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This can be due to:
  • One testicle not descending into the scrotum during normal embryo
    An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination...

    nic or fetal
    A fetus is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate after the embryonic stage and before birth.In humans, the fetal stage of prenatal development starts at the beginning of the 11th week in gestational age, which is the 9th week after fertilization.-Etymology and spelling variations:The...

     development (3–4% of 'normal' live births), also known as: undescended testis or cryptorchidism
    Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect regarding male genitalia. In unique cases, cryptorchidism can develop later in life, often as late as young adulthood. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born with at...

    . In this case the testis is within the abdominal cavity, somewhere along the normal route of descent — most commonly, within the inguinal canal
    Inguinal canal
    The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall which in men conveys the spermatic cord and in women the round ligament. The inguinal canal is larger and more prominent in men.-Site:...

    . Such a testis has an increased risk of malignancy.
  • One testicle may disappear during development (the so called vanishing testis
    Vanishing testis
    Vanishing testis refers to the disappearance of one or other testis during embryonic or foetal development.It is one of the causes of monorchism, and is thought to be due to intrauterine testicular torsion....

    ) due to some intrauterine insult. This is thought most likely vascular
    Blood vessel
    The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and...

    , such as testicular torsion
    Testicular torsion
    Testicular torsion is when the spermatic cord to a testicle twists, cutting off the blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause is a congenital malformation known as a "bell-clapper deformity". The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it...

  • One testicle being surgically removed through Orchidectomy.
  • One testicle may be injured.

Due to testicular cancer

  • Lance Armstrong
    Lance Armstrong
    Lance Edward Armstrong is an American former professional road racing cyclist who won the Tour de France a record seven consecutive times, after having survived testicular cancer. He is also the founder and chairman of the Lance Armstrong Foundation for cancer research and support...

    , American
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

  • Frank Church
    Frank Church
    Frank Forrester Church III was an American lawyer and politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States Senator from Idaho from 1957 to 1981....

    , late U.S. Senator and a Presidential aspirant in 1976. His monorchism was revealed publicly during the 1976 Presidential campaign
    United States presidential election, 1976
    The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. It pitted incumbent President Gerald Ford, the Republican candidate, against the relatively unknown former governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic...

  • Tom Green
    Tom Green
    Michael Thomas "Tom" Green is a Canadian actor, rapper, writer, comedian, talk show host and media personality. Best known for his shock humour brand of comedy, Green found mainstream prominence via his MTV television show The Tom Green Show...

    , Canadian
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

  • Mark Latham
    Mark Latham
    Mark William Latham , an author and former Australian politician, was leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005....

    , Former Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

    n politician.
  • Geoff Horsfield
    Geoff Horsfield
    Geoffrey Malcolm "Geoff" Horsfield is an English former professional footballer, now football coach. He made more than 300 appearances in the Football League playing as a striker. He is now a coach at Port Vale....

    , English footballer.

Due to injury

  • Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

    , Chancellor in Germany (possibly, see Hitler's possible monorchism
    Hitler's possible monorchism
    It has been claimed that Adolf Hitler suffered from monorchism, the condition of having only a single testicle.-Hitler's possible monorchism:...

  • Dave England
    Dave England
    Dave England is an American daredevil stunt performer and former professional snowboarder who is known for appearing on the MTV series Jackass, as well as the films Jackass: The Movie, Jackass: Number Two, and Jackass 3D.-Life and career:Johnny Knoxville stated on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart...

    , Jackass
    Jackass (TV series)
    jackass is an American reality series, originally shown on MTV from 2000 to 2002, featuring people performing various dangerous, crude, ridiculous, self-injuring stunts and pranks...

     cast member.
  • Mao Zedong
    Mao Zedong
    Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...

    , known as Chairman Mao, Chinese revolutionary.
  • Francisco Franco
    Francisco Franco
    Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

    , Dictator of Spain.
  • Troy Bayliss
    Troy Bayliss
    Troy Bayliss is a retired Australian motorcycle racer. During his career Bayliss won the Superbike World Championship three times, as well as the British Superbike Championship and a MotoGP race, all with Ducati. He finished his career after winning the 2008 World Superbike title...

    , world superbike champion in 2001, 2006 and 2008. In 2007 he lost a testicle during a race at Doninghton Park .
  • Barnacle Jim, American cross country face bike champion in 2007 and 2010.
  • Hermann Goering, leading member of the Nazi party

Monorchism in nonhuman animals

Although extremely rare, monorchism has been observed to be characteristic of some animal species, notably in beetles.