Moroccan dirham

Moroccan dirham

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The dirham ({{lang-ar|درهم, plural: دراهم}}) is the currency of [[Morocco]]. The plural form is pronounced [[broken plural|darahim]], although in [[French language|French]] and [[English language|English]] "dirhams" is commonly used. Its [[ISO 4217]] code is "MAD". It is subdivided into 100 santimat (singular: santim, Arabic singular: سنتيم, plural: سنتيما or سنتيمات). The dirham is issued by the [[Bank Al-Maghrib]], the [[central bank of Morocco]]. It is also the [[de facto currency|de facto currency]] in [[Western Sahara]]. While the dirham is a fully convertible currency, export of the local currency is prohibited by law, but seldom controlled.

History

Before the introduction of a modern coinage in 1882, Morocco issued copper coins denominated in [[falus]], silver coins denominated in dirham & gold coins denominated in benduqi. From 1882, the dirham became a subdivision of the [[Moroccan rial]], with 50 Mazunas = 10 dirham = 1 rial. When Morocco became a French protectorate in 1921 it switched to the [[Moroccan franc]]. The dirham was reintroduced in 1960. It replaced the [[Moroccan franc|franc]] as the major unit of currency but, until 1974, the franc continued to circulate, with 1 dirham = 100 francs. In 1974, the santim replaced the franc.

Coins

In 1960, silver 1 dirham coins were introduced. These were followed by nickel 1 dirham and silver 5 dirham coins in 1965. In 1974, with the introduction of the santim, a new coinage was introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 santimat and 1 dirham. The 1 santim coins were aluminium, the 5 up to 20 santimat were minted in brass, with the highest two denominations in cupro-nickel. Cupro-nickel 5 dirham coins were added in 1980 and changed to a [[Bi-metallic coins|bi-metal]] coin in 1987. The bi-metal coins bear two year designations for the issue date—1987 in the [[Gregorian calendar]] and the 1407 in the [[Islamic calendar]]. The 1 santim was only minted until 1987 when new designs were introduced, with a ½ dirham replacing the 50 santimat without changing the size or composition. The new 5 dirham coin was bimetallic, as was the 10 dirham coin introduced in 1995. Cupro-nickel 2 dirham coins were introduced in 2002. In 2011, a new series of coins will be issued. NEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINE
Dirham Coins [http://www.bkam.ma/Anglais/Bilets%20Monnaies%20Circulation/CracctPiece.htm]
Value Technical parameters Description
Diameter Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 santim 17 mm 0.7 g [[Aluminium]] Smooth [[Coat of arms of Morocco|Arms of the Kingdom]] and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco" Design of fishing
5 santimat 17.5 mm 2 g[[Aluminium bronze]]
92% [[copper]]
6% [[aluminium]]
2% [[nickel]]
Smooth Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco" Fish in a fishing net under a boat tiller
10 santimat 20 mm 3 g[[Nordic gold]]
89% [[copper]]
5% [[aluminium]]
5% [[zinc]]
1% [[tin]]
Reeded An ear of corn
20 santimat 23 mm 4 g Reeded Design representing a Fibule
½ dirham 21 mm 4 g [[Cupronickel]]
75% [[copper]]
25% [[nickel]]
Reeded Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco" Design representing communications and new technology
1 dirham 24 mm 6 g Reeded [[Mohammed VI of Morocco|Mohammed VI]] (earlier issues show [[Hassan II of Morocco|Hassan II]]) Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco"
2 dirham 26 mm 7 g Reeded Mohammed VI
5 dirhams 25 mm 7.5 g Ring: [[Cupronickel]] (as 1 dirham)
Center: 70% [[Copper|Cu]] 24.5% [[Zinc|Zn]] 5.5% [[Nickel|Ni]]
Reeded Mohammed VI (earlier issues show Hassan II)
10 dirhams 28 mm 12 g Ring: [[Aluminium bronze]] (as 5 santimat)
Center: [[Cupronickel]] (as 1 dirham)
Reeded Mohammed VI (earlier issues show Hassan II) Arms of the Kingdom and inscription "Kingdom of Morocco"
{{Standard coin table notice|BrE=Y}}
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Banknotes

The first notes denominated in dirham were overprints on earlier franc notes, in denominations of 50 dirham (on 5000 francs) and 100 dirham (on 10,000 francs). In 1965, new notes were issued for 5, 10 and 50 dirham. 100 dirham notes were introduced in 1970, followed by 200 dirham notes in 1991 and 20 dirham in 1996. 5 dirham notes were replaced by coins in 1980, with the same happening to 10 dirham notes in 1995. NEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINENEWLINE
Dirham Banknotes [http://www.bkam.ma/Anglais/Bilets%20Monnaies%20Circulation/BilletmonCircul.htm]
1987 Series (Including 1991 Revision)
Value Dimensions Obverse Reverse Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Watermark printing issue
10 dirhams 143 × 70 mm [[Image:10 dirham.jpg|100px]] [[Image:10 dirham back.jpg|100px]] Yellow and pink (1987)
violet (1991)
[[Hassan II of Morocco|Hassan II]] Moroccan lute, pillar Hassan II 1987 1987/ca. 1991
50 dirhams 148 × 70 mm [[Image:50 dirham.jpg|100px]] [[Image:50 dirham back.jpg|100px]] Green Hassan II A fantasia scene Hassan II 1987 1987/ca. 1991
100 dirhams 153 × 75 mm [[Image:100 dirham.jpg|100px]] [[Image:100 dirham back.jpg|100px]] Brown Hassan II [[Green March|The Green March]] into the Spanish Sahara (October, 1975), Desert rose Hassan II 1987 1987/ca. 1991
200 dirhams 158 × 75 mm [[Image:Front 200 Dirham.jpg|100px]] [[Image:Back 200 Dirham.jpg|100px]] Blue Hassan II Conch shell, a branch of coral, and a Dhow. Hassan II 1987 ca. 1991
1996 Series
20 dirhams 130 × 68 mm [[Image:20 dirham 1996.jpg|100px]] [[Image:20 dirham 1996 back.jpg|100px]] Brown-reddish Hassan II, Great mosque of Casablanca Wall fountain of the [[Hassan II Mosque]] Hassan II 1996 1996
2002 Series
20 dirhams 140 × 70 mm [[Image:Front 20 Dirham.jpg|100px]] [[Image:Back 20 Dirham.jpg|100px]] Violet [[Mohammed VI of Morocco|Mohammed VI]], "Bab Challah" (Challah gate) in [[Rabat, Morocco|Rabat]] A panoramical view of the Oudayas Mohammed VI and "20" 2005 2005
50 dirhams 147 × 70 mm [[Image:Front 50 Dirham.jpg|100px|]] [[Image:Back 50 Dirham.jpg|100px|]] Green Mohammed VI A clay-made building (Ksour) Mohammed VI and "50" 2002 2002
100 dirhams 150 × 78 mm [[Image:Front 100 Dirham.jpg|100px|]] [[Image:Back 100 Dirham.jpg|100px|]] Brown Mohammed VI, [[Mohammed V of Morocco|Mohammed V]] and [[Hassan II of Morocco|Hassan II]] [[Green March|The Green March]] into the Spanish Sahara (October, 1975) Mohammed VI and "100" 2002 2002
200 dirhams 158 × 78 mm [[Image:|100px]] [[Image:|100px]] Blue Mohammed VI and Hassan II, Grand mosque of Casablanca A window of the [[Hassan II Mosque]], Lighthouse of Casablanca (Pointe el-Hank) Mohammed VI and "200" 2002 2002
{{Standard banknote table notice|BrE=Y}}
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Popular denominations and usage

Popular denominations are words widely used in Morocco to refer to different values of the currency they are not considered official by the state though. Those include the [[rial]] (rjal), equivalent to 5 santimat, and the [[franc]] frˤɑnk, equivalent to 1 santim. Usually, when dealing with goods with a value lower than a dirham, it is common to use the rial or santim. For very high priced goods, such as cars, it is normative to refer to the price in santimat. However, rial is used when speaking in Arabic and centime when speaking in [[French language|French]]. Though not used by the young generation, the denomination 1000, 2000, ... to 100,000 francs will be used by people who lived during the French colonial period when referring to 10, 20 and 1000 dirham. Likewise, rial is also used for higher value than portions of the dirham, reaching 5000 dhs (100,000 rial). This denomination is used in [[Moroccan arabic]] speaking context especially in popular milieu such as old medina souks or vegetable markets. [[Image:Morocco 50 dirhams.jpg|thumb|50 dirhams and Ksour in the background]] {{Exchange Rate|MAD}}

External links

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  • [http://www.chez.com/numismo Numismo]
NEWLINE {{Economy of Morocco}} {{Currencies of Africa}}