Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights

Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights

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The '''State of the Teutonic Order''', ({{lang-de|Deutschordensland}}), also '''Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights''' or '''Ordensstaat''' ({{IPA-de|ˈɔɐdənsˌʃtaːt|pron}} "Order-State"), was formed in [[1224]] during the [[Northern Crusades]], the [[Teutonic Knights]]' conquest of the pagan West-Baltic [[Old Prussians]] ({{lang-la|Prutenii}}) in the 13th century. The [[Livonian Brothers of the Sword]] controlling [[Terra Mariana|Livonia]] were incorporated into the Teutonic Order as its autonomous branch [[Livonian Order]] in 1237. In 1346, the [[Danish_Estonia#Duchy_of_Estonia|Duchy of Estonia]] was sold by the [[Danish monarchy|King of Denmark]] for 19,000 Köln [[mark (weight)|marks]] to the [[Teutonic Order]]. The shift of sovereignty from Denmark to the Teutonic Order took place on November 1, 1346. Following its defeat in the [[Battle of Grunwald]] in 1410 the Teutonic Order fell into decline and its Livonian branch joined the [[Livonian Confederation]] established in 1422–1435. The Teutonic lands in [[Prussia (region)|Prussia]] were split in two after the [[Second Peace of Thorn (1466)|Peace of Thorn]] in 1466. The western part of Teutonic Prussia was converted into [[Royal Prussia]] which became a more integral part of Poland. The [[monasticism|monastic]] state in the east was secularized in [[1525]] during the [[Protestant Reformation]] when it was replaced by the [[Duchy of Prussia]], a Polish fief governed by the [[House of Hohenzollern]].
In old texts and in Latin the term ''Prut(h)enia'' refers to "Teutonic Prussia", "Royal Prussia" and '"Ducal Prussia" alike. The pertaining contemporary adjective is [[Prutenic Tables|Prut(h)enic]]. == Background == The Old Prussians withstood many attempts at conquest preceding the Teutonic Knights'. [[Bolesław I the Brave]] of [[Poland]] began the series of unsuccessful conquests when he sent [[Adalbert of Prague]] in 997. In 1147, [[Boleslaw IV of Poland]] attacked Prussia with the aid of [[Kievan Rus]], but was unable to conquer it. Numerous other attempts followed, and, under Duke [[Konrad I of Masovia]], were intensified, with large battles and crusades in 1209, 1219, 1220, and 1222. The West-Baltic Prussians successfully repelled most of the campaigns and managed to strike Konrad in retaliation. However the Prussians and [[Yotvingians]] in the south had their territory conquered. The land of the Yotvingians was situated in the area of what is today [[Podlesia]]{{dn|date=November 2011}}. The Prussians attempted to oust Polish or Masovian forces from [[Sudovia]]{{dn|date=November 2011}} and [[Chełmno Land|Culmerland (or Chełmno Land)]], which by now was partially conquered, devastated and almost totally depopulated. Konrad of Masovia had already called a crusade against the Old Prussians in 1208, but it was not successful. Konrad, acting on the advice of Christian, first bishop of Prussia, established the [[Order of Dobrzyń|Dobriner Orden]], a small group of 15 knights. The Order, however, was soon defeated and, in reaction, Konrad called on the Pope for yet another crusade and for help from the [[Teutonic Knights]]. As a result, several edicts called for [[crusade]]s against the Old Prussians. The crusades, involving many of Europe's [[knight]]s, lasted for sixty years. In 1211, [[Andrew II of Hungary]] enfeoffed the Teutonic Knights with the [[Burzenland]]. In 1225, Andrew II expelled the Teutonic Knights from [[Transylvania]], and they had to transfer to the [[Baltic Sea]]. Early in 1224, Emperor [[Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor|Frederick II]] announced at Catania that [[Livonia]], Prussia with [[Sambia]], and a number of neighboring provinces were under [[Imperial immediacy]] ({{lang-de|Reichsfreiheit}}). This decree subordinated the provinces directly to the [[Roman Catholic Church]] and the [[Holy Roman Emperor]] as opposed to being under the jurisdiction of local rulers. At the end of 1224, [[Pope Honorius III]] announced to all Christendom his appointment of Bishop [[William of Modena]] as the Papal Legate for Livonia, Prussia, and other countries. As a result of the Imperial Bull of Rimini and the Papal Bull of Rieti, Prussia came into the Teutonic Order's possession. Under their governance, woodlands were cleared and marshlands made arable, upon which many cities and villages were founded, including [[Malbork|Marienburg (Malbork)]] and [[Königsberg]] (today's [[Kaliningrad]]). Unlike newly founded cities between the rivers [[Elbe]] and [[Oder]] the cities founded by the Teutonic Order had a much more re(ctan)gular sketch of streets, indicating their character as planned foundations. The cities were heavily fortified, accounting for the long lasting conflicts with the resistive native Old Prussians, with armed forces under command of the knights. Most cities were prevailingly populated with immigrants from [[Middle Germany]] and [[Silesia]], where many knights of the order had their homelands. The cities were usually given [[Magdeburg law]] [[town privileges]], with the one exception of [[Elbląg|Elbing (Elbląg)]], which was founded with the support of [[Free City of Lübeck|Lübeckers]] and thus was awarded [[Lübeck law]]. Whereas the Lübeckers provided the Order important logistic support with their ships, they were – except of in Elbing – else rather not involved in the establishment of the Monastic State. == Further history== [[File:Teutonic Order 1260.png|thumb|300px|Teutonic state in 1260]] [[File:Teutonic Order 1410.png|thumb|300px|Teutonic state in 1410]] ===13th century=== In 1234, the Teutonic Order assimilated the remaining members of the [[Order of Dobrzyń]] and, in 1237, the Order of the [[Livonian Brothers of the Sword]]. The assimilation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword (established in [[Livonia]] in 1202) increased the Teutonic Order's lands with the addition of the territories known today as [[Latvia]] and [[Estonia]]. In 1243, the Papal legate [[William of Modena]] divided Prussia into four [[Diocese|bishoprics]]: [[Bishopric of Culm (Chełmno)|Culm (Chełmno)]], [[Bishopric of Pomesania|Pomesania]], [[Bishopric of Warmia|Ermland (Warmia)]], and [[Bishopric of Samland|Samland (Sambia)]]. The bishoprics became [[suffragan]]s to the [[archbishops of Riga|Archbishopric of Riga]] under the mother city of [[Visby]] on [[Gotland]]. Each diocese was fiscally and administratively divided into one third reserved for the maintenance of the capitular canons, and two thirds where the Order collected the dues. The [[cathedral chapter|cathedral capitular]] [[canon (priest)|canons]] of Culm, Pomesania, and Samland were simultaneously members of the [[Teutonic Order]] since the 1280s, ensuring a strong influence by the Order. Only Ermland's diocesan chapter maintained independence, enabling to establish its autonomous rule in the capitular third of Ermland's diocesan territory ([[Prince-Bishopric of Ermeland]]). ===14th century=== At the beginning of the 14th century, the [[Duchy of Pomerania]], a neighboring region, plunged into war with Poland and the [[Margraviate of Brandenburg]] to the west. The Margraves of Brandenburg, who ruled [[Pomerelia]] in the 1250s, entered into a treaty on August 8, 1305 with [[Wenceslaus III of Bohemia]], then King of Poland. In the [[Teutonic takeover of Danzig]], the Teutonic Knights seized the city in November 1308. The Order had been called by King [[Władysław I the Elbow-high|Władysław I]] of Poland. According to historical sources, many of the inhabitants of the city, Polish and German, were slaughtered. In September 1309, Margrave [[Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal|Waldemar]] of Brandenburg-Stendal sold his claim to the territory to the Teutonic Order for the sum of 10,000 Marks in the [[Treaty of Soldin (1309)|Treaty of Soldin]]. This marked the beginning of a series of conflicts between Poland and the Teutonic Knights as the Order continued incorporating territories into its domains. While the Order promoted the Prussian cities by granting them extended surrounding territory and privileges, establishing courts, civil and commercial law, it allowed the cities less outward independence than [[Free imperial city|free imperial cities]] enjoyed within the [[Holy Roman Empire]]. So the members of the [[Hanseatic League]] did consider merchants from Prussian cities as their like, but also accepted the Grand Master of the Order as the sole territorial ruler ever at their Hanseatic [[Diet (assembly)|Diets]], representing Prussia. Thus Prussian merchants, along with those from [[Ditmarsh]], were the only beneficiaries of a quasi membership within the Hanse, although lacking the background of citizenship in a fully autonomous or free city. The Teutonic Order's possession of Danzig was disputed by the Polish kings Władysław I and [[Casimir III of Poland|Casimir the Great]] -- claims that led to a series of bloody wars and, eventually, lawsuits in the papal court in 1320 and 1333. Finally, peace was concluded at [[Treaty of Kalisz (1343)|Kalisz in 1343]], where the Teutonic Order agreed that Poland should rule Pomerelia as a [[fief]] and Polish kings, therefore, retained the right to the title ''Duke of Pomerania''. In the conflict between the Hanse and Denmark on the trade in the Baltic King [[Valdemar IV of Denmark]] had held the Hanseatic city of [[Valdemar Atterdag holding Visby to ransom, 1361|Visby to ransom in 1361]]. However, the members of the Hanseatic league were undecided to unite against him. However, when Valdemar IV then captured Prussian merchant ships in the [[Øresund]] on their way to [[Kingdom of England|England]], Grand Master [[Winrich of Kniprode]] travelled to [[Lübeck]] to propose a war alliance against Denmark, received with reluctance only by the important cities forming the Wendish-[[Lower Saxon Circle|Saxon]] third of the Hanse. Since Valdemar IV had also attacked ships of the Dutch city of [[Kampen, Overijssel|Kampen]] and other destinations in the [[Zuiderzee]], Prussia and Dutch cities, such as Kampen, [[Elburg]], and [[Harderwijk]] allied themselves against Denmark. This then made the Hanse calling up a diet in [[Cologne]] in 1367, also convening the afore-mentioned and more non-member cities like [[Amsterdam]] and [[Brielle]], founding the [[Confederation of Cologne|Cologne Federation]] as a war alliance, in order to ban the Danish threat. More cities from the Lower Rhine area till up to Livonia joined. Of the major players only [[Bremen]] and [[Hamburg]] refused to send forces, but contributed financially. Besides Prussia, three more territorial partners, [[Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein|Henry II of Schauenburg and Holstein-Rendsburg]], [[Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg|Albert II of Mecklenburg]], and the latter's son [[Albert, King of Sweden|Albert of Sweden]], joined the alliance, attacking via land and sea, forcing Denmark to sign the [[Treaty of Stralsund (1370)|Treaty of Stralsund]] in 1370. Several Danish castles and fortresses were then taken by Hanse forces for fifteen years, in order to secure the implementation of the peace conditions. The invasions of the Teutonic Order from Livonia to [[Pleskau]] in 1367 had caused the Russians to recoup themselves on Hanse merchants in [[Novgorod]], which again made the Order block exports of salt and herring into Russia. While the relations had eased by 1371 so that trade resumed, they soured again until 1388. During the Lithuanian crusade of 1369/1370, ending with the Teutonic victory in the [[Battle of Rudau]], Prussia enjoyed considerable support by English knights. So the Order welcomed English [[Merchant Adventurers]]{{dn|date=November 2011}}, starting to cruise in the Baltic, competing with Dutch, Saxon and Wendish Hanseatic merchants, and allowed them to open outposts in its cities of Danzig and Elbing. However, this brought about a conflict with the rest of the Hanse, which was in a deep conflict with [[Richard II of England]], who wanted to levy higher dues from the Hanse merchants, who only achieved an unsatisfactory compromise. However, in May 1385 Richard II's navy suddenly attacked six Prussian ships – and those of more Hanse members – in the [[Zwin]]. Grand Master [[Conrad Zöllner von Rothenstein]] then immediately terminated all trade with England. When in the same year the Hanse evacuated all the Danish castles in fulfillment of the Treaty of Stralsund, Prussia argued in favour of a renewal of the Cologne Federation for the upcoming conflict with England, but could not prevail. The cities preferred to negotiate and take retaliatory actions, such as counter-confiscation of English merchandise. So when in 1388 Richard II finally reconfirmed the Hanseatic trade privileges, Prussia reallowed the merchant adventurers granting them staying permissions, however, renounced again by Grand Master [[Conrad of Jungingen]] in 1398. In the conflict with the [[Duchy of Burgundy|Burgundian]] [[Philip the Bold]] on the Hanse privileges in the [[Flanders|Flemish]] cities the positions of the Hanse cities and Prussia were again reversed. Here the majority of the Hanse members decided in a Hanseatic diet on 1 May 1388 for an [[embargo]] against the Flemish cities, while Prussia could not prevail with its plea for further negotiations. So the Order's [[Großschäffer]] from Königsberg, holding the monopoly in [[amber]] export, achieved the exceptional permission to continue amber exports to Flanders and textile imports in return. On the occasion of the ban on Flemish trade, the Hanse urged Prussia and Livonia again to interrupt the exchange with Novgorod too, anyway with both blockades Russian and Flemish commodities could not reach their final destinations. In 1392 it was then Grand Master [[Conrad of Wallenrode]] who supported the Flemings to achieve an acceptable agreement with the Hanse resuming the bilateral trade. While a Hanseatic delegation under [[Johann Niebur]] reopened trade with Novgorod in the same year, after reconfirmation of the previous mutual privileges. Since the late 1380s grave [[piracy]] by [[privateer]]s, promoted by [[Albert, King of Sweden|Albert of Sweden and Mecklenburg]] actually directed against [[Margaret I of Denmark]], blocked seafaring to the herring supplies at the [[Scania Market]], thus fish prices tripled in Prussia. The Saxon Hanse cities urged Prussia to intervene, but Conrad of Jungingen was more worried about a Danish victory. So only after the cities, led by Lübeck's burgomaster [[Hinrich Westhof]], had liaised the [[Treaty of Skanör]] (1395), Albert's defeat manifested, so that Prussia finally sent out its ships, led by Danzig's city councillor [[Conrad Letzkau]]. Until 1400 the united Teutonic-Hanseatic [[flotilla]] then thoroughly cleared the Baltic Sea from pirates, the [[Victual Brothers]], and even took the island of [[Gotland]] in 1398. ===15th century=== [[Image:Teutonic Order 1466.png|thumb|left|300px|Teutonic state in 1466]] In 1402, the [[Margraviate of Brandenburg|March of Brandenburg]] gave the [[New March]] in pawn to the Teutonic Order, which kept it until Brandenburg redeemed it again in 1454 and 1455, respectively, by the [[Treaties of Cölln and Mewe]]. In 1408 Letzkau served as a diplomat to Queen Margaret I and arranged that the Order sold Gotland to Denmark. In 1410, with the death of [[Rupert, King of the Germans]], war broke out between the Teutonic Knights, supported by [[Duchy of Pomerania|Pomerania]], and a [[Polish-Lithuanian union|Polish-Lithuanian alliance]] supported by [[Ruthenia]]n and [[Tatar]] auxiliary forces. Poland and Lithuania triumphed following a victory at the [[Battle of Grunwald]] ([[Stębark|Tannenberg]]). The Order assigned [[Heinrich von Plauen]] to defend Prussian Pomerania ([[Pomerelia]]), who moved rapidly to bolster the defence of [[Malbork Castle|Castle Marienburg]] in Prussian [[Pomesania]]. Heinrich von Plauen was elected vice-grand master and led the Teutonic Knights through the [[Siege of Marienburg (1410)|Siege of Marienburg in 1410]]. Eventually von Plauen was promoted to Grand Master and, in 1411, concluded the [[Peace of Thorn (1411)|First Treaty of Thorn]] with King [[Władysław II Jagiełło|Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland]]. In March 1440, gentry (mainly from [[Culmerland]]) and the Hanseatic cities of Danzig, [[Elbląg|Elbing]], [[Kneiphof]], [[Toruń|Thorn]] and other Prussian cities founded the [[Prussian Confederation]] to free themselves from the overlordship of the Teutonic Knights. Due to the heavy losses and costs after the [[Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War|war against Poland and Lithuania]], the Teutonic Order collected taxes at steep rates. Furthermore, the cities were not allowed due representation by the Teutonic Order. In February of 1454, the Prussian Confederation asked King [[Casimir IV of Poland]] to support their revolt and incorporate Prussia into Poland. King Casimir IV agreed and the War of the Cities or [[Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)|Thirteen Years' War]] broke out. The [[Second Peace of Thorn (1466)|Second Peace of Thorn]] in October of 1466 ended the war and provided for the Teutonic Order's cession of its rights over the western half of its territories to the Polish crown, which became the province of [[Royal Prussia]] and the remaining part of the Order's land became a [[fief]] of [[Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)|Poland]]. ===16th century and aftermath=== During the [[Protestant Reformation]], endemic religious upheavals and wars occurred across the region. In 1525, during the aftermath of the [[Polish-Teutonic War (1519–1521)]], [[Sigismund I the Old]], King of Poland, and his nephew, the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, [[Albert, Duke of Prussia|Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach]], a member of a cadet branch of the [[House of Hohenzollern]], agreed that the latter would resign his position, adopt the [[Lutheranism|Lutheran faith]] and assume the title of [[Duke of Prussia]]. Thereafter referred to as ''[[Ducal Prussia]]'' ({{lang-de|Herzogliches Preußen, Preußen Herzoglichen Anteils}}; {{lang-pl|Prusy Książęce}}), remaining a Polish fief. Thus in a deal partially brokered by [[Martin Luther]], [[Roman Catholic]] Teutonic Prussia was transformed into the [[Duchy of Prussia]], the first Protestant state. Sigismund's consent was bound to Albert's submission to Poland, which became known as the [[Prussian Homage]]. On 10 December 1525 at their session in Königsberg the [[Prussian estates]] established the [[Lutheran]] Church in Ducal Prussia by deciding the [[Church Order (Lutheran)|Church Order]]. The [[Habsburg]]-led [[Holy Roman Empire]] continued to hold its claim to Prussia and furnished grand masters of the Teutonic Order, who were merely titular administrators of Prussia, but managed to retain many of the Teutonic holdings elsewhere outside of Prussia. [[Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg]], who had converted to Lutheranism in 1539, was after the co-enfeoffment of his line of the Hohenzollern with the Prussian dukedom. So he tried for gaining his brother-in-law [[Sigismund II Augustus]] of Poland and finally succeeded, including the then usual expenses. On 19 July 1569, when [[Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia|Albert Frederick]] rendered King Sigismund II [[homage (feudal)|homage]] and was in return enfeoffed as Duke of Prussia in [[Lublin]], the King simultaneously enfeoffed Joachim II and his descendants as co-heirs. In 1618, the Prussian Hohenzollern were extinct in the male line, and so the Polish fief of Prussia was passed on to the senior Brandenburg Hohenzollern line, the ruling [[margrave]]s and [[prince-elector]]s of [[Margraviate of Brandenburg|Brandenburg]], who thereafter ruled Brandenburg (a fief of the [[Holy Roman Empire]]), and Ducal Prussia (a Polish fief), in [[personal union]]. This legal contradiction made a cross-border [[real union]] impossible; however, in practice, Brandenburg and Ducal Prussia were more and more ruled as one, and colloquially referred to as ''[[Brandenburg-Prussia]]'' which functioned as a [[personal union]]. [[Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg|Frederick William, Duke of Prussia and Prince-elector of Brandenburg]], sought to acquire [[Royal Prussia]] in order to territorially connect his two existing fiefs. An opportunity occurred when [[Charles X Gustav of Sweden]], in his attempt to conquer Poland (cf. [[Deluge (history)|Swedish Deluge]]), promised to cede to Frederick William the Polish Prussian [[voivodeship]]s of [[Chełmno Voivodeship|Chełmno]], [[Malbork Voivodeship|Malbork]], and [[Pomeranian Voivodeship (1466–1772)|Pomerania]] as well as the [[Prince-Bishopric of Ermeland]], if Frederick William supported the Swedish campaign. This offer was speculative, since Frederick William would have to commit to military support of the campaign, while the reward was conditional on achieving victory. [[John II Casimir of Poland]] forestalled the Swedish-Prussian alliance by submitting a counter-offer, which Frederick William accepted. On July 29, 1657 they signed the [[Treaty of Wehlau]] in [[Znamensk|Wehlau]] ({{lang-pl|Welawa; today Znamensk}}). In return for Frederick William's renunciation of the Swedish-Prussian alliance, John Casimir recognised Frederick William's full sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia ({{lang-de|Herzogtum Preußen}}). Thus after almost 200 years of Polish suzerainty, Prussia regained full sovereignty in 1657, a necessary prerequisite for elevating [[Ducal Prussia]] to become the sovereign [[Kingdom of Prussia]] in 1701 (not to be confused with Polish [[Royal Prussia]]). The nature of the ''de facto'' collectively ruled governance of [[Brandenburg-Prussia]] became more apparent through the titles of the higher ranks of the Prussian government, seated in [[Margraviate of Brandenburg|Brandenburg]]'s capital of [[Berlin]] after the return of the court from Königsberg, where they had hibernated the [[Thirty Years' War]] (1618–1648). However, the legal amalgamation of the Kingdom of Prussia (a sovereign state) with Brandenburg (a fief of the [[Holy Roman Empire]]) was only achieved after the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. ==See also== {{commons category|Ordensstaat}} *[[Crusader states]] *[[Drang nach Osten]] *[[Ostsiedlung]] *[[Prussia]] *[[War of the Priests]] == External links == * [http://www.ordensland.de/ Ordensland.de]: cities, castles and landscapes of the Teutonic Knights {{de icon}} {{pomeranian history|adm}} {{Fiefs of the Polish Kingdom}} {{Crusader States}} {{coord missing}} {{DEFAULTSORT:State Of The Teutonic Order}}