Moskva River

Moskva River

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The Moskva River is a river that flows through the Moscow
Moscow Oblast
Moscow Oblast , or Podmoskovye , is a federal subject of Russia . Its area, at , is relatively small compared to other federal subjects, but it is one of the most densely populated regions in the country and, with the 2010 population of 7,092,941, is the second most populous federal subject...

 and Smolensk Oblast
Smolensk Oblast
Smolensk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its area is . Population: -Geography:The administrative center of Smolensk Oblast is the city of Smolensk. Other ancient towns include Vyazma and Dorogobuzh....

s in Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, and is a tributary
Tributary
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean...

 of the Oka River
Oka River
Oka is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Tula, Kaluga, Moscow, Ryazan, Vladimir, and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga. Its length exceeds...

.

Etymology


Moskva and Moscow are two different renderings of the same Russian word Москва. The city is named after the river. The origin of the name is unknown, although several theories exist. One theory suggests that the source of the name is an ancient Finnic
Finnic languages
The term Finnic languages often means the Baltic-Finnic languages, an undisputed branch of the Uralic languages. However, it is also commonly used to mean the Finno-Permic languages, a hypothetical intermediate branch that includes Baltic Finnic, or the more disputed Finno-Volgaic languages....

 language, in which it means "marshy place, dark waters, gnat". Alternatively, the name may come from the Mordvinian language, meaning "bear-river".. Similar meaning is in Mari language
Mari language
The Mari language , spoken by more than 600,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family. It is spoken primarily in the Mari Republic of the Russian Federation as well as in the area along the Vyatka river basin and eastwards to the Urals...

 where moská denotes "bear" whereas Mari
Mari language
The Mari language , spoken by more than 600,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family. It is spoken primarily in the Mari Republic of the Russian Federation as well as in the area along the Vyatka river basin and eastwards to the Urals...

 word ava implies "mother".

Hydrology


The length of the river is 503 km. The area of its drainage basin
Drainage basin
A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean...

 is 17,600 km². Vertical level drop is 155 metres (long-term average). Maximum depth above Moscow city limits - 3 metres, and up to 6 metres below it
. Normally, it freezes in November–December and begins to thaw around late March. In downtown Moscow, the river freezes occasionally; in an unusually warm winter of 2006-2007, ice began setting on January, 25.
Absolute water level in downtown Moscow is 120.0 metres above sea level (long-term average of summer lows after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

), historical maximum was set by the 1908 flood - 127.25 metres above sea level.

Sources of water


Main tributaries are the Ruza
Ruza River
Ruza River is a river in the Moscow Oblast in Russia, left tributary of the Moscow River. The length of the river is 145 km. The area of its basin is 1,990 km². It usually freezes in November and stays under the ice until April....

, Istra
Istra River
Istra is a river in Moscow Oblast, Russia.It is the left tributary of the Moskva River....

, Yauza
Yauza River
This article is about a river in Moscow, a tributary of the Moskva River. There are three other Yauza rivers in Central Russia: tributaries of the Lama, Gzhat and Sestra....

, Pakhra
Pakhra River
The Pakhra River is a river in the Moscow Oblast in Russia, a right tributary of the Moskva River. It is 135 km in length. The area of its basin is 2580 km². The Pakhra River freezes up in November - December and stays under the ice until the late March - April. Main tributaries: Mocha,...

, and Severka rivers. Sources of water are estimated as 61% thaw, 12% rain and 27% subterranean. After completion of Moscow Canal
Moscow Canal
The Moscow Canal , named the Moscow-Volga Canal until the year 1947, is a canal that connects the Moskva River with the main transportation artery of European Russia, the Volga River. It is located in Moscow itself and in the Moscow Oblast...

 (1932–1937), Moskva River also collects a share of Upper Volga water. This enabled reliable commercial shipping, which was previously interrupted by summer droughts (older dams built in 1785, 1836 and 1878 were not effective). Average discharge
Discharge (hydrology)
In hydrology, discharge is the volume rate of water flow, including any suspended solids , dissolved chemical species and/or biologic material , which is transported through a given cross-sectional area...

, including Volga waters, varies from 38 m³/s near Zvenigorod
Zvenigorod
Zvenigorod is an old town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. Population: -History:The community has existed since the 12th century, although its first written mention is dated 1338. The town's name is based either on a personal name or on a hydronym Zvenigorod is an old town in Moscow Oblast, Russia....

 to 250 m³/s at Oka inlet. Flow speed, depending on the season, varies from 0.1 m/s (winter, dams closed) to 1.5-2.0 m/s (may, dams open).

Cities


Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 (Москва́), the capital of Russia, is situated on its banks. The river also flows through the towns of Mozhaysk
Mozhaysk
Mozhaysk is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located to the west from the Russian capital, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Poland. Population:...

, Zvenigorod
Zvenigorod
Zvenigorod is an old town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. Population: -History:The community has existed since the 12th century, although its first written mention is dated 1338. The town's name is based either on a personal name or on a hydronym Zvenigorod is an old town in Moscow Oblast, Russia....

, Zhukovsky, Bronnitsy
Bronnitsy
Bronnitsy is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located southeast of downtown Moscow and west of Bronnitsy station of the Moscow-Ryazan railroad. The town lies geographically within Ramensky District but is administratively incorporated as a town under oblast jurisdiction...

, Voskresensk
Voskresensk
Voskresensk is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located southeast from Moscow, on the shores of the Moskva River. Population: Town status was granted to Voskresensk in 1938.-Notable athletes:...

, and — at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka — Kolomna
Kolomna
Kolomna is an ancient city and the administrative center of Kolomensky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka Rivers, southeast of Moscow. The area of the city is about . The city was founded in 1177...

. In 2007, there are 49 bridges across Moskva River and its canals within Moscow city limits; the first stone bridge
Bolshoi Kamennyi Bridge
Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge is a steel arch bridge spanning Moskva River at the western end of the Moscow Kremlin. Its predecessor was the first permanent stone bridge in Moscow, Russia...

 was erected in 1692. Within the city, river is 120–200 metres wide, the narrowest point exactly under the Kremlin
Kremlin
A kremlin , same root as in kremen is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the best-known one, the Moscow Kremlin, or metonymically to the government that is based there...

 walls. Drinking water for the city of Moscow is collected from five stations on Moskva River and Upper Volga reservoirs (north and north-west from the city).

Islands


Canals, built within Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 city limits, form a number of islands. Some of them have names in Russian, some have none. Major, permanent islands (east to west) are:
  • Serebryany Bor
    Serebryany Bor
    Serebryany Bor is an urban locality in Neryungrinsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located north of Neryungri on the Amur Yakutsk Mainline. Population: There is a hydropower plant in the settlement....

    . Separated from the mainland in 1930s
  • Tatarskaya Poima, commonly known as Mnevniki. Separated from the mainland in 1930s
  • Balchug Island
    Balchug
    Balchug , also known as Bolotny Ostrov , is an island in the very centre of Moscow, Russia, squeezed between the Moskva River and its old river-bed which was turned into the Vodootvodny Canal in 1786...

    , also known as Bolotny Ostrov, lying just opposite the Kremlin
    Moscow Kremlin
    The Moscow Kremlin , sometimes referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River , Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square and the Alexander Garden...

    . The island was formed by construction of Vodootvodny Canal
    Vodootvodny Canal
    Vodootvodny Canal is a 4 kilometre long, 30-60 metre wide canal in downtown Moscow, Russia. It was built in 1780s on the old riverbed of Moskva River to control floods and support shipping. Canal construction created an island between Moskva river and the canal. The island acquired its present...

     in 1780s, and has no official name in Russian. Moscow residents informally call it "Bolotny Ostrov" (Bog Island) while members of Moscow's English-speaking community refer to it as Balchug.
  • One uninhabited island north from Nagatino
    Nagatinsky Zaton District
    Nagatinsky zaton District is a district in Southern Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia, located on the right bank of the Moskva River. The name Nagatino comes from a former village, known since the 14th century, which was engulfed by Moscow in 1960...

  • Three uninhabited islands east from Nagatino
    Nagatinsky Zaton District
    Nagatinsky zaton District is a district in Southern Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia, located on the right bank of the Moskva River. The name Nagatino comes from a former village, known since the 14th century, which was engulfed by Moscow in 1960...

    , connected by Pererva dam
    Dam
    A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are...

     and lock
    Lock (water transport)
    A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. The distinguishing feature of a lock is a fixed chamber in which the water level can be varied; whereas in a caisson lock, a boat lift, or on a canal inclined plane, it is...

     system


Trivia

  • The Battle of Borodino
    Battle of Borodino
    The Battle of Borodino , fought on September 7, 1812, was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia and all Napoleonic Wars, involving more than 250,000 troops and resulting in at least 70,000 casualties...

     is known in French as "Battle of the Moskva River" (Bataille de la Moscowa).
  • The Moskva River, as well as Gorky Park
    Gorky Park (Moscow)
    Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure is an amusement park in Moscow, named after Maxim Gorky.-History:...

     are mentioned in Scorpions
    Scorpions (band)
    Scorpions are a heavy metal/hard rock band from Hannover, Germany, formed in 1965 by guitarist Rudolf Schenker, who is the band's only constant member. They are known for their 1980s rock anthem "Rock You Like a Hurricane" and many singles, such as "No One Like You", "Send Me an Angel", "Still...

    ' ballad Wind of Change. The first lines of the lyrics read as : "I follow the Moskva/ Down to Gorky Park/ Listening to the wind of change"
  • Since winter 2009-2010 on the Moskva River new entertainment is entered: walk on the winter river on the ice breaker. There are five walking river ice breakers which ply on a route from a mooring Hotel Ukraine to the Novospassky Monastery
    Novospassky Monastery
    Novospassky Monastery is one of the fortified monasteries surrounding Moscow from south-east.It was the first monastery to be founded in Moscow in the early 14th century. The Saviour Church was its original katholikon...

    and back. Duration of walk will make about 2 hours.