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Montgomery, Alabama

Montgomery, Alabama

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Montgomery is the capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Alabama
Alabama
Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland...

, and is the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Montgomery County
Montgomery County, Alabama
Montgomery County is a county in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is the most populous county in the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area; its population in 2010 was 229,363 .- History :...

. It is located on the Alabama River southeast of the center of the state, in the Gulf Coastal Plain
Gulf Coastal Plain
The Gulf Coastal Plain extends around the Gulf of Mexico in the Southern United States and eastern Mexico.The plain reaches from the western Florida Panhandle, the southwestern two thirds of Alabama, over most of Mississippi, some of western Tennessee and Kentucky, southwest Arkansas, the Florida...

. As of the 2010 census, Montgomery had a population of 205,764 making it the second-largest city in Alabama, after Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama
Birmingham is the largest city in Alabama. The city is the county seat of Jefferson County. According to the 2010 United States Census, Birmingham had a population of 212,237. The Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Area, in estimate by the U.S...

, and the 103rd largest in the United States. Montgomery is the primary city of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area
Montgomery Metropolitan Area
The Montgomery, Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan statistical area in central Alabama...

, which had a 2010 estimated population of 374,536. It is the fourth-largest in the state and 136th among United States metropolitan area
Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas
thumb|An enlargeable map of the 942 [[Core Based Statistical Area]]s of the [[United States]]. The 367 [[Metropolitan Statistical Area]]s are shown in red....

s.

The city was incorporated in 1819, as a merger of two towns situated along the Alabama River
Alabama River
The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about north of Montgomery.The river flows west to Selma, then southwest until, about from Mobile, it unites with the Tombigbee, forming the Mobile and Tensaw rivers, which discharge into...

. It became the state capital in 1846, representing the shift of power to the south-central area with the growth of cotton as a commodity crop of the Black Belt
Black Belt (U.S. region)
The Black Belt is a region of the Southern United States. Although the term originally described the prairies and dark soil of central Alabama and northeast Mississippi, it has long been used to describe a broad agricultural region in the American South characterized by a history of plantation...

 and Mobile's rise as a mercantile port. In February 1861, Montgomery was selected as the first capital of the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

, until the seat of government moved to Richmond, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

 in May of that year. During the mid-20th century, Montgomery was a major site of events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many important figures in the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott,...

 and the Selma to Montgomery marches
Selma to Montgomery marches
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. They grew out of the voting rights movement in Selma, Alabama, launched by local African-Americans who formed the Dallas County Voters League...

.

In addition to housing many Alabama government agencies, Montgomery has a large military
Military of the United States
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

 presence due to Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base , officially known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force installation under the Air Education and Training Command . The installation is located in Montgomery, Alabama, US. It was named in honor of Second Lieutenant William C...

; public universities Alabama State University
Alabama State University
Alabama State University, founded 1867, is a historically black university located in Montgomery, Alabama. ASU is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.- History :...

, Troy University
Troy University
Troy University is a public university that is located in Troy, Alabama, United States. It was originally founded in 1887 as Troy Normal School. Its main campus enrollment is 7,194 students. The total enrollment of all Troy University campuses is 29,689...

 (Montgomery campus), and Auburn University-Montgomery; private colleges/universities Faulkner University
Faulkner University
Faulkner University is a private Christian university, located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, and affiliated with the Church of Christ. The University was founded in 1942 as Montgomery Bible School. In 1953 the school's name was changed to Alabama Christian College . In 1965, the college was moved to...

 and Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College, founded in 1854, is a coeducational liberal arts college in Montgomery, Alabama, United States. Related to the United Methodist Church, the college's central hallmarks are faith, wisdom, and service. The college is known for providing a solid academic experience based on good...

; high-tech manufacturing, including Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama is an automobile factory in Montgomery, Alabama. It is owned and operated by Hyundai Motor Company of Korea. Construction completed in June, 2004, with the first vehicles produced in March of 2005. The official grand opening ceremony on May 20, 2005, was...

; and cultural attractions such as the Alabama Shakespeare Festival
Alabama Shakespeare Festival
The Alabama Shakespeare Festival is the seventh largest Shakespeare festival in the world. Each year, it attracts more than 300,000 visitors from throughout the United States and more than 60 countries, to its home in Montgomery, Alabama....

 and Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts
Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts
The Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts is a museum located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, featuring several art collections. For seventy years, the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts has been a showcase for the visual arts in Central Alabama...

.

Two ships
USS Montgomery
USS Montgomery may refer to: was a frigate that was never completed during the Revolutionary War. was a sloop or schooner in service from 1813 to 1815. was a screw-driven steamer in service from 1861 to 1865....

 of the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 have been named after the city, including USS Montgomery (LCS-8)
USS Montgomery (LCS-8)
USS Montgomery will be an of the United States Navy. She will the second ship to be named for Montgomery, the capital of Alabama.-References:...

.

History


Prior to European colonization, the left bank of the Alabama River
Alabama River
The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about north of Montgomery.The river flows west to Selma, then southwest until, about from Mobile, it unites with the Tombigbee, forming the Mobile and Tensaw rivers, which discharge into...

 was inhabited by the Alibamu tribe
Alabama (people)
The Alabama or Alibamu are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans, originally from Mississippi...

 of Native Americans. The Alibamu and the Coushatta
Coushatta
----The Coushatta are a historic Muskogean-speaking Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. When first encountered by Europeans, they lived in the territory of present-day Georgia and Alabama...

, who lived on the opposite side the river, were descended from the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 CE to 1500 CE, varying regionally....

, which had built massive earthwork mounds as part of their society about 950-1250 AD. They spoke mutually intelligible Muskogean languages, which were closely related. Present-day Montgomery is built on the site of two Alibamu towns: Ikanatchati (Ekanchattee or Ecunchatty or Econachatee), meaning "red earth"; and Towassa, built on a bluff called Chunnaanaauga Chatty. The first Europeans to travel through central Alabama were Hernando de Soto and his expedition, who went through Ikanatchati and camped for one week in Towassa in 1540.

The next recorded European encounter occurred more than a century later, when an expedition from Carolina
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina, originally chartered in 1629, was an English and later British colony of North America. Because the original Heath charter was unrealized and was ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, in 1663...

 went down the Alabama River in 1697. The first permanent European settler in the Montgomery area was James McQueen, a Scots
Scottish people
The Scottish people , or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as invading Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse.In modern use,...

 trader who settled there in 1716. He married a high-status woman in the Coushatta or Alabama tribe. Their mixed-race children were considered Muskogean, as both tribes had a matrilineal system of property and descent. The children gained status in their mother's clan
Clan
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. The kinship-based bonds may be symbolical, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a...

.

In 1785, Abraham Mordecai, a war veteran from a Sephardic Jewish family of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

, established a trading post. The Coushatta and Alabama had gradually moved south and west after the French defeat by the British in 1763 in the Seven Years War. They moved to Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, areas of Spanish rule, which they thought more favorable than the British. By the time Mordecai had arrived, Creek had settled in the area, under pressure from Cherokee
Cherokee
The Cherokee are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States . Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian language family...

 and Iroquois warfare to the north. Mordecai married a Creek woman. When her people had to cede most of their lands after the Creek War, she joined them in removal. Mordecai brought the first cotton gin
Cotton gin
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job formerly performed painstakingly by hand...

 to Alabama.

The Upper Creek were able to discourage most European-American immigration until after the conclusion of the Creek War
Creek War
The Creek War , also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, began as a civil war within the Creek nation...

. Following their defeat by General Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States . Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend , and the British at the Battle of New Orleans...

 in August 1814, the Creek tribes were forced to cede 23 million acres to the United States, including remaining land in Georgia and most of central and southern Alabama. In 1816, the territory organized Montgomery County
Montgomery County, Alabama
Montgomery County is a county in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is the most populous county in the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area; its population in 2010 was 229,363 .- History :...

, and its lands were sold off the next year at the federal land office in Milledgeville, Georgia
Milledgeville, Georgia
Milledgeville is a city in and the county seat of Baldwin County in the U.S. state of Georgia. It is northeast of Macon, located just before Eatonton on the way to Athens along U.S. Highway 441, and it is located on the Oconee River. The relatively rapid current of the Oconee here made this an...

.

The first group of European-American settlers to come to the Montgomery area was headed by General John Scott. The group founded Alabama Town about 2 miles (3 km) downstream on the Alabama River from present-day downtown. In June 1818, county courts were moved from Fort Jackson
Fort Jackson (Alabama)
Fort Toulouse and Fort Jackson are two forts that shared the same site at the fork of the Coosa River and the Tallapoosa River, near Wetumpka, Alabama....

 to Alabama Town. Soon after, Andrew Dexter founded New Philadelphia, the present-day eastern part of downtown. He envisioned a prominent future for his town; he set aside a hilltop known as "Goat Hill" as the future sire of the state capitol building. New Philadelphia soon prospered, and Scott and his associates built a new town adjacent, calling it East Alabama Town. Originally rivals, the towns merged on December 3, 1819, and were incorporated as the city of Montgomery.

Driven by the revenues of the cotton trade, the newly united Montgomery grew quickly. In 1822, the city became the county seat. A new courthouse was built at the present location of Court Square, at the foot of Market Street (now Dexter Avenue). The state capital was moved from Tuscaloosa
Tuscaloosa, Alabama
Tuscaloosa is a city in and the seat of Tuscaloosa County in west central Alabama . Located on the Black Warrior River, it is the fifth-largest city in Alabama, with a population of 90,468 in 2010...

 to Montgomery, on January 28, 1846.

As state capital, Montgomery began to influence state politics, and would also play a prominent role on the national stage. Beginning February 4, 1861, representatives from Alabama, Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

, Florida, Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

, Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

, and South Carolina
South Carolina
South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

 met in Montgomery
Montgomery Convention
The Montgomery Convention marked the formal beginning of the Confederate States of America. Convened in Montgomery, Alabama the Convention organized a provisional government for the Confederacy and created the Constitution of the Confederate States of America....

 to form the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

. Montgomery was named the first capital of the nation, and Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Finis Davis , also known as Jeff Davis, was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as President for its entire history. He was born in Kentucky to Samuel and Jane Davis...

 was inaugurated as President on the steps of the State Capitol
Alabama State Capitol
The Alabama State Capitol, also known as the First Confederate Capitol, is the state capitol building for Alabama. It is located on Capitol Hill, originally Goat Hill, in Montgomery. It was declared a National Historic Landmark on December 19, 1960....

. On April 12, 1865, following the Battle of Selma
Battle of Selma
The Battle of Selma was a military engagement near the end of the American Civil War. It was fought in Selma, Alabama, on April 2, 1865. Union Army forces under Major General James H...

, Major General James H. Wilson
James H. Wilson
James Harrison Wilson was a United States Army topographic engineer, a Union Army Major General in the American Civil War and later wars, a railroad executive, and author.-Early life and engineering:...

 captured Montgomery for the Union.

In 1886 Montgomery became the first city in the United States to install city-wide electric street cars along a system that was nicknamed the Lightning Route
Lightning Route
The Capital City Street Railway, also known as the Lightning Route, was the first city-wide system of streetcars established in Montgomery, Alabama, United States on April 15, 1886. This early technology was developed by Belgian-American inventor Charles Joseph Van Depoele. James Gaboury was the...

. The system made Montgomery one of the first cities to "depopulate" its residential areas at the city center through transit-facilitated suburban development.

According to the historian David Beito of the University of Alabama
University of Alabama
The University of Alabama is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States....

, African Americans in Montgomery "nurtured the modern civil rights movement." On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights", and "the mother of the freedom movement"....

 was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man, sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many important figures in the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott,...

. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for being an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the...

, then the pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church is a Baptist church in Montgomery, Alabama. The church was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1974. In 1978 the official name was changed to the Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, in memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who helped to organize the...

, and E.D. Nixon, a lawyer and local civil rights advocate, founded the Montgomery Improvement Association
Montgomery Improvement Association
The Montgomery Improvement Association was formed on December 5, 1955 by black ministers and community leaders in Montgomery, Alabama. Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr...

 to organize the boycott. In June 1956, the US District Court Judge Frank M. Johnson ruled that Montgomery's bus racial segregation
Racial segregation
Racial segregation is the separation of humans into racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home...

 was unconstitutional. After the US Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

 upheld the ruling in November, the city desegregated the bus system, and the boycott was ended. Opponents organized mob violence with police collaboration at the Greyhound Bus Station
Greyhound Bus Station (Montgomery, Alabama)
The Greyhound Bus Station at 210 South Court Street in Montgomery, Alabama, was the site of a violent attack on participants in the 1961 Freedom Ride during the Civil Rights Movement...

 during the Freedom Ride
Freedom ride
Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decisions Boynton v. Virginia and Morgan v. Virginia...

 of May 1961. Outraged national reaction resulted in the desegregation of interstate public transportation.

Martin Luther King returned to Montgomery in 1965. Local civil rights leaders in Selma
Selma, Alabama
Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, Alabama, United States, located on the banks of the Alabama River. The population was 20,512 at the 2000 census....

 had been protesting Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans...

 that prevented blacks from registering to vote. Following the shooting of a man after a civil rights rally, the leaders decided to march to Montgomery
Selma to Montgomery marches
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. They grew out of the voting rights movement in Selma, Alabama, launched by local African-Americans who formed the Dallas County Voters League...

 to petition Governor George Wallace
George Wallace
George Corley Wallace, Jr. was the 45th Governor of Alabama, serving four terms: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987. "The most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter and Stephan Lesher, he ran for U.S...

 to allow free voter registration. The violence they encountered contributed to Congressional passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, to enforce the rights of African Americans and other minorities to vote.

In recent years, Montgomery has grown and diversified its economy. Active in restoring the downtown, the city adopted a master plan in 2007; it includes the revitalization of Court Square and the riverfront.

Geography


Montgomery is located at 32°21′42"N 86°16′45"W.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 156.2 square miles (404.6 km²), of which 155.4 square miles (402.5 km²) of it is land and 0.8 square miles (2.1 km²) of it (0.52%) is water. The city is built over rolling terrain at an elevation of about 220 feet (67.1 m) above sea level

Cityscape


Downtown Montgomery lies along the southern bank of the Alabama River
Alabama River
The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about north of Montgomery.The river flows west to Selma, then southwest until, about from Mobile, it unites with the Tombigbee, forming the Mobile and Tensaw rivers, which discharge into...

, about 6 miles (9.7 km) downstream from the confluence of the Coosa
Coosa River
The Coosa River is a tributary of the Alabama River in the U.S. states of Alabama and Georgia. The river is about long altogether.The Coosa River is one of Alabama's most developed rivers...

 and Tallapoosa
Tallapoosa River
The Tallapoosa River runs from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia, in the United States, southward and westward into Alabama. It is formed by the confluence of McClendon Creek and Mud Creek in Paulding County, Georgia. Lake Martin at Alexander City, Alabama is a large and...

 rivers. The most prominent feature of Montgomery's skyline is the 400 ft (121.9 m), RSA Tower
RSA Tower
The RSA Tower is a , 22-story building located in downtown Montgomery, Alabama. It was built in 1996 by the Retirement Systems of Alabama. Its tenants include Raycom Media's headquarters, Morgan Keegan & Company, the Capitol City Club, the Alabama Public Health Association, Alabama Department of...

, built in 1996 by the Retirement Systems of Alabama
Retirement Systems of Alabama
Retirement Systems of Alabama is the administrator of the pension fund for employees of the state of Alabama. It is headquartered in Montgomery, Alabama. David G. Bronner is the chief executive officer....

. Downtown also contains many state and local government buildings, including the Alabama State Capitol
Alabama State Capitol
The Alabama State Capitol, also known as the First Confederate Capitol, is the state capitol building for Alabama. It is located on Capitol Hill, originally Goat Hill, in Montgomery. It was declared a National Historic Landmark on December 19, 1960....

. The Capitol is located atop a hill at one end of Dexter Avenue, along which also lies the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church is a Baptist church in Montgomery, Alabama. The church was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1974. In 1978 the official name was changed to the Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church, in memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who helped to organize the...

, where Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for being an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the...

 was pastor. Both the Capitol and Dexter Baptist Church are listed as National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

s by the U.S. Department of the Interior.

One block south of the Capitol is the First White House of the Confederacy
First White House of the Confederacy
The First White House of the Confederacy was the executive residence of President Jefferson Davis and family while the capital of the Confederate States of America was in Montgomery, Alabama. Completely furnished with original period pieces from the 1850s and 1860s, the 1835 Italianate-style house...

, the 1835 Italianate-style house in which President Jefferson Davis and family lived while the capitol of the Confederacy was in Montgomery. Montgomery's third National Historic Landmark is Union Station
Union Station (Montgomery)
Union Station, also known as Montgomery Union Station or Montgomery Union Station and Trainshed, in Montgomery, Alabama was built by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and opened in 1898...

. Train service to Montgomery ceased in 1985, but today Union Station is part of the Riverwalk park development, which includes an amphitheater, a riverboat
Paddle steamer
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat, powered by a steam engine, using paddle wheels to propel it through the water. In antiquity, Paddle wheelers followed the development of poles, oars and sails, where the first uses were wheelers driven by animals or humans...

 dock and Riverwalk Stadium
Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium
Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium is the home of the Montgomery Biscuits of the Southern League. The minor league baseball ballpark opened in Montgomery, Alabama in 2004. It is built into the Riverfront Inn and has a total capacity of 7,000, including general-admission lawn seating. The stadium offers...

.

Three blocks east of the Convention Center, Old Alabama Town
Old Alabama Town
Old Alabama Town is a collection of restored 19th and 20th century structures reflecting the lives of the people who settled and developed central Alabama...

 showcases more than 50 restored buildings from the 19th century. The Riverwalk is part of a larger plan to revitalize the downtown area and connect it to the waterfront. The plan includes urban forestry
Urban forestry
Urban forestry is the careful care and management of urban forests, i.e., tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of improving the urban environment. Urban forestry advocates the role of trees as a critical part of the urban infrastructure...

, infill development, and façade renovation to encourage business and residential growth. A 112000 ft2 Convention Center, completed in 2007, is expected to encourage growth in the downtown area.

South of downtown, across Interstate 85
Interstate 85
Interstate 85 is a major interstate highway in the Southeastern United States. Its current southern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 65 in Montgomery, Alabama; its northern terminus interchanges with Interstate 95 in Petersburg, Virginia, near Richmond...

, lies Alabama State University
Alabama State University
Alabama State University, founded 1867, is a historically black university located in Montgomery, Alabama. ASU is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.- History :...

. ASU's campus was built in Colonial Revival
Colonial Revival architecture
The Colonial Revival was a nationalistic architectural style, garden design, and interior design movement in the United States which sought to revive elements of Georgian architecture, part of a broader Colonial Revival Movement in the arts. In the early 1890s Americans began to value their own...

 architectural style from 1906 until the beginning of World War II. Surrounding ASU are the Garden District
Garden District (Montgomery, Alabama)
The Garden District is a historic district in Montgomery, Alabama. It is roughly bounded by Norman Bridge Road, Court Street, Jeff Davis Avenue, and Fairview Avenue. It contains 678 contributing buildings with architecture including the Queen Anne, Classical Revival and American Craftsman styles...

, and Cloverdale Historic District
Cloverdale Historic District
The Cloverdale Historic District is a historic district in Montgomery, Alabama. It is roughly bounded by Norman Bridge and Cloverdale roads, Fairview and Felder avenues, and Boultier Street. It contains 463 contributing buildings and 4 structures that date from the mid-19th to the early 20th...

. Houses in these areas date from around 1875 until 1949, and are in Late Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 and Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 styles. Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College, founded in 1854, is a coeducational liberal arts college in Montgomery, Alabama, United States. Related to the United Methodist Church, the college's central hallmarks are faith, wisdom, and service. The college is known for providing a solid academic experience based on good...

 is on the southwestern edge of Cloverdale. The campus was built in the 1900s in Tudor Revival
Tudorbethan architecture
The Tudor Revival architecture of the 20th century , first manifested itself in domestic architecture beginning in the United Kingdom in the mid to late 19th century based on a revival of aspects of Tudor style. It later became an influence in some other countries, especially the British colonies...

 and Gothic Revival styles. ASU, the Garden District, Cloverdale, and Huntingdon are all listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 as historic district
Historic district (United States)
In the United States, a historic district is a group of buildings, properties, or sites that have been designated by one of several entities on different levels as historically or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures, objects and sites within a historic district are normally divided...

s.

Montgomery's east side is the fastest-growing part of the city. The city's two largest shopping malls (Eastdale Mall
Eastdale Mall
Eastdale Mall is a regional enclosed shopping mall located in Montgomery, Alabama. It opened in 1977. As of 2010, it was in size.- External links :*...

 and The Shoppes at Eastchase
The Shoppes At Eastchase
The Shoppes at EastChase is the principal retail component of the EastChase mixed-use development located in Montgomery, Alabama at the intersection of Interstate 85 and Taylor Road on the east side of the city. The Shoppes at EastChase was the catalyst in attracting higher-end national and...

), as well as many big-box stores and residential developments are on the east side. The area is also home of the Wynton M. Blount Cultural Park, a 1 square kilometres (247.1 acre) park which contains the Alabama Shakespeare Festival
Alabama Shakespeare Festival
The Alabama Shakespeare Festival is the seventh largest Shakespeare festival in the world. Each year, it attracts more than 300,000 visitors from throughout the United States and more than 60 countries, to its home in Montgomery, Alabama....

 and Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts
Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts
The Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts is a museum located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, featuring several art collections. For seventy years, the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts has been a showcase for the visual arts in Central Alabama...

.

Prattville
Prattville, Alabama
Prattville is a city in Autauga and Elmore counties in the U.S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 33,960. Nicknamed "The Fountain City" due to the many artesian wells in the area, Prattville is part of the Montgomery metropolitan statistical area and serves as...

, located in Autauga County 10 miles (16.1 km) to the northwest, is the second-largest city in the Montgomery Metropolitan Area
Montgomery Metropolitan Area
The Montgomery, Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan statistical area in central Alabama...

. Other area towns are Pike Road
Pike Road, Alabama
Pike Road is a city in Montgomery County, Alabama, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city was 310. The 2010 census indicated a population of 5406. It is part of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:...

 to the southeast, Millbrook
Millbrook, Alabama
Millbrook is a city in Autauga and Elmore counties in the U.S. state of Alabama. The population was 14,640 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Millbrook is located at ....

 to the north (Elmore County), and Wetumpka
Wetumpka, Alabama
Wetumpka is a city in Elmore County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 5,726.The city is the county seat of Elmore County, one of the fastest growing counties in the state....

 to the northeast (Elmore County).

Climate


Montgomery has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa), with short, mild winters, warm springs and autumns, and long, hot, humid summers. Winter temperatures average 46.6 °F (8.1 °C) in January, and lows rarely dip below 20 °F (-6.7 °C). Summer temperatures average 81.8 °F (27.7 °C) in July, with highs reaching 90 °F (32.2 °C) on 81 days per year and 100 °F (37.8 °C) on 3. Differences between daytime and nighttime temperatures tend to be large in spring and autumn. Rainfall is well-distributed throughout the year, though January through March are the wettest, and October is significantly drier than the other months. Snowfall occurs only during some winters, and even then is often light. Extremes range from 0 °F (-17.8 °C) on January 21, 1985
January 1985 Arctic outbreak
The 1985 Arctic outbreak was a meteorological event, the result of the shifting of the polar vortex further south than is normally seen. Blocked from its normal movement, polar air from the north pushed into nearly every section of the eastern half of the United States and Canada, shattering record...

  to 107 °F (41.7 °C) on July 7, 1881.



Demographics


As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 205,764. The racial makeup of the city was 56.6% Black
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 37.3% White
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 2.2% Asian
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 0.2% Native American
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 0.1% Pacific Islander
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 2.2% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 1.3% from two or more races. 3.9% of the population were Hispanic
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 or Latino
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 of any race. There were 81,486 households, out of which 29% had children under the age of 18 living with them.

The city population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,380, and the median income for a family was $53,125. Males had a median income of $40,255 versus $33,552 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,139. About 18.2% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.8% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.

Economy


Montgomery's central location in Alabama's Black Belt
Black Belt (region of Alabama)
The Black Belt is a region of the U.S. state of Alabama, and part of the larger Black Belt Region of the Southern United States, which stretches from Texas to Maryland. The term originally referred to the region underlain by a thin layer of rich, black topsoil developed atop the chalk of the Selma...

 makes it a processing hub for crops such as cotton, peanut
Peanut
The peanut, or groundnut , is a species in the legume or "bean" family , so it is not a nut. The peanut was probably first cultivated in the valleys of Peru. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing tall...

s, and soybean
Soybean
The soybean or soya bean is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses...

s. In 1840 Montgomery County
Montgomery County, Alabama
Montgomery County is a county in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is the most populous county in the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area; its population in 2010 was 229,363 .- History :...

 led the state in cotton production, and by 1911, the city processed 160,000–200,000 bales of cotton annually. Montgomery has long had large metal fabrication and lumber production sectors. Due to its location along the Alabama River
Alabama River
The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about north of Montgomery.The river flows west to Selma, then southwest until, about from Mobile, it unites with the Tombigbee, forming the Mobile and Tensaw rivers, which discharge into...

 and extensive rail connections, Montgomery has and continues to be a regional distribution hub for a wide range of industries. Today, the city's Gross Metropolitan Product is $12.15 billion, representing 8.7% of the Gross State Product of Alabama.

According to Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bureau of Labor Statistics
The Bureau of Labor Statistics is a unit of the United States Department of Labor. It is the principal fact-finding agency for the U.S. government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics. The BLS is a governmental statistical agency that collects, processes, analyzes, and...

 data from October 2008, the largest sectors of non-agricultural employment were: Government, 24.3%; Trade, Transportation, and Utilities, 17.3% (including 11.0% in retail trade); Professional and Business Services, 11.9%; Manufacturing, 10.9%; Education and Health Services, 10.0% (including 8.5% in Health Care & Social Assistance); Leisure and Hospitality, 9.2%; Financial Activities, 6.0%, Natural Resources, Mining and Construction, 5.1%; Information, 1.4%; and Other services 4.0%. Unemployment for the same period was 5.7%, 2.5% higher than October 2007. The city also draws in workers from the surrounding area; Montgomery's daytime population rises 17.4% to 239,101.

As of January 2011, Montgomery's largest employers were Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base , officially known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force installation under the Air Education and Training Command . The installation is located in Montgomery, Alabama, US. It was named in honor of Second Lieutenant William C...

 (12,280 employees), the State of Alabama
Government of Alabama
The government of Alabama is organized under the provisions of the 1901 Constitution of Alabama, which is the lengthiest constitution of any political entity in the world...

 (9,500), Montgomery Public Schools
Montgomery Public Schools
Montgomery Public Schools is a school district headquartered in Montgomery, Alabama, United States. The district serves the city of Montgomery and surrounding Montgomery County...

 (4,524), Baptist Health (4,300), Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama is an automobile factory in Montgomery, Alabama. It is owned and operated by Hyundai Motor Company of Korea. Construction completed in June, 2004, with the first vehicles produced in March of 2005. The official grand opening ceremony on May 20, 2005, was...

 (2,700), Alfa Insurance (2,568), the City of Montgomery (2,500), Jackson Hospital & Clinic (1,300), Rheem
Rheem
Rheem is a privately held manufacturing company that started in 1927 as a supplier of packagings to the petroleum industry.-Divisions:*Rheem Water Heating*Ruud Water Heating*Rheem Air conditioning*Ruud Air Conditioning Division*Solahart*Raypak...

 Water Heaters (1,147), and Regions (977).

According to Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University, commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU, is a public research university with campuses and facilities throughout the state of Pennsylvania, United States. Founded in 1855, the university has a threefold mission of teaching, research, and public service...

's "Living Wage Calculator", the living wage
Living wage
In public policy, a living wage is the minimum hourly income necessary for a worker to meet basic needs . These needs include shelter and other incidentals such as clothing and nutrition...

 for the city is US$8.02 per hour (or $16,691 per year) for an individual and $25.80 per hour ($53,662 per year) for a family of four. These are slightly higher than the state averages of $7.45 per hour for an individual and $25.36 for a family of four.

Law and government



Montgomery operates under a Mayor–council government system. The mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. The current mayor is Todd Strange
Todd Strange (politician)
Todd Strange is an United States Republican politician from Alabama, who is currently serving as the 56th Mayor of Montgomery, Alabama. Strange won a special election & took office on March 10, 2009 after his predecessor, Democrat Bobby Bright, was elected to the United States House of...

, who was elected mayor in a special election, held March 10, 2009, after then-mayor Bobby Bright
Bobby Bright
Bobby Neal Bright, Sr. is an American politician who served as U.S. Representative for from 2009 to 2011. He is a member of the Democratic Party. The district includes just over half of the state capital, Montgomery, as well as most of the Wiregrass Region in the southeastern part of the state....

 was elected to U.S. Congress for the 2nd district
Alabama's 2nd congressional district
Alabama's 2nd congressional district is a U.S. congressional district in Alabama, which elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives...

. The city is served by a nine-member city council, elected from nine districts of equal size.

As the seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Montgomery County
Montgomery County, Alabama
Montgomery County is a county in the U.S. state of Alabama. It is the most populous county in the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area; its population in 2010 was 229,363 .- History :...

, the city is the location of county courts and the county commission. Montgomery is the capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of Alabama, and hosts numerous state government
Government of Alabama
The government of Alabama is organized under the provisions of the 1901 Constitution of Alabama, which is the lengthiest constitution of any political entity in the world...

 offices, including the office of the Governor, the Alabama Legislature
Alabama Legislature
The Alabama Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of Alabama. It is a bicameral body composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members...

, and the Alabama Supreme Court
Alabama Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of Alabama is the highest court in the state of Alabama. The court consists of an elected Chief Justice and eight elected Associate Justices. Each justice is elected in partisan elections for staggered six year terms. The Governor of Alabama may fill vacancies when they occur...

.

At the federal level, the majority of Montgomery is part of the 2nd U.S. Congressional district
Alabama's 2nd congressional district
Alabama's 2nd congressional district is a U.S. congressional district in Alabama, which elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives...

, currently represented by Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 Martha Roby
Martha Roby
Martha Dubina Roby is the U.S. Representative for . She is a member of the Republican Party. She narrowly defeated incumbent Representative Bobby Bright on November 2 during the United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama, 2010 and assumed office in January 2011.-Early life,...

. Roby defeated former Montgomery mayor Bobby Bright in the 2010 elections
United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama, 2010
The 2010 congressional elections in Alabama were held on November 2, 2010, to determine will represent the state of Alabama in the United States House of Representatives. Alabama has seven seats in the House, apportioned according to the 2000 United States Census...

. Some of the southern and eastern portions of the city are part of the 3rd district
Alabama's 3rd congressional district
Alabama's 3rd congressional district is a U.S. congressional district in Alabama, which elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives. It encompasses Calhoun, Chambers, Cherokee, Clay, Cleburne, Lee, Macon, Randolph, Russell, Talladega, and Tallapoosa counties...

, represented by Republican Mike Rogers
Mike D. Rogers
Michael Dennis "Mike" Rogers , is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2003. He is a member of the Republican Party.-Early life and education:...

.

Crime


Despite its reputation, Montgomery's crime rates compare favorably to other large cities in the state. In 2009 Montgomery's violent crime rate was 429.4 per 100,000, well below Birmingham, Huntsville, and Mobile, below the state average, and similar to the national average. For property crimes, Montgomery's average is similar to Alabama's other large cities, but higher than the overall state and national averages.

Culture


The Wynton M. Blount Cultural Park in east Montgomery is home to the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts
Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts
The Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts is a museum located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, featuring several art collections. For seventy years, the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts has been a showcase for the visual arts in Central Alabama...

. The Museum's permanent collections include American art and sculpture, Southern
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 art, master prints from European masters, and collections of porcelain and glass works. The Society of Arts and Crafts operates a co-op gallery for local artists. Montgomery Zoo
Montgomery Zoo
Montgomery Zoo is located on the north side of Montgomery, Alabama. The Montgomery Zoo was established in 1935 at Oak Park as Oak Park Zoo. It grew and thrived there until the 1960s. In 1974, the Zoo was re-established and moved to its current located in north Montgomery. In 1989, the Zoo underwent...

, one of only two AZA
Association of Zoos and Aquariums
The Association of Zoos and Aquariums was founded in 1924 and is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of zoos and public aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation.The AZA headquarters is located in Silver...

-accredited zoos in Alabama, has over 500 animals in 40 acre (0.1618744 km²) of barrier-free habitats. The Hank Williams Museum contains one of the largest collections of Williams memorabilia in the world.


Blount Park also contains the Alabama Shakespeare Festival
Alabama Shakespeare Festival
The Alabama Shakespeare Festival is the seventh largest Shakespeare festival in the world. Each year, it attracts more than 300,000 visitors from throughout the United States and more than 60 countries, to its home in Montgomery, Alabama....

's Carolyn Blount Theatre. The Shakespeare Festival presents year-round performances of both classic plays and performances of local interest, in addition to works of William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon"...

. The 1200-seat Davis Theatre for the Performing Arts, on the Troy University at Montgomery
Troy University at Montgomery
Troy University at Montgomery is a satellite campus of Troy University and is located in Montgomery, Alabama. The campus is located in the western part of downtown, and includes the Rosa Parks Museum and Library, the Davis Theatre for the Performing Arts, and portions of the historic Bell...

 campus, opened in 1930 and was renovated in 1983. It houses the Montgomery Symphony Orchestra
Montgomery Symphony Orchestra
The Montgomery Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra in Montgomery, Alabama.The MSO began in 1976 as a project of the city's Parks and Recreation Department, with thirty volunteer musicians and a part-time director. A board of directors now governs the orchestra, which is funded by concert...

, Alabama Dance Theatre and Montgomery Ballet, as well as other theatrical productions. The Symphony has been performing in Montgomery since 1979. The Capri Theatre in Cloverdale
Cloverdale, Montgomery
Cloverdale is a neighborhood within the American city of Montgomery, Alabama. It is the largest garden-landscaped neighborhood in the state of Alabama. Built in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it is one of Montgomery's "genteel" areas...

 was built in 1941, and today shows independent film
Independent film
An independent film, or indie film, is a professional film production resulting in a feature film that is produced mostly or completely outside of the major film studio system. In addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment companies, independent films are also produced...

s. Jubilee CityFest is an annual music festival featuring a variety of performers.

There is a rich history of musical performers with roots in Montgomery. Jazz singer and pianist Nat King Cole
Nat King Cole
Nathaniel Adams Coles , known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American musician who first came to prominence as a leading jazz pianist. Although an accomplished pianist, he owes most of his popular musical fame to his soft baritone voice, which he used to perform in big band and jazz genres...

, country singer Hank Williams, blues singer Big Mama Thornton
Big Mama Thornton
Willie Mae "Big Mama" Thornton was an American rhythm and blues singer and songwriter. She was the first to record the hit song "Hound Dog" in 1952. The song was #1 on the Billboard R&B charts for seven weeks in 1953. The B-side was "They Call Me Big Mama," and the single sold almost two million...

, Melvin Franklin
Melvin Franklin
David Melvin English better known by the stage name Melvin Franklin, was an American bass singer. Franklin is best known for his role as a member of Motown singing group The Temptations from 1960 to 1994....

 of The Temptations
The Temptations
The Temptations is an American vocal group having achieved fame as one of the most successful acts to record for Motown Records. The group's repertoire has included, at various times during its five-decade career, R&B, doo-wop, funk, disco, soul, and adult contemporary music.Formed in Detroit,...

, and guitarist Tommy Shaw
Tommy Shaw
Tommy Roland Shaw is an American guitarist, best known for his work with the rock band Styx. In between his stints with Styx, he has played with the supergroup Damn Yankees and Shaw Blades, and has released several solo albums....

 of Styx
Styx (band)
Styx is an American rock band that became famous for its albums from the late 1970s and early 1980s. The Chicago band is known for melding the style of prog-rock with the power of hard rock guitar, strong ballads, and elements of American musical theater....

 are among the many musicians to get their start in Montgomery. Author and artist Zelda Sayre was born in Montgomery. In 1918, she met F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost...

, who was a soldier stationed at an Army post nearby. The house where they lived is today used as the F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald Museum. Poet Sidney Lanier
Sidney Lanier
Sidney Lanier was an American musician and poet.-Biography:Sidney Lanier was born February 3, 1842, in Macon, Georgia, to parents Robert Sampson Lanier and Mary Jane Anderson; he was mostly of English ancestry. His distant French Huguenot ancestors immigrated to England in the 16th century...

 lived in Montgomery and Prattville
Prattville, Alabama
Prattville is a city in Autauga and Elmore counties in the U.S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 33,960. Nicknamed "The Fountain City" due to the many artesian wells in the area, Prattville is part of the Montgomery metropolitan statistical area and serves as...

 immediately after the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, while writing his novel Tiger Lilies.

In addition to being the launching point of Hank Williams Sr.’s career, and the birth place of Nat King Cole, Clarence Carter
Clarence Carter
Clarence Carter is a blind American soul singer and musician.-Life and career:Born in Montgomery, Alabama on 14 January 1936, Carter attended the Alabama School for the Blind in Talladega, Alabama, and Alabama State College in Montgomery, graduating in August 1960 with a Bachelor of Science degree...

, and Tommy Shaw, Montgomery has also seen a few of its rock bands achieve national success in recent years. Locals artists Trust Company
Trust Company (band)
Trust Company is an American alternative metal/post-grunge band from Prattville, Alabama.-First run :...

 were signed to Geffen Records
Geffen Records
Geffen Records is an American record label, owned by Universal Music Group, and operated as one third of UMG's Interscope-Geffen-A&M label group.-Beginnings:...

 in 2002. Hot Rod Circuit
Hot Rod Circuit
Hot Rod Circuit is an American emo band from New Haven, Connecticut established in 1997.-Early years:The band was originally known as Antidote under which they released the album Mr. Glenboski, which won the group the award of Best Unsigned Band of 1998 by Musician Magazine...

 formed in Montgomery in 1997 under the name Antidote, but achieved success with Vagrant Records
Vagrant Records
Vagrant Records is an indie rock label based in Los Angeles, California and is home to such artists as The Hold Steady, Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeroes, Active Child, PJ Harvey, Reptar, School of Seven Bells, Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, Thrice, James Vincent McMorrow, Placebo, and many...

 after moving to Connecticut
Connecticut
Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

. The Ed Kemper Trio
Ed Kemper Trio
The Ed Kemper Trio was an independent Art/Noise rock band based in Montgomery, Alabama. The band was formed in 1997 after the breakup of two Montgomery-area noise rock bands, Bert and He is the Queen. EK3's sound was characterized by short asymmetrical song structures, sheer volume and odd meter....

 became well known in Montgomery’s local rock music scene from 1997–2004, and was the focus of People Will Eat Anything, a music documentary shown at the Capri Theatre in 2004.

Sports


Montgomery is home of the Montgomery Biscuits
Montgomery Biscuits
The Montgomery Biscuits are a minor league baseball team based in Montgomery, Alabama. The team is the Class AA affiliate of the Tampa Bay Rays and plays in the Southern League. The 2004 season was the team's first in Montgomery...

 baseball team. The Biscuits play in the Class AA Southern League
Southern League (baseball)
The Southern League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Southern United States. It is classified a Double-A league. The original league was formed in , and shut down in . A new league, the Southern Association, was formed in , consisting of twelve teams...

. They are affiliated with the Tampa Bay Rays
Tampa Bay Rays
The Tampa Bay Rays are a Major League Baseball team based in St. Petersburg, Florida. The Rays are a member of the Eastern Division of MLB's American League. Since their inception in , the club has played at Tropicana Field...

, and play at Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium
Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium
Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium is the home of the Montgomery Biscuits of the Southern League. The minor league baseball ballpark opened in Montgomery, Alabama in 2004. It is built into the Riverfront Inn and has a total capacity of 7,000, including general-admission lawn seating. The stadium offers...

. Riverwalk Stadium was the host of the NCAA
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 Division II National Baseball Championship from 2004 until 2007. The championship had previously been played at Paterson Field
Paterson Field
Paterson Field is a baseball stadium in Montgomery, Alabama. The stadium has a maximum capacity of 7,000 people and was opened in 1949. Paterson Field has played host to, among other professional teams, the Montgomery Rebels, a AA-class minor-league team affiliated with the Detroit Tigers, and the...

 in Montgomery from 1985 until 2003.


The Navistar LPGA Classic
Navistar LPGA Classic
The Navistar LPGA Classic Presented by Monaco RV is a women's professional golf tournament on the LPGA Tour. The 72-hole event made its debut in September 2007 at the Capitol Hill location on the Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail in Prattville, Alabama. Maria Hjorth won the inaugural event on the...

 women's golf event is held at the Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail
Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail
The Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail is a collection of championship caliber golf courses, designed by Robert Trent Jones, Sr., distributed across the state of Alabama, as part of investments by the Retirement Systems of Alabama. The Trail started with 378 holes at eight sites throughout the state,...

 at Capitol Hill in nearby Prattville
Prattville, Alabama
Prattville is a city in Autauga and Elmore counties in the U.S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 33,960. Nicknamed "The Fountain City" due to the many artesian wells in the area, Prattville is part of the Montgomery metropolitan statistical area and serves as...

. Garrett Coliseum
Garrett Coliseum
The Garrett Coliseum is an 13,500-seat multi-purpose arena in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The arena is the centerpiece of the Alabama Agricultural Center, home to the Alabama National Fair. It was built in 1951 and named after W.W. Garrett, the first chairman of the Alabama Agricultural Board. The...

 was the home of the now-defunct Montgomery Bears
Montgomery Bears
The Montgomery Bears were a professional indoor football team that played their home games at the Garrett Coliseum in Montgomery, Alabama. They are a member of the American Indoor Football Association. The team began play as the Montgomery Maulers of the National Indoor Football League and won the...

 indoor football team.

Montgomery is also the site of sporting events hosted by the area's colleges and universities. The Alabama State University
Alabama State University
Alabama State University, founded 1867, is a historically black university located in Montgomery, Alabama. ASU is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.- History :...

 Hornets play in NCAA Division I competition in the Southwestern Athletic Conference
Southwestern Athletic Conference
The Southwestern Athletic Conference is a college athletic conference headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, which is made up of historically black universities in the Southern United States...

 (SWAC). The football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 team plays at Hornet Stadium, the basketball teams play at the Dunn-Oliver Acadome, and the baseball team plays at the ASU Baseball Complex, which recently opened on March 26, 2010. Auburn University Montgomery
Auburn University Montgomery
Auburn University at Montgomery is a coeducational public university located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. It is governed by the Auburn University Board of Trustees, but is not a branch campus of Auburn University. It was established by an act of the Alabama Legislature in 1967...

 also fields teams in NAIA
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is an athletic association that organizes college and university-level athletic programs. Membership in the NAIA consists of smaller colleges and universities across the United States. The NAIA allows colleges and universities outside the USA...

 competition. Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College, founded in 1854, is a coeducational liberal arts college in Montgomery, Alabama, United States. Related to the United Methodist Church, the college's central hallmarks are faith, wisdom, and service. The college is known for providing a solid academic experience based on good...

 participates at the NCAA Division III level and Faulkner University
Faulkner University
Faulkner University is a private Christian university, located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, and affiliated with the Church of Christ. The University was founded in 1942 as Montgomery Bible School. In 1953 the school's name was changed to Alabama Christian College . In 1965, the college was moved to...

 is a member of the NAIA and is a nearby rival of Auburn-Montgomery. The Blue-Gray Football Classic
Blue-Gray Football Classic
The Blue–Gray Football Classic was an annual American college football all-star game held in Alabama usually on Christmas Day. It was begun in 1939 and held annually through 2001 at the Cramton Bowl in Montgomery, Alabama. The game was not contested in 2002 and was subsequently revived in 2003 in...

 was an annual college football all-star game
All-star game
An all-star game is an exhibition game played by the best players in their sports league, except in the circumstances of professional sports systems in which a democratic voting system is used...

 held from 1938 until 2001. In 2009, the city played host to the first annual Historical Black College and University (HBCU) All-Star Football Bowl played at Cramton Bowl.

Several successful professional athletes hail from Montgomery, including Pro Football Hall of Fame
Pro Football Hall of Fame
The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame of professional football in the United States with an emphasis on the National Football League . It opened in Canton, Ohio, on September 7, 1963, with 17 charter inductees...

r Bart Starr
Bart Starr
Bryan Bartlett "Bart" Starr is a former professional American football player and coach. Wearing #15, he was the quarterback for the Green Bay Packers from 1956 to 1971 and head coach from 1975 to 1983, compiling a record of 52–76–3 ....

 and two-time Olympic gold medalist
Athletics at the 1984 Summer Olympics
At the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, 41 events in athletics were contested, 24 events by men and 17 by women. There were a total number of 1273 participating athletes from 124 countries.-Men's events:-Women's events:...

 in track and field Alonzo Babers
Alonzo Babers
Alonzo C. Babers is a former American athlete, winner of two gold medals at the 1984 Summer Olympics, in the 400 m and the 4x400 m relay....

.

Civic organizations


Montgomery has many active civic organizations including a number of organizations focused on diversity relations and the city's rich civil rights history. Leadership Montgomery provides citizenship training. The group One Montgomery
One Montgomery
One Montgomery is a diverse group of citizens in Montgomery, Alabama who seek to promote understanding and trust between people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds through discussion, education, social interaction, and enhanced personal relationships...

 was founded in 1983 and is a forum for networking of a diverse group of citizens active in civic affairs.

Education



The city of Montgomery and Montgomery County are served by the Montgomery Public Schools
Montgomery Public Schools
Montgomery Public Schools is a school district headquartered in Montgomery, Alabama, United States. The district serves the city of Montgomery and surrounding Montgomery County...

 system. As of 2007, there were 32,520 students enrolled in the system, and 2,382 teachers employed. The system manages 32 elementary schools, 10 middle schools, and 4 high schools (G.W. Carver
George Washington Carver High School (Montgomery, Alabama)
George Washington Carver High School is a public high school in Montgomery, Alabama. It is a part of the Montgomery Public Schools system. The groundbreaking for the new Caver High School will be held April 2, 2010 at the new construction site just off Oak Street across from the existing school...

, Jeff Davis
Jefferson Davis High School (Montgomery, Alabama)
Jefferson Davis High School is public high school with grades 9 through 12 located in Montgomery, Alabama. The principal is Cheryl Fountain-Notable Alumni:Hosea Chanchez, actor, plays Malik Wright on The Game Jefferson Davis High School is public high school with grades 9 through 12 located in...

, Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee High School (Montgomery, Alabama)
Robert E. Lee High School is a public secondary school in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, serving grades 9–12. The school is part of the Montgomery Public Schools system.-History:...

, and Sidney Lanier) as well as 9 magnet school
Magnet school
In education in the United States, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across the normal boundaries defined by authorities as school zones that feed into certain schools.There are magnet schools at the...

s, 1 alternative school
Alternative school
Alternative school is the name used in some parts of the world to describe an institution which provides part of alternative education. It is an educational establishment with a curriculum and methods that are nontraditional...

, and 2 special education
Special education
Special education is the education of students with special needs in a way that addresses the students' individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials,...

 centers. Montgomery is also home to 28 private school
Private school
Private schools, also known as independent schools or nonstate schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments; thus, they retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students' tuition, rather than relying on mandatory...

s. In 2007, Forest Avenue Academic Magnet Elementary School was named a National Blue Ribbon School. In 2008 Loveless Academic Magnet Program (LAMP) High School was named #20 on U.S. News & World Report's Gold Medal List, a nationwide ranking, bringing national attention to the city.

The Montgomery City-County Public Library operates public libraries.

Montgomery has been the home of Alabama State University
Alabama State University
Alabama State University, founded 1867, is a historically black university located in Montgomery, Alabama. ASU is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund.- History :...

, a historically black university
Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Historically black colleges and universities are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the black community....

, since the Lincoln Normal University for Teachers relocated from Marion
Marion, Alabama
Marion is the county seat of Perry County, Alabama. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city is 3,511. First called Muckle Ridge, the city was renamed after a hero of the American Revolution, Francis Marion.-Geography:...

 in 1887. Today, ASU enrolls over 5,600 students from 42 U.S. states and 7 countries. The public Troy University
Troy University
Troy University is a public university that is located in Troy, Alabama, United States. It was originally founded in 1887 as Troy Normal School. Its main campus enrollment is 7,194 students. The total enrollment of all Troy University campuses is 29,689...

 maintains a 3,000 student population campus in downtown Montgomery that prominently houses the award-winning Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights", and "the mother of the freedom movement"....

 Library and Museum. Troy University is also a worldwide leader in distance learning programs. Another public institution, Auburn Montgomery, with an enrollment of 5,123, is in the eastern part of the city and operates as a satellite campus of Auburn University
Auburn University
Auburn University is a public university located in Auburn, Alabama, United States. With more than 25,000 students and 1,200 faculty members, it is one of the largest universities in the state. Auburn was chartered on February 7, 1856, as the East Alabama Male College, a private liberal arts...

. Montgomery also is home to several private colleges: Faulkner University
Faulkner University
Faulkner University is a private Christian university, located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, and affiliated with the Church of Christ. The University was founded in 1942 as Montgomery Bible School. In 1953 the school's name was changed to Alabama Christian College . In 1965, the college was moved to...

, which has an enrollment of 3,500, is a Church of Christ
Church of Christ
Churches of Christ are autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another through common beliefs and practices. They seek to base doctrine and practice on the Bible alone, and seek to be New Testament congregations as originally established by the authority of Christ. Historically,...

-affiliated school; Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College, founded in 1854, is a coeducational liberal arts college in Montgomery, Alabama, United States. Related to the United Methodist Church, the college's central hallmarks are faith, wisdom, and service. The college is known for providing a solid academic experience based on good...

, which has a current student population of 1,000 and is affiliated with the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a Methodist Christian denomination which is both mainline Protestant and evangelical. Founded in 1968 by the union of The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, the UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley...

; and Amridge University
Amridge University
Amridge University is an accredited coeducational private university affiliated with the Churches of Christ with its main campus in Montgomery, Alabama...

. Several two-year colleges also have campuses in Montgomery, including H. Councill Trenholm State Technical College
H. Councill Trenholm State Technical College
H. Councill Trenholm State Technical College is a community college in Montgomery, Alabama. The college awards associate's degrees and certificates in a variety of healthcare and technical disciplines. The current iteration of the college was formed in 2001 by the merger of Trenholm State...



Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base
Maxwell Air Force Base , officially known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force installation under the Air Education and Training Command . The installation is located in Montgomery, Alabama, US. It was named in honor of Second Lieutenant William C...

 is the headquarters for Air University, the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

's center for professional military education. Branches of Air University based in Montgomery include the Squadron Officer School
Squadron Officer School
Squadron Officer School , is a five-week long Professional Military Education course for U.S. Air Force Captains. It fulfills the U.S. Air Force's requirement for primary developmental education . SOS is based at Maxwell AFB, Alabama, and the in-residence version of the course is taught there...

, the Air Command and Staff College
Air Command and Staff College
The Air Command and Staff College is located at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama and is the United States Air Force's intermediate professional military education school. It prepares field grade and equivalent officers of all U.S...

, the Air War College
Air War College
The Air War College is a part of the United States Air Force's Air University, headquartered at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama. Air University's higher headquarters is Air Education and Training Command headquartered at Randolph Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. The Air War...

, and the Community College of the Air Force
Community College of the Air Force
The Community College of the Air Force is a federal program offered by the United States Air Force which grants two year Associate of Applied Science degrees in association with Air University....

.

Media



The morning newspaper, the Montgomery Advertiser
Montgomery Advertiser
The Montgomery Advertiser is a daily newspaper located in Montgomery, Alabama. It was founded in 1829.- History:The newspaper began publication in 1829 as The Planter's Gazette. It became the Montgomery Advertiser in 1833. In 1903, R.F. Hudson, a young Alabama newspaperman, joined the staff of the...

, began publication as The Planter's Gazette in 1829. It is the principal newspaper of central Alabama and is affiliated with the Gannett Corporation. In 1970, then publisher Harold E. Martin
Harold E. Martin
Harold Eugene Martin was a Pulitzer Prize-winning newspaper editor and publisher who also served as a director of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association. During his career, Martin lived in the U.S...

 won the Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
The Pulitzer Prize is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism, literature and musical composition. It was established by American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City...

 for special reporting while at the Advertiser. The Alabama Journal was a local afternoon paper from 1899 until April 16, 1993 when it published its last issue before merging with the morning Advertiser.

Montgomery is served by seven local television stations: WNCF 32
WNCF
WNCF is the ABC-affiliated television station for Central Alabama's Black Belt licensed to Montgomery. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 32 from a transmitter in Gordonville. The station can also be seen on Knology and Charter channel 4. There is a high definition feed...

 (ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

), WSFA 12
WSFA
WSFA is the NBC-affiliated television station for Central Alabama's Black Belt region licensed to Montgomery. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on VHF channel 12 from a transmitter in Grady along the Montgomery and Pike County line. The station can also be seen on Knology and Charter...

 (NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

), WCOV 20
WCOV-TV
WCOV-TV is the Fox-affiliated television station for Central Alabama's Black Belt area licensed to Montgomery. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 20 from a transmitter southeast of Grady along the Montgomery and Crenshaw County line. The station can also be seen on...

 (Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

), WBMM 22
WBMM
WBMM is the CW-affiliated television station for Central Alabama's Black Belt licensed to Tuskegee. It broadcasts a digital signal on UHF channel 22 from a transmitter in unincorporated Southeastern Bullock County. The station can also be seen on Charter channel 14 and Knology channel 19...

 (CW
The CW Television Network
The CW Television Network is a television network in the United States launched at the beginning of the 2006–2007 television season. It is a joint venture between CBS Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network , and Time Warner's Warner Bros., former majority owner of The WB...

), WAIQ 26 (PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

), WMCF 45 (TBN
Trinity Broadcasting Network
The Trinity Broadcasting Network is a major American Christian television network. TBN is based in Costa Mesa, California, with auxiliary studio facilities in Irving, Texas; Hendersonville, Tennessee; Gadsden, Alabama; Decatur, Georgia; Miami, Florida; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Orlando, Florida; and New...

), WFRZ 34 (Religious and Educational). In addition, WAKA 8
WAKA
WAKA is the CBS-affiliated television station for Central Alabama's Black Belt region licensed to Selma. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 42 from a transmitter in Gordonville. The station can also be seen on Knology and Charter channel 8...

 (CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

) and WBIH 29
WBIH
WBIH is a television station in Selma, Alabama, serving the Montgomery, Alabama media market on channel 29. Founded in 2001, the station is owned by Flinn Broadcasting Corporation. The programming consists of primarily Christian programming...

 (independent) are located in Selma
Selma, Alabama
Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, Alabama, United States, located on the banks of the Alabama River. The population was 20,512 at the 2000 census....

, and WIYC 67 (AMV
American Music Video Network
The Country Network, or TCN, is a Nashville, Tennessee-based country music broadcast television network. It began life as the Artists & Fans Network on January 7, 2009, airing the Kid Rock video "All Summer Long" as its inaugural broadcast....

) is licensed to Troy
Troy, Alabama
Troy is a city in Pike County, Alabama, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,003. Troy experienced a growth spurt of over 4,000+ people since 2000. The city is the county seat of Pike County....

. Montgomery is part of the Montgomery-Selma Designated Market Area (DMA)
Media market
A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area , Television Market Area , or simply market is a region where the population can receive the same television and radio station offerings, and may also include other types of media including newspapers and Internet content...

, which is ranked 118th nationally by Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research is an American firm that measures media audiences, including television, radio, theatre films and newspapers...

. Charter Communications
Charter Communications
Charter Communications is an American company providing cable television, high-speed Internet, and telephone services to more than 4.7 million customers in 25 states. By revenues, it is the fourth-largest cable operator in the United States, behind Comcast, Time Warner Cable, and Cox Communications...

 and Knology
Knology
Knology Inc. is a cable company that formed in 1994 by ITC Holding Company, Inc, a telecommunications holding company in West Point, Georgia that also founded Internet service provider Mindspring. In late 1994, shortly after Knology's inception, two employees made a $600,000 investment to make...

 provide cable television service. DirecTV
DirecTV
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider and broadcaster based in El Segundo, California. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America, and the Anglophone Caribbean. ...

 and Dish Network
Dish Network
Dish Network Corporation is the second largest pay TV provider in the United States, providing direct broadcast satellite service—including satellite television, audio programming, and interactive television services—to 14.337 million commercial and residential customers in the United States. Dish...

 provide direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television...

 television including both local and national channels to area residents.

The Montgomery area is served by nine AM
AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting is the process of radio broadcasting using amplitude modulation. AM was the first method of impressing sound on a radio signal and is still widely used today. Commercial and public AM broadcasting is carried out in the medium wave band world wide, and on long wave and short wave...

 radio stations: WMSP
WMSP
WMSP is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by Cumulus Media and the broadcast license is held by Cumulus Licensing LLC...

, WMGY
WMGY
WMGY is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station, which began broadcasting in 1946, is owned by George H. Buck, Jr., and the license is held by WMGY Radio, Inc....

, WNZZ
WNZZ
WNZZ is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station, originally launched in 1953, is currently owned by Cumulus Media and the broadcast license is held by Cumulus Licensing, LLC.-Programming:...

, WTBF
WTBF (AM)
WTBF is a radio station broadcasting a Talk/Personality format. Licensed to Troy, Alabama, USA. The station is currently owned by Troy Broadcasting Corp. and features programing from ABC Radio.- History of Troy Broadcasting Corporation :...

, WACV
WACV
WACV is a radio station in the Montgomery, Alabama, market owned by Bluewater Broadcasting Company, LLC. Since July 30, 2010, the station has broadcast a modern rock music format...

, WAPZ
WAPZ
WRBZ WRBZ WRBZ (1250 AM, is a radio station broadcasting a classic hits format. Licensed to Wetumpka, Alabama, USA, the station serves the Montgomery. The station is currently owned by J&W, L.L.C....

, WIQR
WIQR
WIQR is a radio station licensed to serve Prattville, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by Star Power Communications Corporation and serves the Montgomery, Alabama, area....

, WLWI
WLWI (AM)
WLWI is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by Cumulus Media and the license is held by Cumulus Licensing, LLC.It broadcasts a news/talk radio format to the Montgomery metropolitan area...

, and WXVI
WXVI
WXVI is a radio station broadcasting a Gospel music format. Licensed to Montgomery, Alabama, USA, the station serves the greater Montgomery area. The station is currently owned by New Life Ministries, Inc.-External links:*...

; and nineteen FM
FM broadcasting
FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

 stations: WJSP
WJSP-FM
The following are former translators for this station, listed under current callsign but their former data at the time:- External links :*...

, WAPR
WAPR
WAPR is a radio station licensed to Selma, Alabama. The station is owned by the University of Alabama, and is an affiliate of Alabama Public Radio, airing the network's programming consisting of news and talk programming, classical music, folk music, jazz, adult album alternative and nostalgic...

, WELL
WELL-FM
WELL-FM is a radio station licensed to serve Waverly, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by James Jarrell Communications and Foundation...

, WLBF, WTSU
Troy University Public Radio
Troy University Public Radio is a network of public radio stations based in Troy, Alabama, USA that serve southeastern Alabama and parts of western Georgia and northwestern Florida with classical music, folk music, and jazz programs, as well as news and feature programs from the National Public...

, WVAS
WVAS
WVAS is a jazz-music formatted radio station in the Montgomery, Alabama, market licensed to the Alabama State University. WVAS is a member-supported non-commercial, educational station featuring news and other programming from National Public Radio and Public Radio International.WVAS began...

, WLWI
WLWI-FM
WLWI-FM is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by Cumulus Media and the broadcast license is held by Cumulus Licensing, Inc.-Programming:...

, WXFX
WXFX
WXFX is an album-oriented rock radio station in the Montgomery, Alabama, market. The station is owned by Cumulus Media....

, WQKS
WQKS-FM
WQKS-FM is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station, established in 1990, is currently owned by Bluewater Broadcasting.-Programming:...

, WWMG
WWMG
WWMG is an urban adult contemporary music formatted radio station licensed to Millbrook, Alabama, USA. The station is known as "Magic 97" and serves the Montgomery, Alabama, area....

, WVRV
WVRV
WVRV is a radio station that serves Pine Level, Alabama. The station is owned by Stroh Communications Corp. and the broadcast license is held by Back Door Broadcasting LLC. The station broadcasts a Contemporary Christian music format...

, WJWZ
WJWZ
WJWZ is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by Bluewater Broadcasting Company, LLC....

, WBAM
WBAM-FM
WBAM, also known as Bama Country 98.9, is a country music formatted radio station that serves the Montgomery Metropolitan Area, broadcasting on the FM band at a frequency of 98.9 MHz and licensed to Montgomery, Alabama. The station is locally owned and operated by Bluewater Broadcasting Company,...

, WALX
WALX
WALX is a classic hits music formatted radio station licensed to Orrville, Alabama, and serving the Selma, Alabama, market. The station is owned by Scott Communications, Inc.-Programming:...

, WHHY, WMXS
WMXS
WMXS is a radio station licensed to serve Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by Cumulus Media and the license is held by Cumulus Licensing LLC.It broadcasts a mainstream adult contemporary music format....

, WHLW
WHLW
WHLW is a radio station licensed to serve Luverne, Alabama, USA. The station is owned by Clear Channel Communications and licensed to Capstar TX Limited Partnership....

, WZHT
WZHT
WZHT is a mainstream urban formatted radio station that broadcasts on the 105.7 MHz frequency licensed to Troy, Alabama, that serves the Montgomery area....

, and WMRK. Montgomery is ranked 154th largest by Arbitron
Arbitron
Arbitron is a consumer research company in the United States that collects listener data on radio audiences. It was founded as American Research Bureau by Jim Seiler in 1949 and became national by merging with L.A. based Coffin, Cooper and Clay in the early 1950s...

.

Two major motion pictures have been filmed in Montgomery: The Long Walk Home
The Long Walk Home
The Long Walk Home is a 1990 film starring Sissy Spacek and Whoopi Goldberg.-Origins:The feature film is based on a short screenplay of the same name, written by John Cork. While a student at USC, Cork submitted his script for consideration by the Cinema Department, hoping to also direct. While...

, set during the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many important figures in the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott,...

, and Big Fish
Big Fish
Big Fish is a 2003 American fantasy adventure film based on the 1998 novel of the same name by Daniel Wallace. The film was directed by Tim Burton and stars Albert Finney, Ewan McGregor, Billy Crudup, Jessica Lange and Marion Cotillard. Finney plays Edward Bloom, a former traveling salesman from...

, partially shot at Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College, founded in 1854, is a coeducational liberal arts college in Montgomery, Alabama, United States. Related to the United Methodist Church, the college's central hallmarks are faith, wisdom, and service. The college is known for providing a solid academic experience based on good...

.

Transportation


Two interstate highways run through Montgomery. Interstate 65
Interstate 65
Interstate 65 is a major Interstate Highway in the United States. The southern terminus is located at an intersection with Interstate 10 in Mobile, Alabama, and its northern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 90 , U.S. Route 12, and U.S...

 is the primary north–south freeway through the city leading between Birmingham
Birmingham, Alabama
Birmingham is the largest city in Alabama. The city is the county seat of Jefferson County. According to the 2010 United States Census, Birmingham had a population of 212,237. The Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Area, in estimate by the U.S...

 and Huntsville
Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the central part of the far northern region of the U.S. state of Alabama. Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County. The city extends west into neighboring Limestone County. Huntsville's population was 180,105 as of the 2010 Census....

 to the north and Mobile
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

 to the south. Montgomery is the southern terminus of Interstate 85
Interstate 85
Interstate 85 is a major interstate highway in the Southeastern United States. Its current southern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 65 in Montgomery, Alabama; its northern terminus interchanges with Interstate 95 in Petersburg, Virginia, near Richmond...

, another north–south freeway (though running east–west in the city), which leads northeast to Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

. The major surface street thoroughfare is a loop consisting of State Route 152 in the north, U.S. Highway 231 and U.S. Highway 80 in the east, U.S. Highway 82 in the south, and U.S. Highway 31 along the west of the city. The Alabama Department of Transportation
Alabama Department of Transportation
The Alabama Department of Transportation is the government agency responsible for transportation infrastructure in Alabama. The department is divided into nine geographical divisions, with a central office located in Montgomery.-External links:...

 is planning the Outer Montgomery Loop to ease traffic congestion in the city. It is planned to connect Interstate 85
Interstate 85
Interstate 85 is a major interstate highway in the Southeastern United States. Its current southern terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 65 in Montgomery, Alabama; its northern terminus interchanges with Interstate 95 in Petersburg, Virginia, near Richmond...

 near Mt. Meigs
Mount Meigs, Alabama
Mount Meigs is an unincorporated community in Montgomery County in the state of Alabama. The Mount Meigs Campus, a juvenile correctional facility and the headquarters of the Alabama Department of Youth Services, is in Mount Meigs. Mount Meigs is located at .-History:The area's major export in the...

 to U.S. Highway 80 southwest of the city. Montgomery Area Transit System
Montgomery Area Transit System
Montgomery Area Transit System is the operator of mass transportation in metropolitan Montgomery, Alabama. The organization was founded in 1974, after years of tumultuous relations between private bus operators and riders. In 1998, the city performed a cost cutting experiment by replacing all 17...

 (MATS) provides public transportation with buses serving the city. The system has 32 buses providing an average of 4500 passenger trips daily. MATS ridership has shown steady growth since the system was revamped in 2000; the system served over 1 million passenger trips in 2007. Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 operates a terminal in Montgomery for intercity bus travel.

Montgomery Regional Airport
Montgomery Regional Airport
Montgomery Regional Airport , also known as Dannelly Field, is a joint civil-military public airport located six miles southwest of the central business district of Montgomery, a city in Montgomery County and the capital of the U.S. state of Alabama...

, also known as Dannelly Field, is the major airport serving Montgomery. It serves primarily as an Air National Guard
Air National Guard
The Air National Guard , often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the fifty U.S. states, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia of the United States. Established under Title 10 and...

 base and for general aviation, but commercial airlines fly to regional connections to Atlanta
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport , known locally as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield Airport, and Hartsfield–Jackson, is located seven miles south of the central business district of Atlanta, Georgia, United States...

, Dallas-Fort Worth, Charlotte
Charlotte/Douglas International Airport
Charlotte Douglas International Airport is a joint civil-military public international airport located in Charlotte, North Carolina. Established in 1935 as Charlotte Municipal Airport, in 1954 the airport was renamed Douglas Municipal Airport after former Charlotte mayor Ben Elbert Douglas, Sr...

, and Memphis
Memphis International Airport
Memphis International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located three miles south of the central business district of Memphis, a city in Shelby County, Tennessee, United States....

.

Passenger rail service began to Montgomery in 1898, with the opening of Union Station
Union Station (Montgomery)
Union Station, also known as Montgomery Union Station or Montgomery Union Station and Trainshed, in Montgomery, Alabama was built by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and opened in 1898...

. Service continued until 1979, when Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 terminated its Floridian
Floridian (Amtrak)
The Floridian was an Amtrak route that ran from Chicago to Miami and St. Petersburg, Florida. Its route mainly followed that of several former Louisville and Nashville Railroad passenger trains, including the Humming Bird...

 route. Amtrak returned from 1989 until 1995 with the Gulf Breeze, an extension of the Crescent
Crescent (Amtrak)
The Crescent is a passenger train operated by Amtrak in the eastern part of the United States. It runs daily from Pennsylvania Station in New York City to New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal in New Orleans, Louisiana as train 19 and returns, on the same route, as train 20. Most of the route of...

 line.

Further reading

  • L. P. Powell (editor), in Historic Towns of the Southern States, (New York, 1900)
  • Jeffry C. Benton (editor) A Sense of Place, Montgomery's Architectural History

External links