Mortar (masonry)

Mortar (masonry)

Overview
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone
Rock (geology)
In geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids.The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic...

, brick
Brick
A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar. It has been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history.-History:...

, cinder blocks, etc. Mortar becomes hard when it sets, resulting in a rigid aggregate
Aggregate (composite)
Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material. For efficient filling, aggregate should be much smaller than the finished item, but have a wide variety of sizes...

 structure. Modern mortars are typically made from a mixture of sand
Sand
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal...

, a binder such as cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

 or lime
Lime (mineral)
Lime is a general term for calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. Strictly speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is also the name for a single mineral of the CaO composition, occurring very rarely...

, and water. Mortar can also be used to fix, or point, masonry
Masonry
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, stone, marble, granite, travertine, limestone; concrete block, glass block, stucco, and...

 when the original mortar has washed away.

The first mortars were made of mud and clay
Clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

.
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Encyclopedia
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone
Rock (geology)
In geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids.The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic...

, brick
Brick
A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar. It has been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history.-History:...

, cinder blocks, etc. Mortar becomes hard when it sets, resulting in a rigid aggregate
Aggregate (composite)
Aggregate is the component of a composite material that resists compressive stress and provides bulk to the composite material. For efficient filling, aggregate should be much smaller than the finished item, but have a wide variety of sizes...

 structure. Modern mortars are typically made from a mixture of sand
Sand
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal...

, a binder such as cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

 or lime
Lime (mineral)
Lime is a general term for calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides predominate. Strictly speaking, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is also the name for a single mineral of the CaO composition, occurring very rarely...

, and water. Mortar can also be used to fix, or point, masonry
Masonry
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, stone, marble, granite, travertine, limestone; concrete block, glass block, stucco, and...

 when the original mortar has washed away.

Ancient mortar


The first mortars were made of mud and clay
Clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

. Because of a lack of stone and an abundance of clay, Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

n constructions were of baked brick, using lime or pitch
Pitch (resin)
Pitch is the name for any of a number of viscoelastic, solid polymers. Pitch can be made from petroleum products or plants. Petroleum-derived pitch is also called bitumen. Pitch produced from plants is also known as resin. Products made from plant resin are also known as rosin.Pitch was...

 for mortar. According to Roman Ghirshman
Roman Ghirshman
Roman Ghirshman was a Ukrainian-born French archeologist who specialized in ancient Iran.A native of Kharkiv, Ghirshman moved to Paris in 1917 to study Archeology and Ancient Languages...

, the first evidence of humans using a form of mortar was at the ziggurat
Ziggurat
Ziggurats were massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, Iraq; the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near...

 of Sialk in Iran, built of sun-dried bricks in 2900 BC. The Chogha Zanbil Temple in Iran was built in about 1250 BC with kiln-fired bricks and a strong mortar of bitumen.

In early Egyptian pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found...

 constructed about 2600–2500 BC, the limestone blocks were bound by mortar of mud and clay, or clay and sand. In later Egyptian pyramids, the mortar was made of either gypsum
Gypsum
Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is found in alabaster, a decorative stone used in Ancient Egypt. It is the second softest mineral on the Mohs Hardness Scale...

 or lime. Gypsum mortar was essentially a mixture of plaster
Plaster
Plaster is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Plaster starts as a dry powder similar to mortar or cement and like those materials it is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting,...

 and sand
Sand
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal...

 and was quite soft.

In the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

, multiple cement types have been observed in the sites of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

, such as the Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro is an archeological site situated in what is now the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BC, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, existing at the same time as the...

 city-settlement that dates to earlier than 2600 BCE. Gypsum cement that was "light grey and contained sand, clay, traces of calcium carbonate, and a high percentage of lime" was used in the construction of wells, drains and on the exteriors of "important looking buildings." Bitumen mortar was also used at a lower-frequency, including in the Great Bath
Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro
The Great Bath is one of the best known structures among the ruins of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, Pakistan. It is located in the well-preserved northern part of Mohenjo-daro's western mound, which is also known as the "Mound of the Great Bath" or the...

 at Mohenjo-daro.

Historically, building with concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

 and mortar next appeared in Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

. The excavation of the underground aqueduct of Megara revealed that a reservoir was coated with a pozzolan
Pozzolan
A pozzolan is a material which, when combined with calcium hydroxide, exhibits cementitious properties. Pozzolans are commonly used as an addition to Portland cement concrete mixtures to increase the long-term strength and other material properties of Portland cement concrete, and in some cases...

ic mortar 12 mm thick. This aqueduct dates back to c. 500 BC. Pozzolanic mortar is a lime based mortar, but is made with an additive of volcanic ash that allows it to be hardened underwater; thus it is known as hydraulic cement. The Greeks obtained the volcanic ash from the Greek islands Thira and Nisiros, or from the then Greek colony of Dicaearchia (Pozzuoli
Pozzuoli
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the province of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania. It is the main city of the Phlegrean peninsula.-History:Pozzuoli began as the Greek colony of Dicaearchia...

) near Naples, Italy. The Romans later improved the use and methods of making what became known as pozzolanic mortar and cement. Even later, the Romans used a mortar without pozzolan
Pozzolan
A pozzolan is a material which, when combined with calcium hydroxide, exhibits cementitious properties. Pozzolans are commonly used as an addition to Portland cement concrete mixtures to increase the long-term strength and other material properties of Portland cement concrete, and in some cases...

a using crushed terra cotta
Terra cotta
Terracotta, Terra cotta or Terra-cotta is a clay-based unglazed ceramic, although the term can also be applied to glazed ceramics where the fired body is porous and red in color...

, introducing aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide
Silicon dioxide
The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica , is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula '. It has been known for its hardness since antiquity...

 into the mix. This mortar was not as strong as pozzolanic mortar, but, because it was denser, it better resisted penetration by water.

Hydraulic mortar was not available in ancient China, possibly due to a lack of volcanic ash. Around CE 500, sticky rice soup was mixed with slaked lime to make an inorganic−organic composite mortar that had more strength and water resistance than lime mortar.

It is not understood why the art of making hydraulic mortar and cement, which was perfected and in such widespread use by both the Greeks and Romans, was then lost for almost two millennia. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 when the Gothic cathedrals were being built, the only active ingredient in the mortar was lime. Since cured lime mortar
Lime mortar
Lime mortar is a type of mortar composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water. It is one of the oldest known types of mortar, dating back to the 4th century BC and widely used in Ancient Rome and Greece, when it largely replaced the clay and gypsum mortars common to Ancient...

 can be degraded by contact with water, many structures suffered from wind blown rain over the centuries.

Portland cement mortar


Portland cement mortar (is very often known simply as cement mortar) and is created by mixing Ordinary Portland cement
Portland cement
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world because it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco and most non-specialty grout...

 (OPC), hydrated lime, and aggregate
Aggregate
An aggregate is a collection of items that are gathered together to form a total quantity.* Aggregate , in materials science, a component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress...

 (or sand
Sand
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal...

) with water.

It was invented in 1794 by Joseph Aspdin and patented on 18 December 1824, largely as a result of various scientific efforts to develop stronger mortars than existed at the time. It was made popular during the late nineteenth century, and owing to the First World War, by 1930 it had superseded lime mortar for new construction. The main reasons for this were that Portland cement sets hard and quickly, allowing a faster pace of construction, and requires less skilled workers. However, as a general rule, Portland cement should not be used for the repair of older buildings constructed in lime mortar, which require the flexibility, softness and breathability of lime if they are to function correctly.
In the United States (and other countries), one of five standard types of mortar (available as a dry premixed product) are generally used for both new construction and repair. The ratio of cement, lime, and sand included in each mortar type produces different strengths of mortar. The formulations for each type are specified by the ASTM standards organization. These premixed mortar products are designated by one of the five letters M, S, N, O, and K, with Type M mortar being the highest strength and Type K the weakest. These type letters are taken from the alternate letters of the words "MaSoN wOrK".

Polymer cement mortar


Polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

 cement mortars (PCM) are the materials which are made by partially replacing the cement hydrate binders of conventional cement mortar with polymers. The polymeric admixtures include latex
Polyvinyl acetate
Polyvinyl acetate, PVA, PVAc, poly, is a rubbery synthetic polymer with the formula n. It belongs to the polyvinyl esters family with the general formula -[RCOOCHCH2]-...

es or emulsions, redispersible polymer powders, water-soluble polymers, liquid resins and monomers. It has low permeability, and it reduces the incidence of drying shrinkage cracking, mainly designed for repairing concrete structures. For an example see MagneLine
MagneLine
MagneLine is a name of a type of Polymer Cement Mortar produced by Magne Corporation in Fukuoka, Japan, distributed by in North America. MagneLine has been in use since 1970's in Japan for over 400 bridges. It is mainly used for reinforcement of concrete and metal structures such as bridges,...

.

Lime mortar



The speed of set can be increased by using impure limestones in the kiln
Kiln
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, or oven, in which a controlled temperature regime is produced. Uses include the hardening, burning or drying of materials...

, to form a hydraulic lime
Hydraulic lime
Hydraulic lime is a variety of lime, a slaked lime used to make lime mortar. Hydraulicity is the ability of lime to set under water. Hydraulic lime is produced by heating calcining limestone that contains clay and other impurities. Calcium reacts in the kiln with the clay minerals to produce...

 that will set on contact with water. Such a lime must be stored as a dry powder. Alternatively, a pozzolan
Pozzolan
A pozzolan is a material which, when combined with calcium hydroxide, exhibits cementitious properties. Pozzolans are commonly used as an addition to Portland cement concrete mixtures to increase the long-term strength and other material properties of Portland cement concrete, and in some cases...

ic material such as calcined clay or brick dust may be added to the mortar mix. This will have a similar effect of making the mortar set reasonably quickly by reaction with the water in the mortar.

Using Portland cement mortars in repairs to older buildings originally constructed using lime mortar can be problematic. This is because lime mortar is softer than cement mortar, allowing brickwork
Brickwork
Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar to build up brick structures such as walls. Brickwork is also used to finish corners, door, and window openings, etc...

 a certain degree of flexibility to move to adapt to shifting ground or other changing conditions. Cement mortar is harder and allows less flexibility. The contrast can cause brickwork to crack where the two mortars are present in a single wall.

Lime mortar is considered breathable in that it will allow moisture to freely move through it and evaporate from its surface. In old buildings with walls that shift over time, there are often cracks which allow rain water into the structure. The lime mortar allows this moisture to escape through evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs only on the surface of a liquid. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which, instead, occurs on the entire mass of the liquid....

 and keeps the wall dry. Repointing or rendering an old wall with cement mortar stops this evaporation and can cause problems associated with moisture behind the cement.

Pozzolana mortar



Pozzolana
Pozzolana
Pozzolana, also known as pozzolanic ash , is a fine, sandy volcanic ash. Pozzolanic ash was first discovered and dug in Italy, at Pozzuoli. It was later discovered at a number of other sites as well...

 is a fine, sandy volcanic ash
Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash consists of small tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions, less than in diameter. There are three mechanisms of volcanic ash formation: gas release under decompression causing magmatic eruptions; thermal contraction from chilling on contact...

, originally discovered and dug in Italy at Pozzuoli
Pozzuoli
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the province of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania. It is the main city of the Phlegrean peninsula.-History:Pozzuoli began as the Greek colony of Dicaearchia...

 in the region around Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius
Mount Vesuvius is a stratovolcano in the Gulf of Naples, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years, although it is not currently erupting...

, but later at a number of other sites. The ancient Roman architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

 Vitruvius
Vitruvius
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio was a Roman writer, architect and engineer, active in the 1st century BC. He is best known as the author of the multi-volume work De Architectura ....

 speaks of four types of pozzolana. It is found in all the volcanic areas of Italy in various colours: black, white, grey and red.

Finely ground and mixed with lime it acts like Portland cement and makes a strong mortar that will also set under water.

Radiocarbon dating


An international team headed by Åbo Akademi University
Åbo Akademi University
Åbo Akademi University is a Swedish language university in Turku, Finland . , there are 7 941 students and a staff consisting of 1125 people. The university has activities not only in Turku, but also in Vaasa, Jakobstad, Helsinki and on Åland...

 has developed a method of determining the age of mortar using radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating
Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years. Raw, i.e. uncalibrated, radiocarbon ages are usually reported in radiocarbon years "Before Present" ,...

. As the mortar hardens, the current atmosphere is encased in the mortar and thus provides a sample for analysis. One major challenge is various factors that affect the sample and raise the margin of error for the analysis.

Mortar Analysis


I. Mortar analysis is the scientific investigation of a variety of cementitious materials such as mortar, stucco, chinking, concrete, and plaster. For the purposes of this discussion all are referred to as “mortar” even though they differ from each other in very significant ways. Mortar analysis is the effort to determine the components of mortar. Unfortunately, no known form of analysis is able to determine relative proportions of the components with any precision. There are two primary types of analysis being used at the present time, as follow:

A. Acid digestion. Acid digestion is a technique that dates from at least the mid-nineteenth century. It is a relatively simple procedure in which hydrochloric acid is used to dissolve the binding component of the mortar which is typically lime and/or Portland cement. Insoluble components such as sand and fines (dirt associated with the sand and/or coloring agents) remain. The sand can then be sieved to determine ratios of sand grain sizes.

Some individuals have (unsuccessfully) attempted to calculate exact proportions of the components using this technique. At this time there is no accurate means of determining proportions, although experienced mortar analysts can provide general recommendations, especially concerning the probable components.

Advantages to this technique include the following:
1.) It is simple and, therefore, inexpensive relative to other techniques.
2.) It provides an excellent set of data regarding the sand component of the mortar as well as an actual sample of the sand.
3.) It provides an excellent sample of any coloring agents, whether they are fines or actual granular components which appear in the sand sample.
4.) In comparative analysis the sand serves as a type of DNA so that samples which have sand which is closely similar in gradation and color to other samples can be reliable understood to be of the same mortar. Contrariwise, if the sand does not match between samples then one can reasonably conclude that the mortars were applied at differing times.

Disadvantages to this technique include the following:
1.) It can be time-consuming as it is a wet process requiring filtering of the fines. Portland cement mortar samples can take upward of a week to filter. Lime mortar samples typically require two days to process.
2.) If the sand is composed of calcium carbonate or other acid-soluble particles (which is quite unusual) the results will be skewed.
3.) If the binder is not acid-soluble, as with gypsum in many plasters, the gypsum will appear typically in the fines or in the finer elements of the sand.
4.) If there is no binder in the mortar, as in many mud chinkings, then the dirt, or mud, will appear in the fines.
5.) It does not provide an accurate ratio of binder to sand.
6.) Precise identification of the mineral content of the sand is impossible.

B. Instrumental techniques. A vast array of highly technical analytical instruments are currently available to the construction industry, man of which are routinely applied to mortar analyses. Commonly employed instrument include atomic absorption spectrometers, which measure elemental composition, and X-ray diffractometers, which identify mineralogical components. These machines are capable of producing very precise data with excellent resolution, but there is no analytical instrument that can identify mortar components and determine proportions. This information can only be arrived at through interpretation by an experienced materials scientist.

II. Mortar analysis is performed to determine as best possible the significant aspects of the mortar. Typically, the desire is to replicate mortar to match other mortar (typically the original mortar) in order to accurately match that mortar both visually and functionally. This is critical for projects such as spot repointing. It may also be done for mortars which have not performed well so that adjustments in the mixture can be recommended to provide a similar mortar with greater longevity and which will not negatively impact the adjacent masonry units. The significant aspects include the following:

A. Sand content. This includes such things as sand grain sizes, sand color, mineral types. It also may be used in a comparative determination to ascertain the relative similarity and ages between mortar from varying locations in the building.

B. Binder content. This includes determination of binder types (lime, Portland cement, natural cement, gypsum, or other) and approximate ratios of binder to sand.

C. Presence of other binding materials such as hair or fiber binders typically used in plaster and identification of composition of these binders.

D. Colorants. Frequently mortar, especially pointing mortar, is colored. It is essential to identify the colorants used to achieve the final color in order to achieve a mortar which will match the existing mortar both at the present time and long into the future.

III. Who does mortar analysis? There are several types of venues where mortar analysis is performed, as follow:

A. Independent architectural conservators. These individuals typically employ the acid digestion technique for their analysis. This is the technique used by David Arbogast, Architectural Conservator (www.mortaranalysis.biz). Their experience does vary considerably and it is recommended that before choosing one, a resume of projects and experience be requested. The advantage to using an architectural conservator is that it tends to be quite cost-effective and answers the basic questions concerning mortar. As noted above, however, the acid digestion technique does have its limitations.

B. Independent material testing laboratories. There are a number of independent testing laboratories which have the equipment and personnel to perform the highly technical analysis described above. As with architectural conservators, they provide clear and unbiased results. Sometimes, however, as with any such reports, the average layman may find them difficult to interpret and understand so that care should be taken on the part of the laboratory to write the reports in understandable prose. One disadvantage to using these techniques, as noted above, is the relatively high cost.

C. Industry laboratories. Both the lime industry and the Portland cement industry have testing facilities and most of the current lime suppliers are able to provide mortar analysis using the acid digestion technology. They then use the results to produce new mortar for the customer. The advantage to this approach is that it tends to be faster than working with independent laboratories because the results are produced in-house. The disadvantage is that there frequently is a strong bias toward identifying mortar as containing the product of the manufacturer. For example, if a historic mortar contained both lime and Portland cement as the binders, it is not unreasonable that a lime manufacturer will simply use lime as the binder of the new mortar and vice versa for a Portland cement supplier. Another disadvantage is that most manufacturers of lime putty mortar have a standard stock of sand on hand and very rarely go to the trouble to actually match the historic sand of the mortar.

See also

  • Cement accelerator
    Cement accelerator
    Cement Accelerator is an admixture for the use in concrete, mortar, rendering or screeds. The addition of Cement Accelerator speeds the setting time and thus cure time starts earlier . This allows concrete to be placed in winter without the worry of frost damage .Typical materials used for...

  • tuckpointing
    Tuckpointing
    Tuckpointing is a way of using two contrasting colours of mortar in brickwork, one colour matching the bricks themselves, to give an artificial impression that very fine joints have been made.-History:...

  • Grout
    Grout
    Grout is a construction material used to embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints . Grout is generally composed of a mixture of water, cement, sand, often color tint, and sometimes fine gravel...

  • Thinset
    Thinset
    Thinset is an adhesive mortar made of cement, fine sand and a water retaining agent such as an alkyl derivative of cellulose. It is usually used to attach tile or stone to surfaces such as cement or concrete....

  • Thick Bed Mortar
    Thick bed mortar
    - History :The thick bed mortar method has been around for hundreds, if not thousands of years. Historically, a sand/cement mixture was mixed with water to a fairly dry consistency and was spread on either a portland cement water paste , or over cement powder spread on the surface which is then...

    (technique)