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Mormonism and Judaism

Mormonism and Judaism

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The doctrines of the Latter Day Saint movement
Latter Day Saint movement
The Latter Day Saint movement is a group of independent churches tracing their origin to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in the late 1820s. Collectively, these churches have over 14 million members...

, commonly referred to as Mormonism, teach that its adherents, Latter-day Saints, are either direct descendants of the House of Israel, or are adopted into it. As such, Judaism is foundational to the history of Mormonism
Mormonism
Mormonism is the religion practiced by Mormons, and is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement. This movement was founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. beginning in the 1820s as a form of Christian primitivism. During the 1830s and 1840s, Mormonism gradually distinguished itself...

; Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 are considered a covenant people of God
God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

, held in high esteem, and are respected in the Mormon faith system. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is consequently very philo-Semitic
Philo-Semitism
Philo-Semitism or Judeophilia is an interest in, respect for, and appreciation of the Jewish people, their historical significance and the positive impacts of Judaism in the history of the western world, in particular, generally on the part of a gentile...

 in its doctrine
Doctrine
Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system...

.

From the perspective of the Jewish community, Mormon beliefs regarding their membership in the House of Israel are generally denied from both a theological and cultural standpoint.

Background


Mormonism is a Christian religion in which Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

 is the promised Messiah
Messiah
A messiah is a redeemer figure expected or foretold in one form or another by a religion. Slightly more widely, a messiah is any redeemer figure. Messianic beliefs or theories generally relate to eschatological improvement of the state of humanity or the world, in other words the World to...

 and son of God. The LDS Church teaches it is necessary to proselytize nonbelievers through an active missionary program. Judaism does not believe in Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah and the active process of proselytizing among the Jewish people is rejected.

Mormon claims of House of Israel descent


Mormons consider themselves to be the descendants of the Biblical Patriarchs Abraham
Abraham
Abraham , whose birth name was Abram, is the eponym of the Abrahamic religions, among which are Judaism, Christianity and Islam...

, Isaac
Isaac
Isaac as described in the Hebrew Bible, was the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and was the father of Jacob and Esau. Isaac was one of the three patriarchs of the Israelites...

, and Jacob
Jacob
Jacob "heel" or "leg-puller"), also later known as Israel , as described in the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament and the Qur'an was the third patriarch of the Hebrew people with whom God made a covenant, and ancestor of the tribes of Israel, which were named after his descendants.In the...

 (also known as "Israel") or adoptees into the House of Israel, and contemporary Mormons use the terms "House of Israel" and "House of Joseph" to refer to themselves.

The Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement that adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2600 BC to AD 421. It was first published in March 1830 by Joseph Smith, Jr...

 tells of families of the Tribe of Manasseh
Tribe of Manasseh
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Manasseh was one of the Tribes of Israel. Together with the Tribe of Ephraim, Manasseh also formed the House of Joseph....

 and the Tribe of Ephraim
Tribe of Ephraim
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Ephraim was one of the Tribes of Israel. The Tribe of Manasseh together with Ephraim also formed the House of Joseph....

 that migrated from Jerusalem to an unknown location in the Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

. According to Mormon doctrine, this migration fulfilled the prophecy of Jacob on his son, Joseph: "Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose branches run over the wall" (Genesis 49:22
Old Testament
The Old Testament, of which Christians hold different views, is a Christian term for the religious writings of ancient Israel held sacred and inspired by Christians which overlaps with the 24-book canon of the Masoretic Text of Judaism...

). The Book of Mormon also tells of a group from the Tribe of Judah
Tribe of Judah
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Judah was one of the Tribes of Israel.Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes....

 who came to the Americas after its defeat by Babylon around 600 BCE.

The official position of the LDS Church is that those who have accepted Mormonism or are a part of the Latter Day Saint movement
Latter Day Saint movement
The Latter Day Saint movement is a group of independent churches tracing their origin to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in the late 1820s. Collectively, these churches have over 14 million members...

 are primarily from the House of Joseph. Adherents believe they are members of one of the tribes of Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, either by blood lineage or by adoption, when the recipient is not a literal descendant of Jacob
Jacob
Jacob "heel" or "leg-puller"), also later known as Israel , as described in the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament and the Qur'an was the third patriarch of the Hebrew people with whom God made a covenant, and ancestor of the tribes of Israel, which were named after his descendants.In the...

, also known as Israel. Individual church members are told their tribal affiliation through a patriarchal blessing
Patriarchal blessing
In the Latter Day Saint movement, a patriarchal blessing is a blessing or ordinance given by a patriarch to a church member. Patriarchal blessings are modeled after the blessing given by Jacob to each of his sons prior to his death...

. The LDS Church teaches that all of the tribes exist within their numbers, though not every tribe in every country. Ephraim and Manasseh are by far the two largest tribes in the LDS Church. Some Latter-day Saint patriarchs
Patriarchal blessing
In the Latter Day Saint movement, a patriarchal blessing is a blessing or ordinance given by a patriarch to a church member. Patriarchal blessings are modeled after the blessing given by Jacob to each of his sons prior to his death...

 believe the one country to have the most confirmed coexisting tribes is Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest...

, missing only the Tribe of Zebulun
Tribe of Zebulun
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Zebulun was one of the Tribes of Israel....

.

Tribal affiliation is not usually discussed in everyday LDS life, and all members, regardless of tribal affiliation, worship together. The knowledge of one's tribal affiliation is usually only shared with one's immediate family.

In modern Jewish culture, by contrast, it is generally accepted that knowledge of individual tribal affiliation has been lost to antiquity, except in the case of Levites and Cohens, where such knowledge is relevant to religious practice. Some Jewish families, however, hold family traditions of descent from other tribes. The Sephardi Chief Rabbinate of Israel has recognized the Beta Israel
Beta Israel
Beta Israel Israel, Ge'ez: ቤተ እስራኤል - Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "Community of Israel" also known as Ethiopian Jews , are the names of Jewish communities which lived in the area of Aksumite and Ethiopian Empires , nowadays divided between Amhara and Tigray...

 of Ethiopia as the Tribe of Dan, and the Bene Menashe of India as the Tribe of Menasseh. The Bene Israel
Bene Israel
The Bene Israel are a group of Jews who migrated in the 19th century from villages in the Konkan area to the nearby Indian cities, primarily Mumbai, but also to Pune, and Ahmedabad. Prior to these waves of emigrations and to this day, the Bene Israel formed the largest sector of the subcontinent's...

 of India and the Lemba
Lemba
The Lemba or 'wa-Remba' are a southern African ethnic group to be found in Zimbabwe and South Africa with some little known branches in Mozambique and Malawi. According to Parfitt they are thought to number 70,000...

 tribe of Africa claim descent from Kohanim
Kohen
A Kohen is the Hebrew word for priest. Jewish Kohens are traditionally believed and halachically required to be of direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron....

 - according to a government report, these claims are supported by DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 analysis.

The position of Jews with regard to Mormons is similar to Jewish feelings about other Christian groups—while peaceful coexistence is strongly desired, attempts at conversion are considered inappropriate and unwanted. Jews do not, in general, accept Mormon claims with regard to Mormon descent from, or membership in, the tribes of ancient Israel.

Jewish symbolism in Mormonism



The LDS Church includes among its traditional symbol
Symbol
A symbol is something which represents an idea, a physical entity or a process but is distinct from it. The purpose of a symbol is to communicate meaning. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite. Numerals are symbols for...

s the Star of David
Star of David
The Star of David, known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David is a generally recognized symbol of Jewish identity and Judaism.Its shape is that of a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles...

, which has been in use among Jews since at least the 13th century. For the LDS Church, it represents among other things the divine Israelite covenant
Covenant (biblical)
A biblical covenant is an agreement found in the Bible between God and His people in which God makes specific promises and demands. It is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith. It it is used in the Tanakh 286 times . All Abrahamic religions consider the Biblical covenant...

, Israelite regathering, and affinity with the Jews, and is prominently depicted in a stained glass
Stained glass
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works produced from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant buildings...

 window in the landmark Salt Lake Assembly Hall
Salt Lake Assembly Hall
thumb|200px|right|Front entrance to the Assembly Hall with the [[Seagull Monument]] in foregroundthumb|200px|right|Inside Assembly HallThe Salt Lake Assembly Hall is one of the buildings owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on the southwest corner of Temple Square in Salt Lake...

.

Calendar


Mormon scholars have pointed out that several major events in early Mormon history fall on Jewish holidays, by design. Jewish holidays can last from two to eight days, and "Erev" signifies the day before the holiday begins. Months in the Jewish calendar start on the new moon - the first day of the month, the day of the new moon, is referred to as "Rosh Chodesh". Saturday, Jewish Sabbath
Biblical Sabbath
Sabbath in the Bible is usually a weekly day of rest and time of worship. The Sabbath is first mentioned in the Genesis creation narrative. The seventh day is there set aside as a day of rest—the Sabbath. It is observed differently in Judaism and Christianity and informs a similar occasion in...

, is referred to as "Shabbat
Shabbat
Shabbat is the seventh day of the Jewish week and a day of rest in Judaism. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until a few minutes after when one would expect to be able to see three stars in the sky on Saturday night. The exact times, therefore, differ from...

". The following date correlations have been provided by members of the LDS church:
  • December 23, 1805 (Hanukkah
    Hanukkah
    Hanukkah , also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd century BCE...

    : 8th Day) - Joseph Smith Jr. Born (Founder of LDS Faith)
  • September 21, 1823 (Sukkot
    Sukkot
    Sukkot is a Biblical holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the month of Tishrei . It is one of the three biblically mandated festivals Shalosh regalim on which Hebrews were commanded to make a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem.The holiday lasts seven days...

     I) - Joseph prays and is visited three times during the night by an angel named Moroni. Moroni tells him about a hidden book and quotes scriptures from the books of Acts, Joel, Isaiah, and Malachi.
  • September 22, 1823 (Sukkot II) - Joseph goes to the place where the gold plates are concealed, but is instructed by the angel Moroni not to retrieve them.
  • September 22, 1827 (Erev Rosh Hashana) - Joseph receives the gold plates.
  • July 1, 1829 (Rosh Chodesh Tamuz (the first day of the month of Tamuz)) - According to David Whitmer, the translation of the Book of Mormon was completed July 1, 1829.
  • April 6, 1830 (Rosh Chodesh Nisan
    Nisan
    Nisan is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month of the civil year, on the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian; in the Torah it is called the month of the Aviv, referring to the month in which barley was ripe. It is a spring month of 30 days...

     (the first day of the month of Nisan)) - The "Church of Jesus Christ" is officially organized in the home of Peter Whitmer, Sr., in Fayette, NY.
  • March 24, 1832 (Shabbat Parah) - Joseph Smith is tarred by a mob.
  • April 3, 1836 (Pesach I) - Mormons believe that following the dedication of the Kirtland Temple
    Kirtland Temple
    The Kirtland Temple is a National Historic Landmark in Kirtland, Ohio, USA, on the eastern edge of the Cleveland metropolitan area. Owned and operated by the Community of Christ, formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints , the house of worship was the first temple to be...

     (on Pesach I/Easter Sunday, April 3, 1836), Jesus
    Jesus
    Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

    , Moses
    Moses
    Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed...

    , Elijah, and Elias
    Elias
    Elias is the Latin transliteration of the Greek name , which in turn is the Hellenized form of the , meaning "Yahweh is my God". Another form of Eliyahu in English is Elijah.The name belonged most notably to Elijah , the Hebrew prophet...

     appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, restoring specific "keys," or blessings, powers and authority as held in previous dispensations
    Dispensation of the fulness of times
    In Christianity, the dispensation of the fulness of times is thought to be a world order or administration in which the heavens and the earth are under the political and/or spiritual government of Jesus...

     of divinely revealed truth. They committed to Joseph and Oliver the keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, the leading of the ten tribal families from the north, the administering of the keys of the Abrahamic dispensation, and the keys of sealing powers (compare with the apostolic binding power that Jesus bestowed on Peter). (D&C 110:3–4, 7).
  • July 24, 1847 (Shabbat Nachamu) - Mormon settlers first arrive at what becomes Salt Lake City and the home the LDS Church.
  • September 9, 1850 (Rosh Hashana II) - The Great Compromise of 1850 is signed into law, creating the Utah Territory and appointing Mormon Prophet Brigham Young governor.
  • July 23, 1857 (Rosh Chodesh Av
    Av
    Av is the eleventh month of the civil year and the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. The name is Babylonian in origin and appeared in the Talmud around the 3rd century. This is the only month which is not named in the Bible. It is a summer month of 30 days...

     (the first day of the month of Av)) - June 29, 1857: U.S. President James Buchanan declares Utah in rebellion of the U.S. government. Buchanan appoints Alfred Cumming as governor of Utah. Cumming is to be escorted by a regiment of the U.S. army, initially led by Col. Edmund Alexander.
  • September 18, 1857 (Erev Rosh Hashana (the day before Rosh Hashana)) - United States Army starts marching towards Utah to take control of Territory. Col. Johnston and troops leave Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
  • October 5, 1857 (Sukkot II) - Nauvoo Legion
    Nauvoo Legion
    The Nauvoo Legion was a militia originally organized by the Latter Day Saints to defend the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, . To curry political favor with the ambiguously-political Saints, the Illinois state legislature granted Nauvoo a liberal city charter that gave the Nauvoo Legion extraordinary...

     engages United States Army in first armed conflict of Utah War
    Utah War
    The Utah War, also known as the Utah Expedition, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between LDS settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government. The confrontation lasted from May 1857 until July 1858...

    .
  • April 12, 1858 (Erev Rosh Chodesh Iyyar (the day before the first day of the month of Iyyar)) - The U.S. Army and Cumming arrive in Salt Lake City. Mormons surrender Salt Lake City. United States gains control of Utah. Alfred Cumming assumes governorship.

Mormons and Jews


LDS assert peaceful coexistence with the Jewish people, whom they recognize as Israelites who simply never lost the knowledge that they are Israelites. The Church is consequently very philo-Semitic
Philo-Semitism
Philo-Semitism or Judeophilia is an interest in, respect for, and appreciation of the Jewish people, their historical significance and the positive impacts of Judaism in the history of the western world, in particular, generally on the part of a gentile...

 by doctrine
Doctrine
Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system...

, and the Jewish people are generally held in high esteem; they are looked upon as a covenant people of God.

Jews in Utah


The first Jewish cemetery in Salt Lake City, Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

, was on land donated by the LDS church, and the first Reform
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the...

 temple
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

 in Salt Lake was funded by the LDS Church.

The fourth Governor of Utah was Simon Bamberger
Simon Bamberger
Simon Bamberger was the fourth Governor of Utah after it achieved statehood from territorial status in 1896. Bamberger bears the distinction of being the first non-Mormon, the first Democrat, and the first and to date only Jew to be elected Governor of the State of Utah...

, a Jew. Anti-Semitic publications denouncing Bamberger and exaggerating his nose were denounced by leaders of the community and Church at that time. B. H. Roberts, a Mormon politician and church leader, supported Bamberger's campaign by nominating him.

Baptism for the dead


A longtime practice of the LDS Church has been to vicariously baptize their ancestors, both direct lineal ancestors and related lines. This stems from the LDS belief that all individuals must receive all saving ordinances (i.e., sacraments) to achieve exaltation. Under Mormon theology, vicarious performance of the ordinance of baptism and other temple ordinances does not automatically make a deceased individual a Mormon, but rather allows the person (believed alive in the after life) the option of freely accepting or rejecting the ordinances performed on their behalf. Mormons do not believe they have the right or power to compel acceptance of vicarious ordinances or change a deceased person's religious affiliation against his will. From time to time, and contrary to LDS Church policy, zealous Latter-day Saint genealogists have submitted the names of other prominent individuals, including at one point the Holocaust
The Holocaust
The Holocaust , also known as the Shoah , was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and millions of others during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi...

's Jewish victims and others. Official Church policy states that Church members submit the names of their own relatives for these type of ordinances, and requires that permission of the closest living relative be obtained for any baptism that is to be performed for deceased individuals born within the last 95 years.
However, some Baptisms were done for Holocaust victims, without proper approval or permission. When this information became public, it generated vocal criticism of the LDS Church from Jewish groups, who found this ritual to be insulting and insensitive (attempting to contact the dead is forbidden under Jewish law, as one of the 613
613 mitzvot
The 613 commandments is a numbering of the statements and principles of law, ethics, and spiritual practice contained in the Torah or Five Books of Moses...

 basic commandments). Partly as a result of public pressure, Church leaders in 1995 promised to put into place new policies that would help stop the practice, unless specifically requested or approved by the surviving spouse, children or parents of the victims.

In late 2002, information surfaced that members of the Church had not stopped this practice despite directives from the Church leadership to its members, and criticism from Jewish groups began again. The Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center
The Simon Wiesenthal Center , with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, was established in 1977 and named for Simon Wiesenthal, the Nazi hunter. According to its mission statement, it is "an international Jewish human rights organization dedicated to repairing the world one step at a time...

, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

, is on record as opposing the vicarious baptism of Holocaust victims. Rabbi Marvin Hier
Marvin Hier
Rabbi Marvin Hier is the dean and founder of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, its Museum of Tolerance and of Moriah, the Center's film division....

 of the Center said: "If these people did not contact the Mormons themselves, the adage should be: Don't call me, I'll call you. With the greatest of respect to them, we do not think they are the exclusive arbitrators of who is saved." Recently Church leaders have agreed to meet with leaders of the World Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors.

In December 2002, independent researcher Helen Radkey published a report showing that the Church's 1995 promise to remove Jewish Nazi victims from its International Genealogical Index was not sufficient; her research of the Church's database uncovered the names of about 19,000 who had a 40 to 50 percent chance of having "the potential to be Holocaust victims…in Russia, Poland, France, and Austria."

Genealogist Bernard Kouchel conducted a search of the International Genealogical Index, and discovered that many well-known Jews have been vicariously baptized, including Rashi
Rashi
Shlomo Yitzhaki , or in Latin Salomon Isaacides, and today generally known by the acronym Rashi , was a medieval French rabbi famed as the author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud, as well as a comprehensive commentary on the Tanakh...

, Maimonides
Maimonides
Moses ben-Maimon, called Maimonides and also known as Mūsā ibn Maymūn in Arabic, or Rambam , was a preeminent medieval Jewish philosopher and one of the greatest Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages...

, Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

, Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
' was a politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel. Before independence, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. He proclaimed a revolt, on 1 February 1944,...

, Irving Berlin
Irving Berlin
Irving Berlin was an American composer and lyricist of Jewish heritage, widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in American history.His first hit song, "Alexander's Ragtime Band", became world famous...

, Marc Chagall
Marc Chagall
Marc Chagall Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century."According to art historian Michael J...

, and Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
Gilda Susan Radner was an American comedian and actress, best known as one of the original cast members of the NBC sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live, for which she won an Emmy Award in 1978.-Early life:...

. Some permissions may have been obtained, but there is currently no system in place to verify that these permissions were obtained, which has angered many in various religious and cultural communities.

In 2004, Schelly Talalay Dardashti, Jewish genealogy columnist for The Jerusalem Post, noted that Jews, even those with no Mormon descendants, are being rebaptized after being removed from the rolls. In an interview, D. Todd Christofferson, a church official, told The New York Times that it was not feasible for the church to continuously monitor the archives to ensure that no new Jewish names appear. The agreement referred to above did not place this type of responsibility on the centralized Church leadership.

On April 11, 2005, Jewish and Mormon officials met and created a joint Jewish/Mormon committee with the goal of preventing future issues. The committee met intermittently over the next few years. On September 1, 2010, Jewish and Mormon leaders issued a joint statement "acknowledging that concerns between members of both groups over [the] sensitive doctrinal issue have been eliminated."

Mormons and the State of Israel


Mormons, generally but not exclusively, are largely pro-Israel. Mormons, as well as many Jews, are also in favor of peaceful coexistence between Jews and non-Jewish (Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 and/or Christian) Arabs in the Holy Land. The LDS people consider non-Jewish Arabs to be children of Abraham
Abraham
Abraham , whose birth name was Abram, is the eponym of the Abrahamic religions, among which are Judaism, Christianity and Islam...

.

The LDS church has two congregations in Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. These are the Galilee Branch in Tiberias and the Jerusalem Branch in Jerusalem. Latter-day Saints in Israel hold their worship services on Saturday, Jewish Sabbath.

Mormons do not proselytize
Proselytism
Proselytizing is the act of attempting to convert people to another opinion and, particularly, another religion. The word proselytize is derived ultimately from the Greek language prefix προσ- and the verb ἔρχομαι in the form of προσήλυτος...

 in the area and the members are discouraged from proselytizing. There are legal restrictions in Israel concerning this issue.

Descendants of Israelites who can verify a claim to that descent (genetically or religiously, including in some cases relatives of Jews who are not themselves Jewish) are allowed by the Israeli government to immigrate to Israel under the Law of Return
Law of Return
The Law of Return is Israeli legislation, passed on 5 July 1950, that gives Jews the right of return and settlement in Israel and gain citizenship...

. Mormon theological claims of descent are not considered a sufficient basis for immigration under the Law of Return.

Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private university located in Provo, Utah. It is owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , and is the United States' largest religious university and third-largest private university.Approximately 98% of the university's 34,000 students...

 has a study center in Jerusalem that is active in research and cultural activities (e.g. classical music
Classical music
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times...

 concerts). Its creation was initially protested by Haredi
Haredi Judaism
Haredi or Charedi/Chareidi Judaism is the most conservative form of Orthodox Judaism, often referred to as ultra-Orthodox. A follower of Haredi Judaism is called a Haredi ....

 Jewish groups which claimed, despite Mormon reassurances, that it would be a center of proselytize
Proselyte
The biblical term "Proselyte", derives from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, as used in the Septuagint for "stranger", i.e. a "newcomer to Israel"; a "sojourner in the land", and in the New Testament for a convert to Judaism from Paganism...

ing activities - but these soon died down. Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private university located in Provo, Utah. It is owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , and is the United States' largest religious university and third-largest private university.Approximately 98% of the university's 34,000 students...

 was allowed to open an extension in Jerusalem only after promising the mayor that no proselytizing would take place and that all students would be foreigners.
The courses at the center, attracting students from BYU and other institutions of higher learning in the US who wanted to do credit coursework in Israel, were previously temporarily suspended due to the security situation.

Scriptural teaching about Jews and the House of Israel


The Book of Mormon, part of the scripture of Latter-day Saints, on its title page states that its purpose is "the convincing of the Jew and the Gentile that Jesus is the Christ." However, it contains a specific condemnation of Anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
Antisemitism is suspicion of, hatred toward, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage. According to a 2005 U.S...

:
"Yea, and ye need not any longer hiss, nor spurn, nor make game of the Jews, nor of any remnant of the house of Israel; for behold, the Lord remembereth his covenant unto them, and he will do unto them according to that which he hath sworn."3 Nephi 29:8


The Book of Mormon also specifically mentions "synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

s," in Alma 16:13:
"And Alma and Amulek
Amulek
Amulek is a key figure from the Book of Alma, a section of the Book of Mormon.-Mission to Ammonihah:According to Alma, chapters 8-14, Amulek, in 82 B.C., accompanied the prophet Alma the Younger on a mission to the wicked city of Ammonihah, where he preached the Gospel and contended with the...

 went forth preaching repentance to the people in their temples, and in their sanctuaries, and also in their synagogues, which were built after the manner of the Jews
" .


The Doctrine and Covenants, a collection of canonized prophecies of Joseph Smith and other Mormon leaders, contains prophecies regarding the return of the Jews to the land of Israel:
"And the children of Judah may begin to return to the lands which thou didst give to Abraham, their father."


In addition, it states:
"Let them, therefore, who are among the Gentiles flee unto Zion. And let them who be of Judah flee unto Jerusalem, unto the mountains of the Lord’s house."


The Book of Mormon also calls for Jews to repent and accept Jesus Christ but also emphasizes that the Jews remain the Lord's chosen people with whom he has made a covenant.

Other Mormon literature


In 1982, the late Elder Bruce R. McConkie
Bruce R. McConkie
Bruce Redd McConkie was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1972 until his death...

 published a book titled The Millennial Messiah,. The book devotes an entire chapter to “The Jews and the Second Coming.” It states:
”Let this fact be engraved in the eternal records with a pen of steel: the Jews were cursed, and smitten, and cursed anew, because they rejected the gospel, cast out their Messiah, and crucified their King.”


McConkie continues by stating
“Let the spiritually illiterate suppose what they may, it was the Jewish denial and rejection of the Holy One of Israel, whom their fathers worshiped in the beauty and holiness, that has made them a hiss and byword in all nations and that has taken millions of their fair sons and daughters to untimely graves.” (a possible reference to the Holocaust).


McConkie’s cites Mormon scripture to support his statements:
"What sayeth the holy word? “They shall be scourged by all people, because they crucify the God of Israel, and turn the hearts aside, rejecting signs and wonders, and the power and glory of the God of Israel. And because they turn their hearts aside,…and have despised the Holy One of Israel, they shall wander in the flesh, and perish, and become a hiss and by-word and be hated among all nations.: (1 Ne. 19:13-14; 2 Ne. 6:9-11.) Such is the prophetic word of Nephi."

Nature of God


Although monotheism
Monotheism
Monotheism is the belief in the existence of one and only one god. Monotheism is characteristic of the Baha'i Faith, Christianity, Druzism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Samaritanism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism.While they profess the existence of only one deity, monotheistic religions may still...

 is a fundamental tenet of Judaism, the Jewish religion arose and was codified during a time when polytheism
Polytheism
Polytheism is the belief of multiple deities also usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own mythologies and rituals....

 and idolatry
Idolatry
Idolatry is a pejorative term for the worship of an idol, a physical object such as a cult image, as a god, or practices believed to verge on worship, such as giving undue honour and regard to created forms other than God. In all the Abrahamic religions idolatry is strongly forbidden, although...

 was the norm. In polytheistic religions, gods are typically ascribed human or human/animal bodies (including gender and race), family relationships, and human failings (including intra-familial struggles, jealousy, revenge, and a whole host of negative human traits). It was rejection of this belief, as well as a rejection of idol worship, that separated Judaism from its neighbors in the ancient world. A basic belief of Judaism, as reiterated in the daily prayer Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael are the first two words of a section of the Torah that is a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services...

, is that God is one. In addition, Judaism does not assume the deity has a human form - God never was, nor will be, a human being.
LDS theology maintains that God the Father (Heavenly Father), Jesus Christ (His Son), and the Holy Ghost are three separate and distinct Gods (Joseph Smith, Ensign, March 2008, p. 68). James E. Faust, in an LDS General Conference, also expounded this LDS Church doctrine, when he said that, "The First Vision confirms the fact there are three separate Gods: God the Father-Elohim, to whom we address our prayers; Jesus the Christ-Jehovah; and the Holy Ghost-the Comforter, through whose spirit we may know the truth of all things." (James E. Faust, "The Magnificent Vision Near Palmyra," Ensign, May 1984, online LDS.org p. 67). Together, the three comprise the Godhead
Godhead (Mormonism)
In the Mormonism represented by most of Mormon communities , God means Elohim , whereas Godhead means a council of three distinct gods: Elohim, Jehovah , and the Holy Spirit...

, unified in purpose and heart. God the Father and Jesus Christ have tangible, perfected bodies of flesh and bone (Doctrine and Covenants 130:22, Gospel Principles, chapter 47). Humans are literal children of a Father in Heaven, and through the Atonement of Jesus Christ they can return to Him and become literal Gods (Doctrine and Covenants 132, Gospel Principles, chapter 47, LDS 1985 Melchizedek Priesthood study guide, "Search These Commandments", pp. 151–157/Lesson 21).

"God himself was once as we are now, and is an exalted Man, and sits enthroned in yonder heavens. That is the great secret... It is the first principle of the Gospel to know for a certainty the character of God and to know...that he was once a man like us. Here, then, is eternal life--to know that only wise and true God, and you have got to learn how to become Gods yourselves, and to be kings and priests to God, the same as all Gods have done before you. .. God himself, the father of us all dwelt on an earth the same as Jesus Christ."
- The Prophet Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 342-345.

Jesus

See also Judaism's view of Jesus
Judaism's view of Jesus
Jews have traditionally seen Jesus as one of a number of false messiahs who have appeared throughout history. Jesus is viewed as having been the most influential, and consequently the most damaging, of all false messiahs...

 and Jesus in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Nature of Jesus


Jesus of Nazareth is not mentioned in Jewish records of the time, and no Jewish religious practice acknowledges or recognizes Jesus as a divine figure. Jewish responsa
Responsa
Responsa comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.-In the Roman Empire:Roman law recognised responsa prudentium, i.e...

 to Jesus in the modern day takes two paths, addressing the issue of divinity and the issue of Moshiach (the Jewish word for Messiah). With regard to the divinity of Jesus, a basic tenet of Judaism is that God is one; therefore a trinity, even of divine persons, can have no place in the Jewish belief system. Jews also do not believe that God has a physical manifestation. As a result, God does not have aspects of a physical body such as race or gender; the idea that God might have physical, "begotten" children is therefore not possible. In addition, Jews believe that God must be approached directly, without any intermediary. To do otherwise is considered heretical.

With regard to the question of Jesus as the Messiah
Messiah
A messiah is a redeemer figure expected or foretold in one form or another by a religion. Slightly more widely, a messiah is any redeemer figure. Messianic beliefs or theories generally relate to eschatological improvement of the state of humanity or the world, in other words the World to...

, there have been many claimants to the title
Jewish Messiah claimants
The Messiah in Judaism has a number of interpretations, including any king chosen by God; a holy king who will lead Israel; and someone who will usher in an idyllic age of peace and justice...

  in Jewish history, and none are regarded as having fulfilled the requirements of that role. Jesus is not considered differently from any of the others. What individual Jews think of Jesus ranges from "never existed," to "irrelevant," to "actually Mithras
Mithraism
The Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD. The name of the Persian god Mithra, adapted into Greek as Mithras, was linked to a new and distinctive imagery...

," to "Jesus never claimed to be a messiah or a prophet." In any case, however, the Jewish Messiah was never expected to be, or described as, anything but an ordinary person.

According to Mormon beliefs, Jesus Christ was the Only Begotten Son
Son of God
"Son of God" is a phrase which according to most Christian denominations, Trinitarian in belief, refers to the relationship between Jesus and God, specifically as "God the Son"...

 of God the Father
God the Father
God the Father is a gendered title given to God in many monotheistic religions, particularly patriarchal, Abrahamic ones. In Judaism, God is called Father because he is the creator, life-giver, law-giver, and protector...

. Latter-day Saints identify Jesus with the Old Testament
Old Testament
The Old Testament, of which Christians hold different views, is a Christian term for the religious writings of ancient Israel held sacred and inspired by Christians which overlaps with the 24-book canon of the Masoretic Text of Judaism...

 Jehovah
Jehovah
Jehovah is an anglicized representation of Hebrew , a vocalization of the Tetragrammaton , the proper name of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible....

 (not with God the Father), indicating that the Jews' covenant with Jehovah was actually with Jesus. Because of Christ's suffering, death, and resurrection
Resurrection
Resurrection refers to the literal coming back to life of the biologically dead. It is used both with respect to particular individuals or the belief in a General Resurrection of the dead at the end of the world. The General Resurrection is featured prominently in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim...

, all mankind is saved from death and will rise again and receive a perfected physical body. Furthermore, the Atonement satisfies the demands of justice; grace, forgiveness, and mercy (i.e. salvation
Salvation
Within religion salvation is the phenomenon of being saved from the undesirable condition of bondage or suffering experienced by the psyche or soul that has arisen as a result of unskillful or immoral actions generically referred to as sins. Salvation may also be called "deliverance" or...

) are extended to all who accept Christ as their personal Savior and become His life-long disciples. A disciple of Christ follows His teachings in humility, with faith, hope, love, charity, and gratitude.

It is worth noting here that in Latter-day Saint beliefs, the atonement goes so far as to cover everyone who is doing his best to be good (including Jews, Buddhists, etc.), eventually even rescuing the spirits of the wicked from hell. The type of reward they receive, however, depends on the level of their acceptance and obedience.

Idols


Judaism expressly forbids idolatry
Idolatry
Idolatry is a pejorative term for the worship of an idol, a physical object such as a cult image, as a god, or practices believed to verge on worship, such as giving undue honour and regard to created forms other than God. In all the Abrahamic religions idolatry is strongly forbidden, although...

 in any form, considering it to be a violation of the first commandment
Ten Commandments
The Ten Commandments, also known as the Decalogue , are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and most forms of Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the Sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry,...

. Among observant Jews, this extends to a prohibition on any representation of the human body, particularly in a religious context.

Similar to Judaism, Latter-day Saints do not prescribe to or generally own crucifixes or idols, and do not have idols or statues at their meeting houses (local wards) because these items do not fit into the purpose of these buildings. An exception is made for statues of an angel blowing a trumpet, commonly identified as Moroni, which are placed on the tallest spire of many of the temples
Temple (LDS Church)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , a temple is a building dedicated to be a House of the Lord, and they are considered by Church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. Upon completion, temples are usually open to the public for a short period of time...

 of the LDS Church, generally facing eastward. Mormon belief holds that on the night of September 21, 1823, Moroni appeared to Joseph Smith, Jr., who would later become the founder of Mormonism
Mormonism
Mormonism is the religion practiced by Mormons, and is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement. This movement was founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. beginning in the 1820s as a form of Christian primitivism. During the 1830s and 1840s, Mormonism gradually distinguished itself...

, and told him about the Golden Plates
Golden Plates
According to Latter Day Saint belief, the golden plates are the source from which Joseph Smith, Jr. translated the Book of Mormon, a sacred text of the faith...

 buried in a hill, which was a few miles from Smith's home. A profile of this same statue (Moroni) appears on the cover of some editions of the Book of Mormon. These usages are because the LDS Church holds to the view that Moroni is the angel spoken of in the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
The Book of Revelation is the final book of the New Testament. The title came into usage from the first word of the book in Koine Greek: apokalupsis, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation"...

 14:6, "And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people." The image of Angel Moroni or a Star of David, worn on an individual, are also considered acceptable. Necklaces, neck ties, pins and charms are available from Deseret Book
Deseret Book
Deseret Book is the largest Latter-day Saint book publisher and also owns a chain of LDS bookstores in the western United States. Over 150 people work in its Salt Lake City headquarters...

, an LDS church-owned bookstore. In addition, some church-owned buildings not used for worship also display statues of Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

. Statues of Moroni are also found in some LDS households.

Prophecy and the Messiahs


Judaism holds that prophecy
Prophecy
Prophecy is a process in which one or more messages that have been communicated to a prophet are then communicated to others. Such messages typically involve divine inspiration, interpretation, or revelation of conditioned events to come as well as testimonies or repeated revelations that the...

 temporarily ceased after the death of Malachi
Malachi
Malachi, Malachias or Mal'achi was a Jewish prophet in the Hebrew Bible. He had two brothers, Nathaniel and Josiah. Malachi was the writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim section in the Jewish Tanakh...

, and will be restored with the Messianic Age, whereas Mormons believe that Joseph Smith restored prophecy to the earth from an age of apostasy. Thus they believe that Joseph Smith was a prophet.

According to Judaism the Messiah is a regular person from the House of David, who will rebuild the Jewish Temple and bring about a long period of peace, increased moral behavior and prosperity for all nations. This period would lead to the resurrection of the dead in the "end of days".

Mormons believe that in addition to the various prophecies from the New Testament divine prophecy has been restored beginning with Joseph Smith. Additionally during the dedication of the Kirtland Temple (on Pesach I/Easter Sunday, April 3, 1836), Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

, Moses
Moses
Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed...

, Elijah, and Elias
Elias
Elias is the Latin transliteration of the Greek name , which in turn is the Hellenized form of the , meaning "Yahweh is my God". Another form of Eliyahu in English is Elijah.The name belonged most notably to Elijah , the Hebrew prophet...

 appeared to Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, restoring the Gospel. They committed to Joseph and Oliver the keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, the leading of the ten tribal families from the north, the administering of the keys of the Abrahamic dispensation, and the keys of sealing powers. (D&C 110:3–4, 7).

Temples



See also Holy of Holies (LDS Church)
Holy of Holies (LDS Church)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the Holy of Holies is a room in the Salt Lake Temple wherein the church's president — acting as the Presiding High Priest of the church — enters to act as High Priest of Israel in direct relationship with God, in accordance with the...



Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the main temple in ancient Jerusalem, on the Temple Mount , before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE....

 held the Ark of the Covenant
Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant , also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a chest described in Book of Exodus as solely containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed...

 in a room of the temple referred to as the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
The Holy of Holies is a term in the Hebrew Bible which refers to the inner sanctuary of the Tabernacle and later the Temple in Jerusalem where the Ark of the Covenant was kept during the First Temple, which could be entered only by the High Priest on Yom Kippur...

. The presiding high priest would enter into this room, said to contain the Shekhina (the presence of God), once a year on Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur , also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest and most solemn day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue...

.

The Salt Lake Temple
Salt Lake Temple
The Salt Lake Temple is the largest and best-known of more than 130 temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is the sixth temple built by the church, requiring 40 years to complete, and the fourth operating temple built since the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo,...

 of the LDS Church contains a Holy of Holies wherein the Church's President
President of the Church (Mormonism)
In the Latter Day Saint movement, the President of the Church is generally considered to be the highest office of the church. It was the office held by Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the movement, and the office assumed by many of Smith's claimed successors, such as Brigham Young, Joseph Smith III,...

—acting as the Presiding High Priest—enters to fulfill the relationship between the High Priest of Israel and God
God the Father
God the Father is a gendered title given to God in many monotheistic religions, particularly patriarchal, Abrahamic ones. In Judaism, God is called Father because he is the creator, life-giver, law-giver, and protector...

, in accordance with the LDS interpretation of the Book of Exodus . Hence, this Holy of Holies is considered a modern cognate to the inner sanctuary
Holy of Holies
The Holy of Holies is a term in the Hebrew Bible which refers to the inner sanctuary of the Tabernacle and later the Temple in Jerusalem where the Ark of the Covenant was kept during the First Temple, which could be entered only by the High Priest on Yom Kippur...

 of the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
The Tabernacle , according to the Hebrew Torah/Old Testament, was the portable dwelling place for the divine presence from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan. Built to specifications revealed by God to Moses at Mount Sinai, it accompanied the Israelites...

 and Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple , refers to one of a series of structures which were historically located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock. Historically, these successive temples stood at this location and functioned as the centre of...

.

Of the 128 temples
Temple (LDS Church)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , a temple is a building dedicated to be a House of the Lord, and they are considered by Church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. Upon completion, temples are usually open to the public for a short period of time...

 operated by the LDS Church today, only the Salt Lake Temple
Salt Lake Temple
The Salt Lake Temple is the largest and best-known of more than 130 temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is the sixth temple built by the church, requiring 40 years to complete, and the fourth operating temple built since the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo,...

 has a Holy of Holies; previous to the completion of the Salt Lake Temple
Salt Lake Temple
The Salt Lake Temple is the largest and best-known of more than 130 temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is the sixth temple built by the church, requiring 40 years to complete, and the fourth operating temple built since the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo,...

 in 1893, the Manti Temple
Manti Utah Temple
The Manti Utah Temple is the fifth constructed temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . Located in the city of Manti, Utah, it was the third LDS temple built west of the Mississippi River after the Mormons' great trek westward. The Manti Utah Temple (formerly the Manti Temple)...

 housed a Holy of Holies for the use of the President of the Church. While the room itself still exists in the Manti Temple
Manti Utah Temple
The Manti Utah Temple is the fifth constructed temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . Located in the city of Manti, Utah, it was the third LDS temple built west of the Mississippi River after the Mormons' great trek westward. The Manti Utah Temple (formerly the Manti Temple)...

, it is now used as a sealing room
Celestial marriage
Celestial marriage is a doctrine of Mormonism, particularly The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and branches of Mormon fundamentalism.Within Mormonism, celestial marriage is an ordinance associated with a covenant that always...

 for marriages.

Latter-day Saints believe that the Jews will one day rebuild a Temple in Jerusalem, and that the Jews will restore the practice of rituals of the Law of Moses within that Temple.

Judaism



Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 holds that literal male descendants of Aaron
Aaron
In the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, Aaron : Ααρών ), who is often called "'Aaron the Priest"' and once Aaron the Levite , was the older brother of Moses, and a prophet of God. He represented the priestly functions of his tribe, becoming the first High Priest of the Israelites...

 are Kohanim
Kohen
A Kohen is the Hebrew word for priest. Jewish Kohens are traditionally believed and halachically required to be of direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron....

, or priests. As well, other literal male descendants of Levi
Levi
Levi/Levy was, according to the Book of Genesis, the third son of Jacob and Leah, and the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Levi ; however Peake's commentary suggests this as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite...

 are Leviim, members of the Hebrew tribe of Levi who form a different order of priesthood. Kohanim and Leviim have specific religious rights, duties, and (in the case of Kohanim) restrictions. The daughter of a Kohen (a bat-Kohen) also has specific rights and restrictions, but does not pass on the status of Kohen to her offspring (unless their father is also a Kohen). Judaism recognizes no other forms of priesthood.

Rabbis are not necessarily Kohanim; rather they are Jews who are particularly learned in Jewish law and practice
Halakha
Halakha — also transliterated Halocho , or Halacha — is the collective body of Jewish law, including biblical law and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.Judaism classically draws no distinction in its laws between religious and ostensibly non-religious life; Jewish...

. Although not required, it is typical for a congregation to have at least one rabbi, and typical for rabbis to act as do spiritual leaders in other religions—delivering a weekly sermon, officiating at weddings and other life events, visiting the sick, and so on. A rabbi's most important function in the congregation, however, is in interpreting and teaching Jewish law.

Training to become a rabbi includes extensive education in Jewish law and practice, and may also include education in Jewish history and philosophy. In general, a congregation will hire a rabbi after reviewing applications and interviewing several candidates—there is no central body that assigns a rabbi to a congregation.

Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism , is the approach to Judaism which adheres to the traditional interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Sanhedrin and subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and...

 accepts only male rabbis. Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the...

 ordained its first woman rabbi in 1972, Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement based on the ideas of Mordecai Kaplan . The movement views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. It originated as a branch of Conservative Judaism, before it splintered...

 in 1974, and Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s.Conservative Judaism has its roots in the school of thought known as Positive-Historical Judaism,...

 in 1985. The Reform and Reconstructionist movements also accept openly gay and lesbian rabbis. Conservative Judaism (typically a more conservative branch than the Reform or Reconstructionist movements) moved to allow individual congregations to choose whether or not to accept both gay and lesbian rabbis and same-sex commitment ceremonies in December 2006. There are no restrictions in any branch of Judaism with regard to race or descent.

Mormonism




The LDS Church gives "literal descendants of Aaron" the legal right to constitute the Presiding Bishopric
Presiding Bishop (LDS Church)
The Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a priesthood calling with church-wide authority. The Presiding Bishop is the highest leadership position within the church's Aaronic priesthood.-Presiding Bishopric:...

, when so directed by the First Presidency
First Presidency
In the Latter Day Saint movement, the First Presidency was the highest governing body in the Latter Day Saint church established by Joseph Smith, Jr. in 1832, and is the highest governing body of several modern Latter Day Saint denominations...

. (See The Doctrine and Covenants). When no LDS descendants of Aaron are available, Melchizedek priesthood
Melchizedek priesthood
The Melchizedek priesthood is the greater of the two orders of priesthood recognized in Mormonism. The others are the Aaronic priesthood and the rarely recognized Patriarchal priesthood...

 holders are allowed to substitute. To date, all men who have served as the Presiding Bishop have been Melchizedek Priesthood holders, and none have been publicly identified as Kohanim.

The orders of the priesthood
Priesthood (Mormonism)
In the Latter Day Saint movement, priesthood is considered to be the power and authority of God, including the authority to act as a leader in the church and to perform ordinances, and the power to perform miracles. A body of priesthood holders is referred to as a quorum.Priesthood denotes elements...

 are the Aaronic or Levitical priesthood, modeled after the priesthood of Aaron
Aaron
In the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, Aaron : Ααρών ), who is often called "'Aaron the Priest"' and once Aaron the Levite , was the older brother of Moses, and a prophet of God. He represented the priestly functions of his tribe, becoming the first High Priest of the Israelites...

 the Levite, the first high priest of the Hebrews, and his descendants (Kohen)
Kohen
A Kohen is the Hebrew word for priest. Jewish Kohens are traditionally believed and halachically required to be of direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron....

; and the Melchizedek priesthood, modeled after the authority of the Prophet Melchizedek
Melchizedek
Melchizedek or Malki Tzedek translated as "my king righteous") is a king and priest mentioned during the Abram narrative in the 14th chapter of the Book of Genesis....

. The LDS Church does not recognize a Patriarchal order of priesthood separate from the Melchizedek priesthood, and considers that both the Patriarchal and Aaronic priesthoods are subsets of the Melchizedek.

Members of the Tribe of Levi are said to have held the Levitical priesthood by right of birth before Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

, whereas after Jesus, holders of the Aaronic priesthood have received it "by prophecy, and by the laying on of hands
Laying on of hands
The laying on of hands is a religious ritual that accompanies certain religious practices, which are found throughout the world in varying forms....

". The Doctrine and Covenants, however, contains an indication that the Aaronic priesthood is only available until the Tribe of Levi again "makes an offering unto the Lord in righteousness." (See D&C 13:1) It is now typically given at the age of twelve.

Just as the Priests and the High Priest's line were subsets of the tribe of Levi, Latter-day Saints sometimes observe parallels between levels of authority within the offices of their Aaronic priesthood and offices under the Law: deacons, corresponding to Levites; teachers, corresponding to Kohathites; priests, corresponding to the priestly line; and bishops, corresponding to the Aaronic High Priest's descendants (not to be confused with the High Priesthood of Melchizedek).

The LDS Church believes in an all-male priesthood. All worthy LDS males are ordained to the Aaronic Priesthood at the age of twelve. At age eighteen, worthy members of the Aaronic priesthood are usually ordained as Elders in the Melchizedek Priesthood. Depending on the needs of a church, an Elder may be ordained a High Priest of the Melchizedek Priesthood.

Males of African descent were prohibited from receiving the priesthood due to their putative descent from Cain until 1978, at which time the LDS church announced they had received a new revelation permitting all worthy males to receive the priesthood. Some fundamentalist sects reject this revelation.

Some smaller sects, including the Community of Christ
Community of Christ
The Community of Christ, known from 1872 to 2001 as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints , is an American-based international Christian church established in April 1830 that claims as its mission "to proclaim Jesus Christ and promote communities of joy, hope, love, and peace"...

 (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), have adopted the use of women in clerical roles, which is not accepted by the LDS church.

Diet


Both Judaism and Mormonism have dietary guides. Adherence to these rules varies depending on religious sect and personal faith.

Judaism


The laws of kashrut
Kashrut
Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

 ("keeping kosher") are the Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with Jewish law is termed kosher, and food not in accord with Jewish law is termed treifah or treif. Kosher laws address what kinds of animals can be eaten, and requires separation of milk and meat, that vegetables be thoroughly inspected for insects, that animals be slaughtered painlessly, and by certified persons, and that many food products will be produced under rabbinical supervision. Produce of the Land of Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 has further restrictions.

While the drinking of alcohol is prohibited by LDS, Jews are expected or required to drink wine on certain occasions. Wine is typically consumed at Sabbath evening meal, after a special blessing. In addition, the drinking of wine is an important part of the observation of two major Jewish holidays—Passover
Passover
Passover is a Jewish holiday and festival. It commemorates the story of the Exodus, in which the ancient Israelites were freed from slavery in Egypt...

 (although for this holiday grape juice can be substituted) and Purim
Purim
Purim is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Jewish people in the ancient Persian Empire from destruction in the wake of a plot by Haman, a story recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther .Purim is celebrated annually according to the Hebrew calendar on the 14th...

.

Mormonism


Mormons believe the Word of Wisdom
Word of Wisdom
The "Word of Wisdom" is the common name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book considered by many churches within the Latter Day Saint movement to consist of revelations from God...

 to be modern revelation similar to the laws of kashrut
Kashrut
Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

. The revelation, which is found in LDS D&C
Doctrine and Covenants
The Doctrine and Covenants is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement...

 89, contains three parts: (1) a list of substances such as wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

, strong drink, and tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

 that should not be used , (2) a list of foods that should be used, sometimes with certain limitations , and (3) a promise to those who follow the guidelines .

Among the substances which the revelation indicates should not be used, the first is "wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

 or strong drink", which the revelation says should not be drunk except for wine, which may be used as part of the Sacrament
Sacrament (Mormonism)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, most often simply referred to as the sacrament, is the sacrament in which participants partake of bread and drink water in remembrance of the body and blood of Jesus Christ...

 (like Communion
Eucharist
The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

). The revelation gives the further precaution that if wine is used, it should be pure wine and "of your own make" or made by fellow saints. The revelation also advises against the use of tobacco and "hot drinks" (which was explained by Joseph Smith and his associates as meaning coffee
Coffee
Coffee is a brewed beverage with a dark,init brooo acidic flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant, colloquially called coffee beans. The beans are found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia,...

 and tea
Tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

).

Ingestion of tobacco is forbidden. The limitations on the use of tobacco are stated as "not for the body, neither for the belly, and is not good for man, but is an herb for bruises and all sick cattle, to be used with judgment and skill."

The list of foods and substances which the revelation encourages includes wholesome herb
Herb
Except in botanical usage, an herb is "any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume" or "a part of such a plant as used in cooking"...

s, fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

, and meat
Meat
Meat is animal flesh that is used as food. Most often, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as organs and offal...

; however, meat is to be eaten sparingly, if at all, and ideally only in winter, famine
Famine
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including crop failure, overpopulation, or government policies. This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality. Every continent in the world has...

, or "excess hunger". Other references ( and ) expand on meat and flesh. The revelation also encourages the use of grains
Cereal
Cereals are grasses cultivated for the edible components of their grain , composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran...

, particularly wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

. Barley
Barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

 is also encouraged for use in making "mild drinks" such as barley water.

The LDS Church has done away with wine altogether. Water replaces the wine in the Sacrament, according to a revelation on the subject, section , and members are not to drink any alcoholic beverages.

Shabbat


Shabbat
Shabbat
Shabbat is the seventh day of the Jewish week and a day of rest in Judaism. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until a few minutes after when one would expect to be able to see three stars in the sky on Saturday night. The exact times, therefore, differ from...

, lasting from sunset Friday night to the appearance of three stars on Saturday night, celebrates God's creation with a day of rest that commemorates God's day of rest upon the completion of creation. It plays an important role in Jewish practice and is the subject of a large body of religious law. Some consider it the most important Jewish holiday.

The most notable law with regard to observation of Jewish Sabbath is the requirement to abstain from creative work of any kind (the most widely known implication of this being the prohibition against kindling a fire). Observant Jews will prepare food ahead of time to avoid having to cook on Sabbath, and observant Orthodox Jews will avoid turning on electric lights (which "creates" an electric circuit) or driving.

While almost all work is forbidden on Sabbath, acts of leisure and pleasure are appropriate, as long as they do not violate any proscription with regard to doing work. A special meal is eaten (including wine and meat, if possible, even if the household cannot afford these luxuries the rest of the week). Married couples are encouraged to engage in sexual relations.

LDS Sabbath


The Sabbath for Latter-day Saints is Sunday. This is explained within the LDS Bible Dictionary as: "After the ascension of Christ, the members of the Church, whether Jews or gentiles, kept holy the first day of the week (the Lord’s day) as a weekly commemoration of our Lord’s resurrection (Acts 20: 7; 1 Cor. 16: 2; Rev. 1: 10); and by degrees the observance of the seventh day was discontinued." (Excerpt taken from the LDS Bible Dictionary) There are some notable exceptions, such as Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 and some Arab countries, where Latter-day Saints celebrate Sabbath either on a Friday or on a Saturday.

The focus of Sabbath for Latter-day Saints is as a day of rest from worldly concerns and endeavors and to concentrate on spiritual matters such as attending church, scripture study, visiting the sick and infirm, and family activities. Members are further encouraged not to make any purchases on Sabbath, unless an emergency demands otherwise. Members are also to fast first Sabbath of the month from the night before Sabbath until the evening of Sabbath. This period of fasting is used to fast and pray and reflect on their own relationship with God. The money that would have been spent on the two missed meals is usually donated as a fast offering to the church. These fast offerings are dedicated to feed the poor and the needy, be they church members or not.

Holy books


Both Mormons and Jews venerate the Tanakh
Tanakh
The Tanakh is a name used in Judaism for the canon of the Hebrew Bible. The Tanakh is also known as the Masoretic Text or the Miqra. The name is an acronym formed from the initial Hebrew letters of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: The Torah , Nevi'im and Ketuvim —hence...

 as part of their scriptures. However, Mormons do not accept the Talmud
Talmud
The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

, nor do Jews accept any of the writings revealed by Joseph Smith, or revelations by Mormon prophets.

The Book of Moses
Book of Moses
The Book of Moses is part of the scriptural canon of Mormonism dictated by founder Joseph Smith, Jr. It is an amalgamation of the "Vision of Moses," which Smith dictated in June 1830, the "Book of Enoch," dictated December 1830, and material deriving from Smith's revision of the Book of Genesis in...

and the Book of Abraham
Book of Abraham
The Book of Abraham is a 1835 work by Joseph Smith, Jr. that he said was based on Egyptian papyri purchased from a traveling mummy exhibition. According to Smith, the book was "a translation of some ancient records....purporting to be the writings of Abraham, while he was in Egypt, called the Book...

, while differing significantly from traditional Judaism share common source material with the Book of Genesis.

Judaism


Judaism's most holy book is the Torah
Torah
Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five books of the bible—Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers and Deuteronomy Torah- A scroll containing the first five books of the BibleThe Torah , is name given by Jews to the first five...

. Virtually all Jewish congregations own at least one 'sefer Torah' (copy of the Torah, hand-calligraphed on parchment) of which a portion is read aloud every week. The Torah (the five books of Moses, or Pentateuch), the Nevi'im (the Prophets) and Ketuvim (the Writings), make up the Tanach (With some rearrangements of the order of the books within, this is the same as the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
The Old Testament, of which Christians hold different views, is a Christian term for the religious writings of ancient Israel held sacred and inspired by Christians which overlaps with the 24-book canon of the Masoretic Text of Judaism...

.).

The Tanach is explained and supplemented by the Talmud
Talmud
The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

, which is made up of two parts: the Mishnah
Mishnah
The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism. It was redacted c...

 (originally oral law (i.e., passed down orally through generations), and now codified as written law), and the Gemara
Gemara
The Gemara is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah. After the Mishnah was published by Rabbi Judah the Prince The Gemara (also transliterated Gemora or, less commonly, Gemorra; from Aramaic גמרא gamar; literally, "[to] study" or "learning by...

 (rabbinic commentaries and analysis). More recent work explaining Jewish law includes the Shulkhan Arukh, which was written in the 16th century.

Traditionally, Jews believe that the Torah was given to Moses at Mount Sinai, to be passed on to the Jewish people. Scrolls of the Torah are copied by hand by specially trained scribes. An elaborate system of checking and cross-checking is used to ensure that no errors are introduced in the process of copying, and ancient copies or fragments of Torah that have been found (the most famous of which is the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of 972 texts from the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents found between 1947 and 1956 on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name...

) show a remarkable consistency with modern copies.

Mormonism


Joseph Smith Jr. said, "I told the brethren that the Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement that adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2600 BC to AD 421. It was first published in March 1830 by Joseph Smith, Jr...

was the most correct of any book on earth, and the keystone of our religion, and a man would get nearer to God by abiding by its precepts, than by any other book." Thus, the study of The Book of Mormon is emphasized by LDS leaders and teachers, but they also encourage the study of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible and believe in literal fulfillment of Biblical prophecies and covenants, including the Abrahamic covenant. The eighth Article of Faith
Articles of Faith (Mormonism)
Within the Latter Day Saint movement, the Articles of Faith are a creed composed by Joseph Smith, Jr. as part of an 1842 letter sent to "Long" John Wentworth, editor of the Chicago Democrat, and first published in the Latter Day Saint newspaper Times and Seasons. It is a concise listing of thirteen...

 states, "We believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God." In addition to these two books, in keeping with the meaning of the ninth Article of Faith, the Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
The Doctrine and Covenants is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement...

and Pearl of Great Price
Pearl of Great Price (Mormonism)
The Pearl of Great Price is part of the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and some other Latter Day Saint denominations....

are also considered canonical scripture.

According to Mormon doctrine, the Book of Mormon was originally written in "Reformed Egyptian" by a group of the House of Israel who had migrated from the area of Jerusalem. The book was translated by Joseph Smith "by the gift and power of God" (see the introduction to the BofM). The Book of Mormon is in a language that closely resembles King James English (the language of the King James version of the Bible). There are, however, some variations in grammar, particularly with regard to verb tenses.

The LDS Church has published the Book of Mormon in dozens of languages, but it does not currently offer a Hebrew edition. The LDS Church published a Hebrew edition in the 1920s, but this edition is well out-of-print and is unavailable even from rare book sellers. Furthermore, a Hebrew Book of Mormon was published by Hebrew Translations, Inc., Independence, Missouri, 1988; but this edition was not authorized by the LDS Church.

(See also Table of books of Judeo-Christian Scripture)

Judaism


Jewish beliefs with regard to an afterlife are highly variable.

Physical resurrection of the dead
Resurrection of the dead
Resurrection of the Dead is a belief found in a number of eschatologies, most commonly in Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian. In general, the phrase refers to a specific event in the future; multiple prophesies in the histories of these religions assert that the dead will be brought back to...

 at the time of the Mashiach is a traditional belief (with some European Jews being buried facing Jerusalem, so they would be ready on that day). Other Jewish sages promoted the idea of a purely spiritual resurrection. Adherents of Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the...

 and Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement based on the ideas of Mordecai Kaplan . The movement views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. It originated as a branch of Conservative Judaism, before it splintered...

 are more likely to believe in a general Messianic Age
Messianic Age
Messianic Age is a theological term referring to a future time of universal peace and brotherhood on the earth, without crime, war and poverty. Many religions believe that there will be such an age; some refer to it as the "Kingdom of God" or the "World to Come".- Terminology: "messianic" and...

 than in a physical Moshiach, with or without resurrection (this should in no way be confused with Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism is a syncretic religious movement that arose in the 1960s and 70s. It blends evangelical Christian theology with elements of Jewish terminology and ritual....

). There is also the possibility of reincarnation
Reincarnation
Reincarnation best describes the concept where the soul or spirit, after the death of the body, is believed to return to live in a new human body, or, in some traditions, either as a human being, animal or plant...

, in some cases. (See also Jewish eschatology
Jewish eschatology
Jewish eschatology is concerned with the Jewish Messiah, afterlife, and the revival of the dead. Eschatology, generically, is the area of theology and philosophy concerned with the final events in the history of the world, the ultimate destiny of humanity, and related concepts.-The Messiah:The...

,).

In general, religious Jews believe that the soul
Soul
A soul in certain spiritual, philosophical, and psychological traditions is the incorporeal essence of a person or living thing or object. Many philosophical and spiritual systems teach that humans have souls, and others teach that all living things and even inanimate objects have souls. The...

 undergoes a period of reflection and penance after death, before moving on to whatever comes next. This period does not exceed 12 months, and Jewish mourners will say special prayers for the dead during this time, to ease the departed soul's passage. (See Kaddish
Kaddish
Kaddish is a prayer found in the Jewish prayer service. The central theme of the Kaddish is the magnification and sanctification of God's name. In the liturgy different versions of the Kaddish are used functionally as separators between sections of the service...

). Attempting to contact the dead, at any time, is forbidden under Jewish law.

There is no Jewish equivalent of Heaven
Heaven
Heaven, the Heavens or Seven Heavens, is a common religious cosmological or metaphysical term for the physical or transcendent place from which heavenly beings originate, are enthroned or inhabit...

 and Hell
Hell
In many religious traditions, a hell is a place of suffering and punishment in the afterlife. Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations...

 as they are understood in Christian theology. Jews do not (generally) believe that reward in the afterlife or world to come
World to Come
The World to Come is an eschatological phrase reflecting the belief that the "current world" is flawed or cursed and will be replaced in the future by a better world or a paradise. The concept is similar to the concepts of Heaven and the afterlife, but Heaven is another place generally seen as...

, whatever its form, is exclusive to Jews.

Mormonism


Mormonism teaches of a physical resurrection at the time of the second coming of Christ. It also is held by the LDS church that between the time of an individual's death and the second coming (when the individual will be resurrected), the individual inhabits an intermediary afterlife in the Spirit world, corresponding to Sheol
Sheol
Sheol |Hebrew]] Šʾôl) is the "grave", "pit", or "abyss" in Hebrew. She'ol is the earliest conception of the afterlife in the Jewish scriptures. It is a place of darkness to which all dead go, regardless of the moral choices made in life, and where they are "removed from the light of God"...

. The nature of this afterlife depends on the individual. Deceased persons who lived good lives and repented during their life of any major sins they had committed are said to inhabit Paradise. However, spirits inhabiting spirit paradise may also receive an assignment to do "missionary work" to other souls in paradise or to the souls in "spirit prison," the condition in which Mormons believe the spirits of the "rebellious and ungodly" reside. The term "spirit prison" is sometimes used to describe the condition of any spirit who is awaiting being taught the gospel or having the opportunity to accept ordinances that allow them to progress in gaining further knowledge during their time in the spirit world. Mormons hold that missionary work in the spirit world was started by Christ during the days between his death and resurrection. (Doctrine and Covenants 138)
As Smith's personal writings as well as the Prophets indicate, it is also possible that if one follows the commandments exceptionally well (authorized baptism, temple marriage to be bound forever, etc.), then one may be worthy of becoming a literal god and assist the Father in "bringing to pass the immortality and eternal life of man." (Moses 1:39)
Gospel Principles
Gospel Principles
Gospel Principles is a book that sets out some of the basic doctrines and teachings of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints . The book is published by the LDS Church and is provided to its members as a personal study guide and as a church lesson manual.-History:Gospel Principles was...

, an official book of the LDS Church, states that our God the Father was a mortal on another earth the same as Jesus Christ was, and like Christ was resurrected. Following that example, Latter-day Saints hope to attain same godhood status, while eternally worshiping the Father and the Son. (Gospel Principles, chapter 47) One of their recent prophets said, concerning this doctrine:
Mormonism also teaches the existence of the three heavens or kingdoms of heaven, and three "degrees of glory" within the celestial world, as well as outer darkness
Outer darkness
In Christianity, the outer darkness is a place referred to three times in the Gospel of Matthew into which a person may be "cast out", and where there is "weeping and gnashing of teeth"...

, a "kingdom of no glory". Outer darkness is considered to be the second spiritual death, for those few souls who know a fullness of truth and openly rebel and fight against God. The other levels have been labeled the Telestial Kingdom, the Terrestrial Kingdom, and the Celestial Kingdom, which itself consists of "three heavens or degrees." (See Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
The Doctrine and Covenants is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement...

 131, which says the "celestial glory" consists of "three heavens or degrees"; some hold that the term "celestial glory" used in this section refers to all the "kingdoms of glory", not specifically the celestial kingdom, but the traditional interpretation is that it refers specifically to the celestial kingdom.) This afterlife is what Mormons believe comes after the an individual's resurrection and judgment. The exact timing is not clear except that it takes place sometime after the second coming of Christ. It is also not clear if this is one specific event or a process that begins with the resurrection.

The LDS faith believes that all three kingdoms, Celestial, Terrestrial and Telestial are all kingdoms of glory. They are all places of glory suitable to the individuals that will reside in them, based on the desires of their hearts.

Mormonism teaches that baptism and other covenantal ordinances performed by proper authority are required to enter the Celestial Kingdom, because of the sacred nature of that kingdom of glory.

Judaism


As a general rule, Jews refrain from active proselytizing, and some denominations discourage conversion. Becoming a "Jew by choice" is a serious matter. If a person truly wishes to convert, they will seek out a community and rabbi they feel comfortable with and begin the process there.

Conversion to Judaism involves extensive instruction in Jewish law (sometimes lasting for years), renouncing of other religious affiliations, immersion in a mikveh, and, for males, circumcision
Circumcision
Male circumcision is the surgical removal of some or all of the foreskin from the penis. The word "circumcision" comes from Latin and ....

. (If the potential convert is already circumcised, a procedure known as hatafat dam brit is performed, in which blood is drawn from the circumcision scar.) Orthodox Judaism also requires acceptance of the entire code of Jewish Law.

In many Jewish religious ceremonies (weddings, for example), the parents and lineage (Kohen
Kohen
A Kohen is the Hebrew word for priest. Jewish Kohens are traditionally believed and halachically required to be of direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron....

, Levite
Levite
In Jewish tradition, a Levite is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. When Joshua led the Israelites into the land of Canaan, the Levites were the only Israelite tribe that received cities but were not allowed to be landowners "because the Lord the God of Israel himself is their inheritance"...

, or Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

) of the participating person are named. Converts are considered to be the children of Abraham and Sarah, and of the lineage Israel (i.e., having no priestly ancestry).

Mormonism


The LDS Church has a widespread proselytizing program, and are perhaps best known to others for this activity.

All individuals age nine and older considering membership in the LDS church will be taught by missionaries prior to baptism. Children of church members between the ages of eight and nine are assumed to have been taught by their parents. Once this person has been sufficiently instructed, he will be interviewed by another missionary to ensure his proper preparation for membership in the church. The children of church members between the ages of eight and nine are interviewed by their local Bishop. In certain situations, an interview with the area mission president may be necessary before the church agrees to baptize an individual. Baptism carries with it not only membership in the church, but also, according to Mormon belief, membership into the House of Israel. Individuals must be living by the Word of Wisdom: not consuming alcohol, tobacco, coffee, or tea, living the Law of Chastity, committing to attend church, committing to pay tithes, and declaring that they have repented of any outstanding sins. Individuals found worthy are baptized by immersion by a worthy priesthood holder, who is a priest, or higher. After the baptism, there is a separate blessing where holders of the Melchizedek Priesthood confer the Gift of the Holy Ghost to the individual by the laying on of hands. After joining the church, a separate Patriarchal Blessing will name the tribe of Israel from which the individual is descended or into which he is adopted. Individuals under the age of eight, and individuals who are not responsible for their actions (such as mental disability), are not required to be baptized and are granted Celestial Glory through Christ's Atonement.

Like most Christian churches, the Latter-day Saints do not require circumcision
Circumcision
Male circumcision is the surgical removal of some or all of the foreskin from the penis. The word "circumcision" comes from Latin and ....

, denying its necessity as a covenant or token of covenant.

Mikveh


To achieve a state of ritual purification, observant Jews immerse in a Mikveh. Certain kinds of utensils and other objects are also immersed (this practice should not be confused with the physical cleaning required for kashrut
Kashrut
Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

).

The most common use of the Mikveh is the practice of immersion after menstruation
Menstruation
Menstruation is the shedding of the uterine lining . It occurs on a regular basis in sexually reproductive-age females of certain mammal species. This article focuses on human menstruation.-Overview:...

, miscarriage
Miscarriage
Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving independently, generally defined in humans at prior to 20 weeks of gestation...

, or childbirth
Childbirth
Childbirth is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the birth of one or more newborn infants from a woman's uterus...

. This immersion marks the end of a period of sexual separation, and the woman's rejoining with her husband. It is also required that a woman immerse before her wedding. Some men use the Mikvah regularly, either daily, weekly, or before Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur , also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest and most solemn day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue...

. This is especially true in Hasidic
Hasidic Judaism
Hasidic Judaism or Hasidism, from the Hebrew —Ḥasidut in Sephardi, Chasidus in Ashkenazi, meaning "piety" , is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality and joy through the popularisation and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspects of the Jewish faith...

 circles. It is also required for Conversion into Orthodox Judaism for both sexes.

Jewish laws with regard to Mikveh are extensive. The most notable aspect of these laws is that a Mikveh must be filled with "living water," namely, water that has come directly from the earth in the form of caught rainwater or spring water (water flowing in a river or stream is also acceptable in some cases). Once water has been carried in a vessel or run through a pipe, it is no longer considered "living." Additionally, immersion must be complete (including the head and hair), and there can be nothing between the water and the person immersing—not only clothing, but also makeup and jewelry are removed. The common practice is to wash thoroughly before immersion (to remove any dirt or dead skin on the body), and to enter the Mikveh while still wet (to avoid any air bubbles that might be trapped on the skin or in the hair).

Unlike baptism, immersion is a private event—unless a physical handicap makes it impossible, the person undergoing immersion enters the Mikveh alone, and says any appropriate prayers themselves. When performed as part of Conversion to Orthodox Judaism, the act of immersion needs to be witnessed by a Beth-din of three Rabbis; however, the person immerses his/herself.

"Symbolic" immersions, where only drops of water are applied, where "carried" water is used, or where the immerser wears any kind of clothing or underclothing, are not considered valid immersions under Jewish law. Jews do not practice or recognize any kind of "Proxy" immersion, where one person immerses in the place of another person (living or dead).

Baptism


Baptism
Baptism
In Christianity, baptism is for the majority the rite of admission , almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally and also membership of a particular church tradition...

 is a water purification ritual where one is immersed in water. The practice of purification via immersion exists in many cultures. The word baptize derives from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 word βάπτειν (the infinitive; also listed as the 1st person singular present active indicative βαπτίζω), which loosely means "to dip, bathe, or wash").

The Christian ritual of baptism traces back to the baptism of Jesus
Baptism of Jesus
The baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of Jesus Christ's public ministry. This event is recorded in the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. In John 1:29-33 rather than a direct narrative, the Baptist bears witness to the episode...

 by John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

, who the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

 says baptized Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

 in the Jordan River. Latter-day Saints assert that Jesus was baptized in 29 CE, on or around the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur , also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest and most solemn day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue...

. This is posted in a church history timetable on the wall of the LDS Joseph Smith Memorial in South Royalton, Vermont. Mormons do not believe the Jesus instituted baptism, but merely commanded it of his followers. Mormon belief holds that the first baptism occurred when God baptized Adam.
Today, baptism is a required ordinance and ritual cleansing process when joining the LDS church, and is considered to be a purification process in one's conversion to becoming an Israelite. In the event of one's excommuniction or adoption of another faith, individuals are required to be rebaptized
Rebaptism (Mormonism)
Rebaptism is a practice in some denominations of the Latter Day Saint or Mormonism movement.The Latter Day Saints were headquartered in Nauvoo, Illinois. Many who were already baptized members of the church, were rebaptised either to show a renewal of their commitment to the movement or as part of...

 when returning to the church. Baptism is also seen as symbolic of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ with the water representing the grave.

The one being baptized as well as the one performing the baptism are dressed in white clothing symbolizing the purification of the baptism. Mormons believe that a member of the Aaronic or Levitical priesthood holding the office of priest or holding the higher order of the Melchizedek priesthood must perform the baptism. Mormon children are baptized when eight years old, which is considered to be the age of accountability. All members within the LDS faith, whether they are considered by the Mormons to be a Jew, Israelite or Gentile convert, are baptized.

In the past, it was common for Mormons to be re-baptized for health, or as a re-affirmation of belief. This practice has slowly diminished, and is no longer practiced by any of the mainstream denominations.

Washing and anointing


In Mormonism
Mormonism
Mormonism is the religion practiced by Mormons, and is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement. This movement was founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. beginning in the 1820s as a form of Christian primitivism. During the 1830s and 1840s, Mormonism gradually distinguished itself...

, washing and anointing (also called the Initiatory) is an ordinance
Ordinance (Mormonism)
In Mormonism, an ordinance is a religious ritual of special significance, often involving the formation of a covenant with God. Ordinances are performed by the authority of the priesthood and in the name of Jesus Christ...

 (ritual) that symbolizes ritual cleansing and anointing to be a king or queen in heaven. In the LDS Church, the ritual is performed in temples
Temple (LDS Church)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , a temple is a building dedicated to be a House of the Lord, and they are considered by Church members to be the most sacred structures on earth. Upon completion, temples are usually open to the public for a short period of time...

. The ordinance of washing and anointing symbolizes the ritual cleansing of priests that took place at Israel's Tabernacle, the temple of Solomon, and later temples in Jerusalem (see Exod. 28:40–42, 29:4–9, 29:20–21, 29:29–30, 30:18–21). As the name suggests, this ordinance has two parts, washing then anointing.

Judaism


The Tanach (Hebrew Bible) recounts several cases of polygamy among the ancient Hebrews. One source of polygamy was the practice of levirate marriage
Levirate marriage
Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obligated to marry his brother's widow, and the widow is obligated to marry her deceased husband's brother....

, wherein a man was required to marry and support his brother's widow (the source of the - much misunderstood - sin of Onan
Onan
Onan is a minor biblical person in the Book of Genesis , who was the second son of Judah. Just like his older brother, Er, Onan died prematurely by YHWH's will for being wicked....

).

Ashkenazi Jewry has not practiced polygamy since Rabbenu Gershom's ban in the 11th century. (See: Role of women in Judaism in the Middle Ages, Polygamy in Judaism,)

Some Sephardi and Mizrahi groups, in particular those from Yemen and Iran (where polygamy is the cultural norm), only discontinued polygamy much more recently, for non-religious reasons. When these groups immigrated to the State of Israel after its 1948 creation, existing polygamous families were "grandfathered" in. Polygamous marriage is banned in the State of Israel, however, and no new polygamous marriages are permitted among those groups.

Mormonism

See main articles: Plural marriage
Plural marriage
Polygamy was taught by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for more than half of the 19th century, and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890.The Church's practice of polygamy has been highly controversial, both within...

, Joseph Smith, Jr. and Polygamy
Joseph Smith, Jr. and Polygamy
Polygamy, or plural marriage, in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints probably originated with the founder of Mormonism, Joseph Smith, Jr., who taught that polygamy was a divine commandment. Smith practiced it personally, by some accounts marrying as many as 30 women...

, Polygamous Mormon fundamentalists.


Early in its history, the LDS Church practiced polygamy in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and referred to it as "plural marriage
Plural marriage
Polygamy was taught by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for more than half of the 19th century, and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890.The Church's practice of polygamy has been highly controversial, both within...

". The practice was introduced by the church's founding prophet Joseph Smith, Jr. in LDS scripture, as from "the Lord thy God …the Alpha and Omega" (Doctrine and Covenants 132:1, 2, 66). It was publicly announced by the Church in 1852, and the marriage ceremony was believed to be a sacred, eternal ordinance. Only some members of the Church, including several LDS leaders, practiced polygamy. The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, now known as the Community of Christ, rejected polygamy and declared themselves an independent church in 1860 under the leadership of Joseph Smith III, the eldest son of the LDS founding prophet.

The practice of polygamy quickly led to opposition to the Church and the enacting of anti-polygamy laws. (The U.S. Congress made the practice illegal in U.S. Territories in 1862.) Many members of the Church fled to Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 or Mexico
Mormon Colonies in Mexico
The Mormon colonies in Mexico are settlements located near the Sierra Madre mountains in northern Mexico which were established by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints beginning in 1885. Many of the original colonists came to Mexico due to federal attempts to curb and...

 in an attempt to set up communities free from prosecution; for example, Cyril Ogston
Cyril Ogston
Cyril Ogston was the founder of the hamlet of Seven Persons, Alberta.Ogston was a late-nineteenth-century Mormon who practised polygamy in line with his Church's teachings at the time. In 1862, the United States Congress made the practice illegal, and many Mormons fled to Canada in order to escape...

 founded Seven Persons, Alberta. Although Latter-day Saints believed that plural marriage was protected by the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

 as a religious practice, opponents used it to delay Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

 statehood until 1896. Increasingly harsh anti-polygamy legislation stripped Church members of their rights as citizens, revoked the right to vote for LDS women, disincorporated the Church, and permitted the seizure of Church property until the Church ordered the discontinuance of the practice in 1890.

National attention in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 again focused on potential polygamy among the Church in the early 20th century during the House hearings on Representative-elect B. H. Roberts and Senate hearings on Senator-elect Reed Smoot
Reed Smoot (U. S. Senator)
Reed Owen Smoot was a native-born Utahn who was first elected to the United States Senate from Utah in 1903, and served as a Senator until 1933...

 (the Smoot Hearings
Smoot Hearings
The Reed Smoot hearings were a series of Congressional hearings on whether the United States Senate should seat U.S. Senator Reed Smoot, who was elected by the Utah legislature in 1903...

). This caused Church president Joseph F. Smith
Joseph F. Smith
Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. was the sixth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints...

 to issue the "Second Manifesto
Second Manifesto
The "Second Manifesto" was a 1904 declaration made by Joseph F. Smith, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , in which Smith stated the church was no longer sanctioning marriages that violated the laws of the land and set down the principle that those entering into or...

" against polygamy in 1904. Since that time, it has been Church policy to excommunicate any member either practicing or openly advocating the practice of polygamy.

The ban on polygamy resulted in a schism within the LDS Church, with various splinter groups leaving the Church to continue the practice of polygamy. Collectively such groups now comprise less than three tenths of one percent when compared to the LDS church. Polygamy among these groups persists today in Utah and neighboring states, as well as among isolated individuals with no organized church affiliation. Polygamists of this kind often refer to themselves as "Mormon fundamentalists", despite their lack of affiliation with the mainstream Church. The largest sect supporting polygamy is the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints is one of the largest Mormon fundamentalist denominations and one of the largest organizations in the United States whose members practice polygamy. The FLDS Church emerged in the early twentieth century when its founding members left...

, believed to have about 10,000 members. According to one source there are as many as 37,000 Fundamentalist Mormons, with less than half of them living in polygamous households. Most of the polygamy is believed to be restricted to about a dozen extended groups of polygamous Mormon fundamentalists.

Plurality within the religions


Judaism encompasses a spectrum of observance, with several recognized branches: Hassidic, Haredi(often referred to as "ultra-Orthodox"), Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism , is the approach to Judaism which adheres to the traditional interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Sanhedrin and subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and...

, Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s.Conservative Judaism has its roots in the school of thought known as Positive-Historical Judaism,...

/Masorti
Masorti
The Masorti Movement is the name given to Conservative Judaism in Israel and other countries outside Canada and U.S. Masorti means "traditional" in Hebrew...

 Judaism, Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the...

, Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement based on the ideas of Mordecai Kaplan . The movement views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. It originated as a branch of Conservative Judaism, before it splintered...

, and Humanistic Judaism
Humanistic Judaism
Humanistic Judaism is a movement in Judaism that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life. It defines Judaism as the cultural and historical experience of the Jewish people and encourages humanistic and secular Jews to celebrate their Jewish identity by participating in Jewish...

. Further divisions exist within the divisions.

Similarly, Mormonism is divided into Orthodox Mormonism or LDS, Reconstructionist Mormonism
Community of Christ
The Community of Christ, known from 1872 to 2001 as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints , is an American-based international Christian church established in April 1830 that claims as its mission "to proclaim Jesus Christ and promote communities of joy, hope, love, and peace"...

 or RLDS (Community of Christ), and Fundamentalist Mormonism (most notably the FLDS).

The vast majority of all Mormons are members of LDS Church, which comprises about 97% of the total Mormon faith. The second largest group, the Community of Christ has no official ties to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Further, it no longer claims the label Mormon to apply to them. Their doctrine has changed markedly since their founding by Joseph Smith III. Two major changes have been the acceptance of the Trinitarian concept of God and ordaining women to the priesthood. It should be noted that although members of the Community of Christ (RLDS) do not refer to themselves as Mormons, they do continue to use the Book of Mormon as scripture. Fundamentalist Mormons, in contrast, claim adherence to traditional beliefs and practices that have been rejected by LDS.

See also



  • Anglo-Israelism
  • British Israelism
    British Israelism
    British Israelism is the belief that people of Western European descent, particularly those in Great Britain, are the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. The concept often includes the belief that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David...

  • Christian Zionism
    Christian Zionism
    Christian Zionism is a belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, is in accordance with Biblical prophecy. It overlaps with, but is distinct from, the nineteenth century movement for the Restoration of the Jews...

  • Christianity and Biblical prophecy
  • Christianity and Judaism
  • Gathering (LDS Church)
    Gathering (LDS Church)
    Gathering has been an important part of life in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , from gathering as missionaries to gathering for worship services. In the early days of the LDS Church, members were asked to gather together many times in specific locations from all over the world,...

  • Gathering of Israel
    Gathering of Israel
    The Gathering of Israel is the promise given by Moses, in the Hebrew Bible, to the People of Israel before his death, prior to their entrance to Eretz Israel...

  • Jewish Christians
    Jewish Christians
    Jewish Christians is a term which appears in historical texts contrasting Christians of Jewish origin with Gentile Christians, both in discussion of the New Testament church and the second and following centuries....

  • Judeo-Christian
    Judeo-Christian
    Judeo-Christian is a term used in the United States since the 1940s to refer to standards of ethics said to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, for example the Ten Commandments...

  • Messianic Judaism
    Messianic Judaism
    Messianic Judaism is a syncretic religious movement that arose in the 1960s and 70s. It blends evangelical Christian theology with elements of Jewish terminology and ritual....

  • Mormon view of the House of Joseph
    Mormon view of the House of Joseph
    The House of Joseph were the Old Testament tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. Both of these tribes were descendants of Joseph's two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, who are both first mentioned in...

  • Mormonism and Christianity
    Mormonism and Christianity
    Mormonism and Christianity have a complex theological, historical, and sociological relationship. Mormons express the doctrines of Mormonism using standard biblical terminology, and have similar views about the nature of Jesus' atonement, bodily resurrection, and Second Coming as traditional...

  • Supersessionism
    Supersessionism
    Supersessionism is a term for the dominant Christian view of the Old Covenant, also called fulfillment theology and replacement theology, though the latter term is disputed...

  • Tabernacle (LDS Church)
    Tabernacle (LDS Church)
    In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , a tabernacle is a multipurpose religious building, used for church services, conferences, and as community centers. They differ from meetinghouses and temples in design, scale, and purpose...



Further reading

  • Covenant and Chosenness in Judaism and Mormonism, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, November 2001, ISBN 0-8386-3927-5
  • Spiritual Vision: Hebrew Cryptograms—The Key to Unlocking Parallels Between Mormonism and Judaism, David B. Cohen and Irving Cohen, Deseret Books, SKU: 4702961
  • Mormons and Jews: Early Mormon Theologies of Israel, Signature Books, January 1993, ISBN 1-56085-006-X
  • My Burning Bush, The Spiritual Journey of Nancy Goldberg Hilton, An Autobiography. Hilton, Nancy Goldberg, ISBN 0-9776403-0-2, Library of Congress Registration Number TX 6-288-494 http://www.hickmanmuseum.homestead.com/Hilton.html
  • A Mormon's Guide to Judaism: Introduction to Jewish Religion and Culture for Latter-day Saints. Marlena Tanya Muchnick and Daniel Baker, ISBN 1-932280-58-8. Granite Publishing. http://guide.jewishconvert-lds.com
  • Notes of a Jewish Convert to the LDS Church: Conversion of a Soul. Muchnick, Marlena Tanya, ISBN 0-89716-803-8 Dist by Granite Publishing http://notes.jewishconvert-lds.com
  • Days of Awe: Jewish Holy Days, Symbols and Prophesies for Latter-day Saints by Gale Boyd, published by Millennial Press http://ldsbookshelf.com/authors/boyd/daysofawe.html

Books on LDS observance for Israelite Feasts

  • Celebrating Passover: A Guide to Understanding the Jewish Passover for Latter-day Saints, Deseret Books, SKU: 4906193 information & Reviews
  • Passover for Latter Day Saints, David and Jennifer Asay, Books

External links