rescuers to lift a person up from ground or water into the helicopter.The...

  • Holme Valley Mountain Rescue Team
    Holme Valley Mountain Rescue Team
    The Holme Valley Mountain Rescue Team is a voluntary organisation based in Marsden, near Huddersfield in West Yorkshire. The Team functions as a search and rescue service covering the southern half of West Yorkshire, and is a registered charity entirely funded by public contributions.- About the...

  • Marin County Sheriff's Office Search & Rescue
    Marin County Sheriff's Office Search & Rescue
    Marin County Search and Rescue is an all-volunteer organization in Marin County within the county's Sheriff's office. With approximately sixty active members year round, Marin County's Search and Rescue responds to searches for missing children and adults, evidence and other search requests in...

  • Mountain Rescue Association
    Mountain Rescue Association
    In the United States, mountain rescue is handled by professional teams within some national parks and by volunteer teams elsewhere. Volunteer teams are part of the Mountain Rescue Association and operate under the authority of the local sheriff's department....

  • Mountain Rescue England & Wales
  • Mountain Rescue Service (Slovakia)
    Mountain Rescue Service (Slovakia)
    The Mountain Rescue Service of Slovakia provides nation-wide Mountain Rescue operations and Search and Rescue operations in difficult terrains in close cooperations with the Air Rescue Service...

  • Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service (United Kingdom)
    Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service (United Kingdom)
    The Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service provides land rescue over the mountain areas of the United Kingdom. Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Teams were first organised during World War II to rescue aircrew from the large number of aircraft crashes then occurring on high ground...

  • San Diego Mountain Rescue Team
    San Diego Mountain Rescue Team
    The San Diego Mountain Rescue Team is an all-volunteer organization located in San Diego County, CA operating under the jurisdiction of the San Diego County Sheriff's Department...

  • SAR dog
  • St. Bernard (dog)
    St. Bernard (dog)
    The St. Bernard is a breed of very large working dog from the Italian and Swiss Alps, originally bred for rescue. The breed has become famous through tales of alpine rescues, as well as for its large size.-Appearance:The St. Bernard is a large dog...

  • Tatra Volunteer Search and Rescue
  • Wilderness first aid

External links