Monaco

Monaco

Overview
Monaco , officially the Principality of Monaco , is a sovereign city state on the French Riviera
French Riviera
The Côte d'Azur, pronounced , often known in English as the French Riviera , is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, also including the sovereign state of Monaco...

. It is bordered on three sides by its neighbour, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, and its centre is about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. Its area is 1.98 km² (0.764482274013219 sq mi) with a population of 35,986 as of 2011 and is the most densely populated country in the world. Monaco boasts the world's highest GDP nominal per capita at $151,630.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Monaco'
Start a new discussion about 'Monaco'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Monaco , officially the Principality of Monaco , is a sovereign city state on the French Riviera
French Riviera
The Côte d'Azur, pronounced , often known in English as the French Riviera , is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, also including the sovereign state of Monaco...

. It is bordered on three sides by its neighbour, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, and its centre is about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. Its area is 1.98 km² (0.764482274013219 sq mi) with a population of 35,986 as of 2011 and is the most densely populated country in the world. Monaco boasts the world's highest GDP nominal per capita at $151,630. Monaco also has the world's highest life expectancy at almost 90 years (CIA estimate, 2011), and the lowest unemployment rate at 0%, with about 40,000 workers who commute from France and Italy each day. After a recent expansion of Port Hercule, Monaco's total area is 2.05 km² (0.791509425114697 sq mi), with new plans to extend the district of Fontvieille
Fontvieille, Monaco
Fontvieille is the newest of the four traditional quarters in the principality of Monaco, and one of ten Wards for modern administrative purposes. It is located in the western part of Monaco...

, with land reclaimed from the Mediterranean Sea.

Monaco is a principality
Principality
A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or princess, or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince....

 governed under a form of constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

, with Prince Albert II
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the ruler of the Principality of Monaco. He is the son of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and the American actress Grace Kelly...

 as head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

. The House of Grimaldi
House of Grimaldi
The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa and of the Principality of Monaco.-History:The Grimaldi family descends from Grimaldo, a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades. He might have been a son of Otto Canella, a consul of the Republic of Genoa in...

 has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. The state's sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861
Franco-Monegasque Treaty
The Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861 granted sovereignty to Monaco. Previously, under the Treaty of Vienna it had been a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia....

. Despite Monaco being independent and pursuing its own foreign policy course, its national defence is the responsibility of France.

Citizens of Monaco are called Monacans, while Monegasque is the proper term for describing someone who was born in Monaco.

Overview


Monaco is the second smallest country (by size) in the world; only the Vatican City
Vatican City
Vatican City , or Vatican City State, in Italian officially Stato della Città del Vaticano , which translates literally as State of the City of the Vatican, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. It has an area of...

 is smaller. Monaco is also the world's second smallest monarchy, and is the most densely populated country in the world. The state consists of only one municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 (commune). There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government (state-level) and of the municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 (city-level) are different. According to the constitution of 1911, the principality
Principality
A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or princess, or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince....

 was subdivided into three municipalities:
  • Monaco (Monaco-Ville
    Monaco-Ville
    Monaco-Ville is one of Monaco's administrative divisions located on a rocky headland that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the four traditional quarters of Monaco, the others being La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille. However, in modern administrative terms it is one of ten...

    ), the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean, known as the Rock of Monaco
    Rock of Monaco
    The Rock of Monaco is a 141 meter tall monolith on the Mediterranean coast of the Principality of Monaco.-History:The Rock has been a coveted possession from the beginning of the ancient Massilian colony of Monoïkos , named for the Ligurian tribes who occupied the area and vied for control of it;...

    , or simply Le Rocher (the Rock), where the palace is located;
  • Monte Carlo
    Monte Carlo
    Monte Carlo is an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco....

    , the principal residential and resort area with the Monte Carlo Casino
    Monte Carlo Casino
    The Monte Carlo Casino is a gambling and entertainment complex located in Monte Carlo, Monaco. It includes a casino, the Grand Théâtre de Monte Carlo, and the office of Les Ballets de Monte Carlo....

     in the east and northeast;
  • La Condamine
    La Condamine
    La Condamine is the second oldest district in Monaco, after Monaco-Ville. It is known for its distinctive wide harbor and moored expensive yachts.- Location in Monaco :By broad definition, it is one of the four traditional quartiers...

    , the southwestern section including the port area, Port Hercule.


The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer," and they were accorded the status of wards (quartiers) thereafter.
  • Fontvieille
    Fontvieille, Monaco
    Fontvieille is the newest of the four traditional quarters in the principality of Monaco, and one of ten Wards for modern administrative purposes. It is located in the western part of Monaco...

     was added as fourth ward, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea (in the 1970s) also a new district inside of Fontvieille is planned;
  • Moneghetti
    Moneghetti
    Moneghetti is one of 5 of the principality of Monaco, and is one of 10 administrative Ward in the traditional quartier of La Condamine. It is considered to be more of a quit residential neighborhood rather than La Condamine, but it .-Demographics:...

     became the fifth ward, created from a part of La Condamine;
  • Larvotto
    Larvotto
    Larvotto is a south eastern residential area, and is part of the traditional quartier of Monte Carlo in the principality of Monaco. It is also one of the 10 modern administrative Wards of Monaco.-Demographics:...

     became the sixth ward, created from a part of Monte Carlo;
  • La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from a part of Monte Carlo.


Subsequently, three additional wards were created:
  • Saint Michel
    Saint Michel, Monaco
    Saint Michel is a Northern central residential area and is part of the traditional quartier Monte Carlo in the principality of Monaco. It is also one of the 10 modern of Monaco.-Demographics:...

    , from a part of Monte Carlo;
  • La Colle
    La Colle, Monaco
    La Colle is a north western residential area, and is part of the traditional quartier of Moneghetti in the principality of Monaco. It is also one of the 10 modern administrative Wards of Monaco.-Demographics:...

    , from a part of La Condamine;
  • Les Révoires
    Les Révoires
    Les Révoires is a district of the Principality of Monaco, it is one of Monaco's 10 administrative wards, and part of the quartier of La Condamine...

    , from a part of La Condamine.


An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation, to be settled beginning in 2014; however, Prince Albert II announced in his 2009 New Year Speech that he had ended plans due to the current economic climate. However a new expansion of Fontvieille is expected to be complete by 2015.

Traditional quarters and modern geographic areas


The traditional four quarters of Monaco are: Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville is one of Monaco's administrative divisions located on a rocky headland that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the four traditional quarters of Monaco, the others being La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille. However, in modern administrative terms it is one of ten...

, La Condamine
La Condamine
La Condamine is the second oldest district in Monaco, after Monaco-Ville. It is known for its distinctive wide harbor and moored expensive yachts.- Location in Monaco :By broad definition, it is one of the four traditional quartiers...

, Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo is an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco....

 and Fontvieille
Fontvieille, Monaco
Fontvieille is the newest of the four traditional quarters in the principality of Monaco, and one of ten Wards for modern administrative purposes. It is located in the western part of Monaco...

. These quarters and Moneghetti
Moneghetti
Moneghetti is one of 5 of the principality of Monaco, and is one of 10 administrative Ward in the traditional quartier of La Condamine. It is considered to be more of a quit residential neighborhood rather than La Condamine, but it .-Demographics:...

 are the five "modern geographic areas", defined by the Monaco Department of Tourism which is situated in Monaco-Ville.

Wards


Currently the principality is subdivided into ten wards (with their official numbers; Le Portier, the proposed ward, was anticipated as number 11):
No. Ward  Area
(km²)
Population
(Census
of 2008)
Density
km2
City
City block
A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, they form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric...


Blocks
City block
A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, they form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric...


(îlots)
Remarks
Former municipality of Monaco
Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville is one of Monaco's administrative divisions located on a rocky headland that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the four traditional quarters of Monaco, the others being La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille. However, in modern administrative terms it is one of ten...

05 Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville is one of Monaco's administrative divisions located on a rocky headland that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the four traditional quarters of Monaco, the others being La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille. However, in modern administrative terms it is one of ten...

 
0.19 1,034 5597 19 Old City with palace
Former municipality of Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo is an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco....

01 Monte Carlo/Spélugues
Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo is an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco....

 (Bd. Des Moulins-Av. de la Madone)
0.30 3,834 10779 20 the casino and resort area
02 La Rousse/Saint Roman (Annonciade-Château Périgord) 0.13 3,223 30633 15 in the northeast, incl. Le Ténao
03 Larvotto/Bas Moulins
Larvotto
Larvotto is a south eastern residential area, and is part of the traditional quartier of Monte Carlo in the principality of Monaco. It is also one of the 10 modern administrative Wards of Monaco.-Demographics:...

 (Larvotto-Bd Psse Grace)
0.34 5,443 16570 15 eastern beach area
10 Saint Michel
Saint Michel, Monaco
Saint Michel is a Northern central residential area and is part of the traditional quartier Monte Carlo in the principality of Monaco. It is also one of the 10 modern of Monaco.-Demographics:...

 (Psse Charlotte-Park Palace)
0.14 3,907 26768 24 central residential area
Former municipality of La Condamine
La Condamine
La Condamine is the second oldest district in Monaco, after Monaco-Ville. It is known for its distinctive wide harbor and moored expensive yachts.- Location in Monaco :By broad definition, it is one of the four traditional quartiers...

04 La Condamine
La Condamine
La Condamine is the second oldest district in Monaco, after Monaco-Ville. It is known for its distinctive wide harbor and moored expensive yachts.- Location in Monaco :By broad definition, it is one of the four traditional quartiers...

 
0.27 3,947 16213 27 port area in the northwest
07 La Colle
La Colle, Monaco
La Colle is a north western residential area, and is part of the traditional quartier of Moneghetti in the principality of Monaco. It is also one of the 10 modern administrative Wards of Monaco.-Demographics:...

 (Plati-Pasteur-Bd Charles III)
0.11 2,829 15005 15 on the western border with Cap d'Ail
Cap-d'Ail
Cap-d'Ail , Italian: Capodaglio, is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.It borders the district of La Colle in the Principality of Monaco....

08 Les Révoires
Les Révoires
Les Révoires is a district of the Principality of Monaco, it is one of Monaco's 10 administrative wards, and part of the quartier of La Condamine...

 (Hector Otto-Honoré Labande)
0.08 2,545 33203 11 containing the Jardin Exotique de Monaco
Jardin Exotique de Monaco
The Jardin Exotique de Monaco is a botanical garden located on a cliffside in Monaco.-History and features:...

09 Moneghetti/ Bd de Belgique
Moneghetti
Moneghetti is one of 5 of the principality of Monaco, and is one of 10 administrative Ward in the traditional quartier of La Condamine. It is considered to be more of a quit residential neighborhood rather than La Condamine, but it .-Demographics:...

 (Bd Rainier III-Bd de Belgique)
0.10 3,003 28051 18  
New land reclaimed from the sea
Land reclamation
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, is the process to create new land from sea or riverbeds. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or landfill.- Habitation :...

06 Fontvieille
Fontvieille, Monaco
Fontvieille is the newest of the four traditional quarters in the principality of Monaco, and one of ten Wards for modern administrative purposes. It is located in the western part of Monaco...

 
0.35 3,901 10156 9 started 1971
11 Le Portier  0.12(1) - - plans put on hold by Prince Albert II in 2009
  Monaco 2.05 35,352 16217 173  
(1) Area not included in total, as it is only proposed


Note: for statistical purposes, the wards of Monaco are further subdivided into 173 city block
City block
A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city, they form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric...

s (îlots), which are comparable to the census block
Census block
A census block is the smallest geographic unit used by the United States Census Bureau for tabulation of 100-percent data . Several blocks make up block groups, which again make up census tracts. There are on average about 39 blocks per block group, but there are variations...

s in the United States
.

History



Monaco's name comes from the 6th century BC nearby Phocaea
Phocaea
Phocaea, or Phokaia, was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. Greek colonists from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia in 600 BC, Emporion in 575 BC and Elea in 540 BC.-Geography:Phocaea was the northernmost...

n Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 colony. Referred to the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" (monos) "alone, single" + "οἶκος" (oikos) "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules
Hercules
Hercules is the Roman name for Greek demigod Heracles, son of Zeus , and the mortal Alcmene...

 passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos. Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos.

Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI
Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VI was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197.-Early years:Born in Nijmegen,...

 in 1191, Monaco was re-founded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
The Most Serene Republic of Genoa |Ligurian]]: Repúbrica de Zêna) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, as well as Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean....

. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi
House of Grimaldi
The House of Grimaldi is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa and of the Principality of Monaco.-History:The Grimaldi family descends from Grimaldo, a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades. He might have been a son of Otto Canella, a consul of the Republic of Genoa in...

 in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi
François Grimaldi
Francesco Grimaldi called il Malizia , was the Genoese leader of the Guelphs who captured the Rock of Monaco on the night of 8 January 1297...

 ("Il Malizia", translated from Italian either as "The Malicious One" or "The Cunning One") and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco
Rock of Monaco
The Rock of Monaco is a 141 meter tall monolith on the Mediterranean coast of the Principality of Monaco.-History:The Rock has been a coveted possession from the beginning of the ancient Massilian colony of Monoïkos , named for the Ligurian tribes who occupied the area and vied for control of it;...

 while he was dressed as a Franciscan
Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

 monk
Monk
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, while always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose...

 – a Monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name. Francesco, however, was chased off only a few years afterwards by the Genovese forces, and the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century.

In 1419, the Grimaldis purchased Monaco from the crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco", and it was in 1612 Honore II began to style himself "Prince" of Monaco. In the 1630s, Honore II sought French protection against the Spanish forces and was eventually, in 1642, received in the court of Louis XIII as "Duc et Pair Etranger". The princes of Monaco thus became a vassal of the French kings while at the same time remained a sovereign prince. As the successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in Paris, and through marriages with French nobilities, the House of Grimaldi, Italian in origin, became thoroughly French in character. The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the Great Revolution.

In 1793, French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

ary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until 1814 when the Bourbons returned to the throne. The principality was re-established that year, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia consisted of the island of Sardinia first as a part of the Crown of Aragon and subsequently the Spanish Empire , and second as a part of the composite state of the House of Savoy . Its capital was originally Cagliari, in the south of the island, and later Turin, on the...

 by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September, 1814 to June, 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars,...

 in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860 when, by the Treaty of Turin
Treaty of Turin
The Treaty of Turin concluded on March 24, 1860 is the instrument by which the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice were annexed to France.-Background:...

, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality and the surrounding county of Nice
Nice
Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse, with a population of 348,721 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of more than 955,000 on an area of...

 (as well as Savoy
Savoy
Savoy is a region of France. It comprises roughly the territory of the Western Alps situated between Lake Geneva in the north and Monaco and the Mediterranean coast in the south....

) was ceded to France. Monaco became a French protectorate once again. Prior to this time there was unrest in Menton
Menton
Menton is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.Situated on the French Riviera, along the Franco-Italian border, it is nicknamed la perle de la France ....

 and Roquebrune
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France between Monaco and Menton. The name was changed from Roquebrune to differentiate the town from Roquebrune-sur-Argens in the neighboring Var Department.-History:In pre-Roman times the area was settled by the...

 where the townspeople had been weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldis, and declared independence hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France protested. The unrest continued until Charles III gave up his claim to the two mainland towns (some 95% of the principality) that the Grimaldis ruled for over 500 years. They were ceded to France in return for 4,100,000 francs. The transfer and Monaco's sovereignty was recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861
Franco-Monegasque Treaty
The Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861 granted sovereignty to Monaco. Previously, under the Treaty of Vienna it had been a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia....

. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents; indulgence the Grimaldis could afford to entertain thanks solely to extraordinary success of the casino. This made Monaco not only the playground for the rich, but the place to live.

20th century


Until the Monegasque Revolution
Monegasque Revolution
The Monegasque Revolution of 1910 was a series of confrontations by the subjects of Monaco against their ruler, Prince Albert I. It led to the end of absolute monarchy with the promulgation of the Constitution of Monaco the following year....

 of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers
Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government, his or her power not being limited by a constitution or by the law. An absolute monarch thus wields unrestricted political power over the...

. The long over-due constitution, however, barely reduced the autocratic rule by the Grimaldis and Albert I soon suspended it. In July 1918, the Franco-Monegasque Treaty
Franco-Monegasque Treaty
The Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861 granted sovereignty to Monaco. Previously, under the Treaty of Vienna it had been a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia....

 was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, endorsed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco Succession Crisis
Monaco Succession Crisis of 1918
The Monaco Succession Crisis of 1918 arose because France objected to the prospect of a German national inheriting the throne of Monaco, a nation which neighboured France on its Mediterranean coast. Albert I, Sovereign Prince of Monaco had only one legitimate child, the Hereditary Prince Louis,...

.

In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a Fascist administration. Shortly thereafter, following Mussolini's collapse in Italy, the Nazi
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

 occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population. René Blum (Paris, 13 March 1878 – Auschwitz
Auschwitz concentration camp
Concentration camp Auschwitz was a network of Nazi concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II...

, 30 April 1943), the prominent French Jew who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 home and held in the Drancy
Drancy internment camp
The Drancy internment camp of Paris, France, was used to hold Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps. 65,000 Jews were deported from Drancy, of whom 63,000 were murdered including 6,000 children...

 deportation camp outside Paris, whence he was then transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz concentration camp
Concentration camp Auschwitz was a network of Nazi concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II...

, where he was killed. Blum's colleague Raoul Gunsbourg
Raoul Gunsbourg
Raoul Samuel Gunsbourg was a Jewish-Romania-born opera director, impresario, composer and writer...

, the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo
Opéra de Monte-Carlo
The Opéra de Monte-Carlo is an opera house located in the principality of Monaco.With the lack of cultural diversions available in Monaco in the 1870s, Prince Charles III, along with the Société des Bains de Mer, decided on the construction of an opera house. Initially, it was Charles III's...

, was helped by the French Resistance
French Resistance
The French Resistance is the name used to denote the collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during World War II...

 to escape arrest and flee to Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

.

Rainier III
Rainier III, Prince of Monaco
Rainier III, Prince of Monaco , styled His Serene Highness The Sovereign Prince of Monaco, ruled the Principality of Monaco for almost 56 years, making him one of the longest ruling monarchs of the 20th century.Though he was best known outside of Europe for having married American...

, who ruled until 2005, acceded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II
Louis II, Prince of Monaco
Louis II was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 27 June 1922 until 9 May 1949.-Early years:Born Louis Honoré Charles Antoine Grimaldi in Baden-Baden, Germany, he was the only child of Prince Albert I of Monaco , and Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton...

, in 1949. On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
Grace Patricia Kelly was an American actress who, in April 1956, married Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, to become Princess consort of Monaco, styled as Her Serene Highness The Princess of Monaco, and commonly referred to as Princess Grace.After embarking on an acting career in 1950, at the age of...

; the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny principality.

A 1962 amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage
Women's suffrage
Women's suffrage or woman suffrage is the right of women to vote and to run for office. The expression is also used for the economic and political reform movement aimed at extending these rights to women and without any restrictions or qualifications such as property ownership, payment of tax, or...

, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco
Supreme Court of Monaco
The Monegasque Supreme Court is one of the highest courts of law in the city-state of Monaco for judicial appeals as well as ensuring the constitution of Monaco is upheld. It consists of five chief members and two assistant judges, appointed by the Prince of Monaco at the recommendation of the...

 to guarantee fundamental liberties. In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the UN, with full voting rights. In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.

On 31 March 2005, Prince Rainier III, too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Prince Albert Alexandre Louis. Prince Rainier died on 6 April 2005, after a reign of 56 years, and his son, by Princess Grace, succeeded him as Albert II
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco is the head of the House of Grimaldi and the ruler of the Principality of Monaco. He is the son of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, and the American actress Grace Kelly...

, Sovereign Prince of Monaco.
Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005, in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass
Mass (liturgy)
"Mass" is one of the names by which the sacrament of the Eucharist is called in the Roman Catholic Church: others are "Eucharist", the "Lord's Supper", the "Breaking of Bread", the "Eucharistic assembly ", the "memorial of the Lord's Passion and Resurrection", the "Holy Sacrifice", the "Holy and...

 at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monegasque throne was a two-step event, with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate levée, held on 19 November 2005 at the historic Prince's Palace
Prince's Palace of Monaco
The Prince's Palace of Monaco is the official residence of the Prince of Monaco. Built in 1191 as a Genoese fortress, during its long and often dramatic history it has been bombarded and besieged by many foreign powers. Since the end of the 13th century, it has been the stronghold and home of the...

 in Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville is one of Monaco's administrative divisions located on a rocky headland that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the four traditional quarters of Monaco, the others being La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille. However, in modern administrative terms it is one of ten...

.

Law and government



Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

 since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco
Prince of Monaco
The Reigning Prince or Princess of Monaco is the sovereign monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. All Princes or Princesses thus far have taken the name of the House of Grimaldi, but have belonged to various other houses in male line...

 as monarch. The executive branch
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 consists of a Minister of State
Minister of State (Monaco)
The Minister of State is the head of the government of Monaco, though he is appointed by and subordinate to the Prince or Princess of Monaco. During his term, he is responsible for leading the government's action and is in charge of foreign relations...

 (the head of government
Head of government
Head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. In a parliamentary system, the head of government is often styled prime minister, chief minister, premier, etc...

), who presides over a five-member Council of Government. Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque. However, Prince Albert II appointed, on 3 March 2010, the Frenchman Michel Roger
Michel Roger
Michel Roger is the current Minister of State of Monaco.He had been a member of the High Court of Monaco since 2007.He assumed office on the 29th March 2010, following his appointment by Prince Albert II....

 as Minister of State.

Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his power with the unicameral
Unicameralism
In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house...

 National Council
National Council of Monaco
The National Council is the parliament of the Principality of Monaco. Its 24 members are elected from lists by universal suffrage for five-year terms, and though it may act independently of the Prince, he may dissolve it at any time, provided that new elections be held within three months.The...

 (parliament). The twenty-four members of this legislative
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 body are elected from lists by universal suffrage
Universal suffrage
Universal suffrage consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens as a whole, though it may also mean extending said right to minors and non-citizens...

 for five-year terms. The principality's local affairs are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of fifteen elected members and is presided over by the mayor.

Economy



One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism. Each year many are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate. Monaco's own citizens are not allowed to gamble in the casino. In 2001, a major new construction project extended the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbour. The principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries, such as cosmetics and biothermics.

The state retains monopolies
Monopoly
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity...

 in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network (Monaco Telecom) used to be fully owned by the state; it now owns only 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by both Cable & Wireless Communications
Cable & Wireless Communications
Cable & Wireless plc demerged in 2010 into Cable & Wireless Communications and Cable & Wireless Worldwide. For the other former C&W plc business, see Cable & Wireless Worldwide...

 (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque
Compagnie Monégasque de Banque
Compagnie Monegasque de Banque is a private bank of the Principality of Monaco.-Background:Compagnie Monegasque de Banque was founded in 1976 by the Banca Commerciale Italiana and other international partners. Since 1996 when it took over the COMIT branches in Monaco, the bank has increasingly...

 (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

Monaco is not a member of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France, and as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro. Before 2002, Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc
Monegasque franc
The franc was the official currency of the Principality of Monaco until 2002 , when it changed to the euro. The franc was subdivided into 100 centimes or 10 decimes. The Monégasque franc circulated alongside the French franc with the same value...

. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins
Euro coins
There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros . The coins first came into use in 2002. They have a common reverse, portraying a map of Europe, but each country in the eurozone has its own design on the obverse, which means that each coin has a variety of different...

 with Monegasque designs on its national side.

Gambling industry


The plan for casino gambling was mooted during the reign of Florestan I
Florestan I, Prince of Monaco
Florestan I, Prince of Monaco was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 2 October 1841 until his death...

 in 1846. Under Louis-Philippe's petite-bourgeois regime, however, a dignitary such as Prince of Monaco was not allowed to operate a gambling house. All this changed in the dissolute Second Empire under Napoleon III. The House of Grimaldi was in dire need to generate cash. Menton and Roquebrune, which had been main source of income for the Grimaldis for centuries, now accustomed to much improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to Sardinian intervention, clamoured for financial and political concession, even for separation. The Grimaldis hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the difficulties they faced, above all the crushing debt the family had incurred, but Monaco's first casino would not be ready to operate until after Charles III
Charles III, Prince of Monaco
Charles III was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 20 June 1856 to his death. He was the founder of the famous casino in Monte Carlo, as his title in Monegasque and Italian was Carlo III.-Birth:...

 assumed the throne in 1856.

The grantee of the princely concession (license) was unable to attract enough business to sustain the operation and, after relocating the casino several times, sold the concession to French casino magnates François
François Blanc
François Blanc , nicknamed "The Magician of Homburg" and "The Magician of Monte Carlo", was a French entrepreneur and operator of casinos, including the Monte Carlo Casino in Monaco.-References:*...

 and Louis Blanc for 1.7 million francs. The Blancs had already set up a highly successful casino(in fact the biggest in Europe)in Bad-Homburg in the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Homburg, a small German principality comparable to Monaco, and quickly petitioned Charles III to rename a depressed seaside area known as "Les Spelegures (Den of Thieves)". "Monte Carlo (Mount Charles)." They then constructed their casino in the newly dubbed "Monte Carlo" and cleared out the area's less-than-savory elements to make the neighborhood surrounding the establishment more conducive to tourism.

The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in 1858, and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created. Due to the combination of the casino and the railroads, Monaco finally recovered from the previous half century of economic slump, and the principality's success attracted other businesses. In the years following the casino's opening Monaco founded its Oceanographic Museum
Oceanographic Museum
The Oceanographic Museum is a museum of marine sciences in Monaco-Ville, Monaco.- History :The Oceanographic Museum was inaugurated in 1910 by Monaco's modernist reformer, Prince Albert I. This monumental architectural work of art has an impressive façade above the sea, towering over the sheer...

 and the Monte Carlo Opera House, 46 hotels sprang up and the number of jewellers operating in Monaco increased by nearly 500 percent. By 1869, the casino was making such a vast sum of money that the principality could afford not to collect tax from the Monegasques; a master stroke that was to attract affluent residents from all over Europe.

Today, Société des bains de mer de Monaco
Société des bains de mer de Monaco
The Société des Bains de Mer is a company composed mainly of high-end hotels and entertainment in the principality. Notable establishments managed by the company include the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, the Monte Carlo Casino and the Hotel de Paris in Monte-Carlo....

 which owns Le Grand Casino still operates in the original building the Blancs constructed and has been joined by several other casinos, including Le Casino Café de Paris, the Monte Carlo Bay Casino, the Monte Carlo Sporting Club & Casino (Summer Casino) and the Sun Casino. The most recent addition to the list—the first casino to open in Monte Carlo in 75 years—is the Monte Carlo Bay Casino, which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Garden and, among other things, offers 145 slot machines, all equipped with "Ticket-In, Ticket-Out
Ticket-In, Ticket-Out
Ticket-in, ticket-out is a technology used in more modern slot machines. Originally developed by International Game Technology and Casino Data Systems under the name EZ Pay, a TITO slot machine prints out a barcoded slip of paper, which can then either be redeemed for cash, or inserted for play...

" (TITO); it is the first Mediterranean casino to utilize this technology.

Tax haven


Monaco levies no income tax
Income tax
An income tax is a tax levied on the income of individuals or businesses . Various income tax systems exist, with varying degrees of tax incidence. Income taxation can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. When the tax is levied on the income of companies, it is often called a corporate...

 on individual
Individual
An individual is a person or any specific object or thing in a collection. Individuality is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs, goals, and desires. Being self expressive...

s. The absence of a personal income tax in the principality has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities
Celebrity
A celebrity, also referred to as a celeb in popular culture, is a person who has a prominent profile and commands a great degree of public fascination and influence in day-to-day media...

 such as Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are less well-known business people.. This applies to all residents of Monaco of any nationality except French citizens whose residency started after 1957. These French citizens still must pay French income tax.

In 1998, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an international economic organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade...

 (OECD) issued a first report on the consequences of the tax haven
Tax haven
A tax haven is a state or a country or territory where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all while offering due process, good governance and a low corruption rate....

s' financial systems. Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation and denounced it in its last report, as well as Andorra
Andorra
Andorra , officially the Principality of Andorra , also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, , is a small landlocked country in southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. It is the sixth smallest nation in Europe having an area of...

, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
The Principality of Liechtenstein is a doubly landlocked alpine country in Central Europe, bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and by Austria to the east. Its area is just over , and it has an estimated population of 35,000. Its capital is Vaduz. The biggest town is Schaan...

, Liberia
Liberia
Liberia , officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Sierra Leone on the west, Guinea on the north and Côte d'Ivoire on the east. Liberia's coastline is composed of mostly mangrove forests while the more sparsely populated inland consists of forests that open...

 and the Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
The Republic of the Marshall Islands , , is a Micronesian nation of atolls and islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, just west of the International Date Line and just north of the Equator. As of July 2011 the population was 67,182...

, underlining its lack of co-operation as regards financial information disclosure and availability.

In 2000, a report by the French parliamentarians, Arnaud Montebourg
Arnaud Montebourg
Arnaud Montebourg is a French politician, and a deputy of the fifth district of Saône-et-Loire to the French National Assembly for the Socialist Party. He has also been elected president of the local assembly of Saône et Loire after local elections in 2008...

 and Vincent Peillon
Vincent Peillon
Vincent Benoît Camille Peillon is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the north-west of France...

, alleged that Monaco had lax policies with respect to money laundering, including within its famed casino, and that the government of Monaco had been placing political pressure on the judiciary, so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated.

In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering
The Financial Action Task Force , also known by its French name, Groupe d'action financière , is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1989 on the initiative of the G7. The purpose of the FATF is to develop policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing...

 (FATF) stated: "The anti-money laundering system in Monaco is comprehensive. However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters. In addition, the FIU of Monaco (SICCFIN) suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The authorities of Monaco have stated that they will provide additional resources to SICCFIN." The Principality is no longer blamed in the 2005 FATF report, as well as all other territories. However, since 2003, the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund is an organization of 187 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world...

 (IMF) has identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven
Tax haven
A tax haven is a state or a country or territory where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all while offering due process, good governance and a low corruption rate....

.

The Council of Europe
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation...

 also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco is the only territory that refuses to perform the second round, initially forecast between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories are implementing the third and last round, planned between 2005 and 2007.

However, Monaco has high social insurance taxes payable by both employer and employee. The employer's contribution is between 28%–40% (averaging 35%) of gross salary including benefits and the employee pays a further 10%–14% (averaging 13%).

Numismatics




In Monaco, the euro was introduced in 2002. The euro was preceded by the Monegasque franc
Monegasque franc
The franc was the official currency of the Principality of Monaco until 2002 , when it changed to the euro. The franc was subdivided into 100 centimes or 10 decimes. The Monégasque franc circulated alongside the French franc with the same value...

. In preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco have the year 2001 on them, instead of 2002, like other countries of the Eurozone
Eurozone
The eurozone , officially called the euro area, is an economic and monetary union of seventeen European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their common currency and sole legal tender...

. Three different designs were selected for the Monegasque coins. In 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert.

Monaco also has a rich and valuable collection of collectors' coins, with face value ranging from €5 to €100. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone. For instance, a Monegasque commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country. The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised with all eurozone countries. Commemorative coins are legal tender only in their country of issue, unlike normal circulation coins, which are accepted in all euro-zone countries.

Geography


With a total area of 2.05 square kilometre (0.791509425114697 sq mi), a land border of 5.469 kilometres (3.4 mi) and a coast measuring 3.829 kilometres (2.4 mi) the Principality
Principality
A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or princess, or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince....

 of Monaco is the second-smallest independent state in the world, after the Vatican City
Vatican City
Vatican City , or Vatican City State, in Italian officially Stato della Città del Vaticano , which translates literally as State of the City of the Vatican, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. It has an area of...

. It lies on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

, 18 kilometres (11 mi) east of Nice
Nice
Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse, with a population of 348,721 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of more than 955,000 on an area of...

, and is surrounded on three sides by France and on the fourth by the sea into which its maritime claims extend to 22.2 kilometres (13.8 mi). Its highest point is 163 metres (535 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

, on the southern slopes of Mont Agel
Mont Agel
Mont Agel is a mountain located on the border between France and Monaco. The culminant point of this mount, at above sea level, is situated on the French side, but the highest point of Monaco, a pathway named Chemin des Révoires, is situated on its slopes, at an altitude of 161 metres...

 whose 1109 m (3,638 ft) peak is in France. The country has no natural resources.

Climate


Monaco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

: Csa), which is influenced by the oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 and the humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

.

As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the dry summer season, the average length of which is also shorter.
Summer afternoons are infrequently hot (indeed, temperatures > 30 °C /86 °F are rare) as the atmosphere is tempered by constant sea breezes. On the other hand, the nights are very mild, this being due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer. Generally, temperatures do not drop below 20 °C in this season. In winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare, generally occurring once or twice every ten years.

Formula One



Since 1955, the Monaco Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix
The Monaco Grand Prix is a Formula One race held each year on the Circuit de Monaco. Run since 1929, it is widely considered to be one of the most important and prestigious automobile races in the world, alongside the Daytona 500, Indianapolis 500, and the 24 Hours of Le Mans...

 has been held annually in the streets of Monaco. It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco
Circuit de Monaco
Circuit de Monaco is a street circuit laid out on the city streets of Monte Carlo and La Condamine around the harbour of the principality of Monaco. It is commonly referred to as "Monte Carlo" because it is largely inside the Monte Carlo neighbourhood of Monaco.The circuit is used on one weekend in...

takes six weeks to complete, and the removal after the race another three weeks. The circuit has many elevation changes and tight corners, along with a tunnel. This together with being incredibly narrow and tight makes it perhaps the most demanding Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 track. Only two drivers have ever crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari
Alberto Ascari
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He is one of only two Italian Formula One World Champions in the history of the sport, and the only one winning his two championships in a Ferrari....

 in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix
1955 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1955 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 22, 1955. It was the second round of the 1955 World Drivers' Championship and was given an honorary name, Grand Prix d'Europe.- Race report :...

, just four days before losing his life at Monza
Monza
Monza is a city and comune on the river Lambro, a tributary of the Po, in the Lombardy region of Italy some 15 km north-northeast of Milan. It is the capital of the Province of Monza and Brianza. It is best known for its Grand Prix motor racing circuit, the Autodromo Nazionale Monza.On June...

. The other was Paul Hawkins, during the 1965 Monaco Grand Prix
1965 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1965 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 30, 1965.- Classification :- Notes :* Pole position: Graham Hill - 1:32.5* Fastest Lap: Graham Hill - 1:31.7 on lap 82...

.

Monte Carlo Rally


The Monte Carlo Rally
Monte Carlo Rally
The Monte Carlo Rally or Rally Monte Carlo is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and...

 has been held since 1911, having originally been held at the behest of Prince Albert I
Albert I, Prince of Monaco
Albert I was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 10 September 1889 until his death.-Early life:...

 and is, like the principality's Grand Prix, organised by the Automobile Club de Monaco. It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying
Rallying
Rallying, also known as rally racing, is a form of auto racing that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars...

 and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World Rally Championship
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer. The driver's world championship and manufacturer's world championship are separate championships, but based on the same point system. The series currently consists of 13...

. From 2009 until 2011, the rally served as the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge
Intercontinental Rally Challenge
The Intercontinental Rally Challenge is a rallying series organised by SRW Ltd and sanctioned by the FIA, aiming to "give new opportunities to young or amateur rally drivers competing in recognised regional and international rallies, while offering organisers an innovative TV format concept,...

, having most recently been run on the 19-22 January 2011 in celebration of the event's centenary.

2012 will mark the return of the Monte Carlo Rally to the WRC calendar with the event taking place from the 20-22 January 2012.

Football


Monaco hosts two major football teams in the principality; men's football club AS Monaco FC
AS Monaco FC
Association Sportive de Monaco Football Club are a French football club based in Fontvieille, Monaco. The club was founded in 1924 and currently play in Ligue 2, the second tier of French football. The team plays its home matches at the Stade Louis II located within Fontvieille...

 and women's football club OS Monaco. AS Monaco plays at the Stade Louis II
Stade Louis II
The Stade Louis II is a stadium located in the Fontvieille district of Monaco. It serves primarily as a venue for football, being the home of AS Monaco and the Monaco national football team, as well as the location of the annual UEFA Super Cup match...

 and competes in the Ligue 2
Ligue 2
Ligue 2 , formerly known as Division 2, is a French professional football league. The league serves as the second division of French football and is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel , the other being Ligue 1, the country's top football division...

, the second division of French football. The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in France, however suffered relegation in the 2010–11 season. Because of the popular appeal of living in Monaco and the lack of income tax, many international stars have played for the club, such as Marcelo Gallardo
Marcelo Gallardo
Marcelo Daniel Gallardo is an Argentine ex footballer who is currently the manager for Nacional de Uruguay....

, Jürgen Klinsmann
Jürgen Klinsmann
Jürgen Klinsmann is a German football manager and former player who is currently the coach of the United States Men's National Team. As a player, Klinsmann played for several prominent clubs in Europe and was part of the West German team that won the 1990 FIFA World Cup and the German one that...

, Oliver Bierhoff
Oliver Bierhoff
Oliver Bierhoff is a retired German former football striker, who scored the first golden goal in the history of major international football, for Germany in the Euro 96 final...

, George Weah
George Weah
George Tawlon Manneh Oppong Ousman Weah is a Liberian humanitarian and politician, and an ex-footballer. He ran unsuccessfully for president in the 2005 election, losing to Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in the second round of voting...

, John Collins, Fernando Morientes
Fernando Morientes
Fernando Morientes Sánchez is a retired Spanish footballer who played as a striker.His main asset was his aerial and strong goalscoring abilities. He played for a number of clubs throughout his career, including Real Madrid, Monaco, Liverpool, and Valencia...

, Thierry Henry
Thierry Henry
Thierry Daniel Henry is a French professional footballer who plays for the New York Red Bulls in Major League Soccer.Henry was born in Les Ulis, Essonne where he played for an array of local sides as a youngster and showed great promise as a goal-scorer. He was spotted by AS Monaco in 1990 and...

, Fabien Barthez
Fabien Barthez
Fabien Alain Barthez is a former French footballer goalkeeper who won honours with Manchester United and the French national team, with whom he won the 1998 FIFA World Cup and Euro 2000 and reached the final of the 2006 World Cup. He shares the record for the most World Cup finals clean sheets...

, Rafael Márquez
Rafael Márquez
Rafael Márquez Álvarez is a Mexican footballer who plays for New York Red Bulls in Major League Soccer and the Mexico national team. He plays as a centre back or defensive midfielder....

, Javier Saviola
Javier Saviola
Javier Pedro Saviola Fernández is an Argentine professional footballer who plays for S.L. Benfica in Portugal, as a striker....

, Akis Zikos
Akis Zikos
Andreas Vassilis "Akis" Zikos is a retired Greek international football player who played as a defensive midfielder...

, David Trezeguet
David Trézéguet
David Sergio Trezeguet is a World Cup winning French international footballer who currently is a free agent after being released by Baniyas SC on 21 Nov 2011....

, John Arne Riise
John Arne Riise
John Arne Semundseth Riise is a Norwegian footballer who currently plays as a left wing-back for Fulham and the Norwegian national team. Riise spent seven years playing for Premier League side Liverpool before moving to Roma in 2008...

, Patrice Evra
Patrice Evra
Patrice Latyr Evra is a French international footballer who currently plays for English club Manchester United in the Premier League and the France national team. Originally an attacker, he primarily plays as a left back and is described as "the classic example of a modern full-back" who is...

, Shabani Nonda
Shabani Nonda
Shabani Christophe Nonda is a DR Congolese international footballer who is currently a free agent. His last club Galatasaray released his contract on 28 January 2010.-Club career:...

, Emmanuel Adebayor
Emmanuel Adebayor
Sheyi Emmanuel Adebayor is a Togolese footballer who plays for Tottenham Hotspur as a striker on loan from Manchester City. He plays in the same position for the Togo national team. Adebayor previously played for Metz, Monaco and Arsenal and was voted African Footballer of the Year for 2008...

, Eiður Guðjohnsen
Eiður Guðjohnsen
Eiður Smári Guðjohnsen is an Icelandic footballer who currently plays for AEK Athens F.C. in the Superleague Greece. He has previously played for Premier League club Chelsea and FC Barcelona of Spain, having made his name with Bolton Wanderers. He was the captain of the Iceland national team until...

, Jan Koller
Jan Koller
Jan Koller is Czech footballer currently playing in AFK Smetanova Lhota.As an international player he played as a striker for the Czech Republic national team. He is the all-time leading goal scorer for either the Czech Republic or the former Czechoslovakia, with 55 goals in 91 caps...

, Victor Ikpeba
Victor Ikpeba
Victor Nosa Ikpeba is a former football forward from Nigeria. He has played thirty international matches and scored three goals for Nigeria, and played at the FIFA World Cups in 1994 and 1998...

, Park Chu-Young
Park Chu-Young
Park Chu-Young is a South Korean footballer who plays for Arsenal in the Premier League and is the current captain for the South Korea national team.-Youth career:...

 and Mahamadou Diarra
Mahamadou Diarra
Mahamadou Diarra is a Malian footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Mali national team. He is captain of the national team.-Early career:Diarra started his career with Greek side OFI Crete...

.

The club reached the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final
2004 UEFA Champions League Final
The 2004 UEFA Champions League Final was a football match played at the Arena AufSchalke in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, on 26 May 2004, to decide the winner of the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League...

, led by the likes of Dado Pršo
Dado Pršo
Miladin "Dado" Pršo is a Croatian former professional footballer who played as a striker.Pršo played for seven different teams and made over 300 league appearances as a professional...

, Fernando Morientes
Fernando Morientes
Fernando Morientes Sánchez is a retired Spanish footballer who played as a striker.His main asset was his aerial and strong goalscoring abilities. He played for a number of clubs throughout his career, including Real Madrid, Monaco, Liverpool, and Valencia...

, Akis Zikos
Akis Zikos
Andreas Vassilis "Akis" Zikos is a retired Greek international football player who played as a defensive midfielder...

, and Ludovic Giuly
Ludovic Giuly
Ludovic Giuly is a French footballer who plays for Monaco as an attacking midfielder and winger. He represented France at international level, gaining 17 caps over a five-year period, and was a member of their 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup winning squad.-Early career:After starting his career with...

, losing 3–0 to Portuguese team F.C. Porto. The Stade Louis II also plays host to the annual UEFA Super Cup, which is played between the winners of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League, known simply the Champions League and originally known as the European Champion Clubs' Cup or European Cup, is an annual international club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations since 1955 for the top football clubs in Europe. It...

 and the UEFA Europa League. The women's team, OS Monaco, competes in the women's French football league system
French football league system
The French football league system is a series of interconnected leagues for club football in France. At the top two levels of the system is the Ligue de Football Professionnel, which consists of two professional national divisions, Ligue 1 and Ligue 2. Below that are a number of leagues run by the...

. The club currently plays in the local regional league deep down in the league system, however once played in the Division 1 Féminine in the 1994–95 season, but were quickly relegated. Current French women's international
France women's national football team
The French women's national football team represents France in international women's football. The team is directed by the French Football Federation and competes as a member of UEFA in various international football tournaments such as the FIFA Women's World Cup, UEFA Women's Euro, the Summer...

 goalkeeper Sarah Bouhaddi
Sarah Bouhaddi
Sarah Bouhaddi is a French football player currently playing for Olympique Lyonnais of the Division 1 Féminine. Bouhaddi plays as a goalkeeper and is a member of the France women's national football team having made her debut in 2004...

 had a short stint at the club before going to the Clairefontaine
Clairefontaine
Le Centre Technique National Fernand Sastre , commonly referred to as INF Clairefontaine , INF, or simply Clairefontaine, is the national association football centre that specializes in training French football players...

 academy.

The Monaco national football team
Monaco national football team
The Monaco national football team represents Monaco in association football and is controlled by the Monegasque Football Federation, the governing body for football in Monaco. The current manager is Thierry Petit....

 represents the nation in association football and is controlled by the Monegasque Football Federation, the governing body for football in Monaco
Football in Monaco
Football in Monaco is one of the leading sports in the small Principality of Monaco, enjoying large popularity alongside motor racing, yachting, and tennis.-International Football:...

. However, Monaco is the only sovereign state in Europe that is not a member of UEFA
UEFA
The Union of European Football Associations , almost always referred to by its acronym UEFA is the administrative and controlling body for European association football, futsal and beach soccer....

, and so does not take part in any UEFA European Football Championship
UEFA European Football Championship
The UEFA European Football Championship is the main football competition of the men's national football teams governed by UEFA . Held every four years since 1960, in the even-numbered year between World Cup tournaments, it was originally called the UEFA European Nations Cup, changing to the current...

 or FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

 competitions. The team play their home matches in the Stade Louis II.

Rugby



Monaco's national rugby team
Monaco national rugby union team
Monaco national rugby union team represents Monaco at rugby union. The team have been playing since the 1990s. They currently compete in Division 3D of the European Nations Cup tournament.-History:...

, as of March 2010, is 90th in the International Rugby Board
International Rugby Board
The International Rugby Board is the governing body for the sport of rugby union. It was founded in 1886 as the International Rugby Football Board by the unions of Scotland, Wales and Ireland. England refused to join until 1890. The International Rugby Football Board changed its name to the...

 rankings.

Other sports


The Monte-Carlo Masters
Monte-Carlo Masters
The Monte-Carlo Masters is an annual tennis tournament for male professional players held in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, a commune that borders on Monaco. The event is part of the ATP Masters Series on the Association of Tennis Professionals Tour. The tournament is played on clay courts...

 is currently held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France between Monaco and Menton. The name was changed from Roquebrune to differentiate the town from Roquebrune-sur-Argens in the neighboring Var Department.-History:In pre-Roman times the area was settled by the...

, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis' ATP Masters Series
ATP World Tour Masters 1000
The ATP World Tour Masters 1000 is a series of nine tennis tournaments that are part of the Association of Tennis Professionals tour, held annually throughout the year in Europe, North America and Asia...

. The tournament has been held since 1897. Golf's Monte Carlo Open
Monte Carlo Open (golf)
The Monte Carlo Open was a European Tour golf tournament which was played annually from 1984 to 1992. It was staged at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel, which is actually in France as there is no space for a golf course in Monaco...

 was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel in France between 1984 and 1992. Monaco has also competed
Monaco at the Olympics
Monaco first participated at the Olympic Games in 1920, and has sent athletes to compete in most Summer Olympic Games since then, missing only the 1932 Games, the 1956 Games, and the boycotted 1980 Games...

 in the Olympic Games, although, as of 2008, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal.

In 2009, the Tour de France
Tour de France
The Tour de France is an annual bicycle race held in France and nearby countries. First staged in 1903, the race covers more than and lasts three weeks. As the best known and most prestigious of cycling's three "Grand Tours", the Tour de France attracts riders and teams from around the world. The...

, the world's premier bicycle race, started from Monaco with a 15 km closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day (4 July) and the 182 km second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles
Brignoles
Brignoles is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department.It was the summer residence of the counts of Provence...

, France.

Monaco also stage part of the Global Champions Tour
Global Champions Tour
The Global Champions Tour is an annually celebrated show jumping competition.The sponsors include Jaeger-LeCoultre and Eurosport. Athina Onassis de Miranda is a patroness of the tour....

 (International Show-jumping). Acknowledged as the most glamorous of the series, Monaco will be hosting the world's most celebrated riders, including Monaco's own Charlotte Casiraghi
Charlotte Casiraghi
Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi is the second child of Caroline, Princess of Hanover, Hereditary Princess of Monaco, and the late Stefano Casiraghi, an Italian industrialist. She is fourth in line to the throne of Monaco...

, in a setting facing out over the world's most beautiful yachts, and framed by the Port Hercule and Prince's palace. In 2009, the Monaco stage of the Global Champions tour took place between 25 – 27 June.

The Monaco Marathon
Monaco Marathon
The Monaco Marathon or the Monaco and the Riviera Marathon is a marathon run every year starting and finishing in Monaco. It crosses the border to France and Italy and goes along the coast to a turning point in Ventimiglia, Italy and back again to Monaco...

 is the only marathon in the world to pass through three separate countries, those of Monaco, France and Italy. The 2010 event took place on 21 March. Runners complete the race by returning to the Stade Louis II
Stade Louis II
The Stade Louis II is a stadium located in the Fontvieille district of Monaco. It serves primarily as a venue for football, being the home of AS Monaco and the Monaco national football team, as well as the location of the annual UEFA Super Cup match...

.

The Monaco Ironman 70.3 triathlon race is an annual event with over 1000 athletes competing and attracts top professional athletes from around the world. The race includes a 1.9 km swim, 90 km bike ride and 21.1 km run.

Since 1993, the headquarters of the International Association of Athletics Federations
International Association of Athletics Federations
The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. It was founded in 1912 at its first congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation...

, the world governing body of athletics, has been located in Monaco. An IAAF Diamond League meet is annually held at Stade Louis II
Stade Louis II
The Stade Louis II is a stadium located in the Fontvieille district of Monaco. It serves primarily as a venue for football, being the home of AS Monaco and the Monaco national football team, as well as the location of the annual UEFA Super Cup match...

.

Primary and secondary schools


Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including: seven nursery and primary schools; one secondary school, Collège Charles III; one lycée
Secondary education in France
In France, secondary education is in two stages:* collèges cater for the first four years of secondary education from the ages of 11 to 14...

 that provides general and technological training, Lycée Albert 1er; and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo. There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools, including Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré and Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines, and one international school, the International School of Monaco.

Colleges and universities


There is one university located in Monaco:
  • International University of Monaco
    International University of Monaco
    The International University of Monaco is an English-language school in Monaco, specializing in business education. IUM is operated by the Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales group of schools, which is owned by Career Education Corporation a US-listed professional education...


Demographics




Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monegasques are a minority in their own country comprising 21.6% of the population. The largest group are French nationals at 28.4%, followed by Monegasque (21.6%), Italian (18.7%), British (7.5%), Belgian (2.8%), German (2.5%), Swiss (2.5%) and US nationals (1.2%).

Language



The official language of Monaco is French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

. English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 is used by American
Americans
The people of the United States, also known as simply Americans or American people, are the inhabitants or citizens of the United States. The United States is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds...

 and British
British people
The British are citizens of the United Kingdom, of the Isle of Man, any of the Channel Islands, or of any of the British overseas territories, and their descendants...

 residents. The traditional national language is Monégasque
Monégasque language
Monégasque is a dialect of the modern Ligurian language, spoken in Monaco.- Language family :Forming a part of the Western Romance dialect continuum, Monégasque shares many features with the variety of Ligurian spoken in Genoa, but differs from its neighboring dialects Intemelio and Mentonasc. It...

, now spoken by only a minority of residents. It resembles Ligurian
Ligurian language (Romance)
Ligurian is a Gallo-Romance language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia. Genoese , spoken in Genoa, the capital of Liguria, is its most important dialect...

, which is spoken in Genoa
Genoa
Genoa |Ligurian]] Zena ; Latin and, archaically, English Genua) is a city and an important seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria....

. In the old part of Monaco, street signs are printed in both French and Monégasque. Italian is also spoken by the principality's sizable community from Italy.

Roman Catholic


The official religion is Roman Catholicism, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. There are five Roman Catholic parish churches in Monaco and one cathedral, which is the seat of the archbishop
Archbishop
An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

 of Monaco. The diocese, which has existed since the mid-nineteenth century, was raised to an archbishopric in 1981 as the Archdiocese of Monaco
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Monaco
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Monaco is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Monaco. It was erected as the Diocese of Monaco by Pope Leo XIII on March 15, 1887, and was elevated to the rank of an archdiocese by Pope John Paul II on July 30, 1981.The...

. The patron saint
Patron saint
A patron saint is a saint who is regarded as the intercessor and advocate in heaven of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person...

 is Saint Devota.

Anglican


There is one Anglican
Anglican Communion
The Anglican Communion is an international association of national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with the Church of England and specifically with its principal primate, the Archbishop of Canterbury...

 church (St. Paul's Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists. The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books. The church is part of the Anglican Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe
Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe
The Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe is geographically the largest diocese of the Church of England and arguably the largest diocese in the Anglican Communion, covering some one-sixth of the Earth's landmass, including Morocco, Europe , Turkey, and the territory of the former Soviet...

.

Jewish


The Association Culturelle Israélite de Monaco (founded 1948) is a converted house containing a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and a kosher
Kashrut
Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

 food shop, located in Monte Carlo. The community (approximately 1,500) mainly consists of retired Jews from Britain (40%) and North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

. Two thirds of the Jewish population there are Sephardic
Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

, mainly from North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

, while the other third is Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim , are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany...

.

Security


The wider defence of the nation is provided by France. Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has the largest police force (515 police officers for 35,000 people) and police presence in the world. Its police includes a specialist unit which operates patrol and surveillance boats. There is also a small military consisting of a bodyguard unit for the Prince and his palace called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince
The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is a military unit of the military force of Monaco and is one of the only militaries that recruit foreigners. Although Monaco's defence is the responsibility of France, it maintains a small force for the protection of the Sovereign Prince of Monaco...

 which numbers 116 officers and men and is equipped with modern weapons such as M16 rifle
M16 rifle
The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

s and 9 mm pistols, and a militarized (and armed) fire and civil defence Corps.

The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince's Company of Carabiniers) is a military unit of the military force of Monaco
Military of Monaco
The Principality of Monaco, which is the world's second smallest nation , has a very limited military capability, and would depend entirely upon its larger neighbour, France, for defence in the face of an aggressive world power...

. It was created by Prince Honoré IV
Honoré IV, Prince of Monaco
Honoré IV was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 12 March 1795 to 16 February 1819. He was the son of Prince Honoré III by his wife, Maria Caterina Brignole, a Genoese noblewoman...

 in 1817 for the protection of the Principality and the Princely family. The company numbers exactly 116 officers and men; while the NCOs
Non-commissioned officer
A non-commissioned officer , called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission...

 and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army
French Army
The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre , is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.As of 2010, the army employs 123,100 regulars, 18,350 part-time reservists and 7,700 Legionnaires. All soldiers are professionals, following the suspension of conscription, voted in...

. Together with the local fire service (Sapeurs-Pompiers), the Carabiniers form Monaco's total public forces. In addition to their guard duties, the company patrols the Principality's beaches and coastal waters, as well as duties around the Palace in Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville
Monaco-Ville is one of Monaco's administrative divisions located on a rocky headland that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the four traditional quarters of Monaco, the others being La Condamine, Monte Carlo, and Fontvieille. However, in modern administrative terms it is one of ten...

.

Flag



The flag of Monaco is one of the world's oldest national flag designs. The flag of Monaco is identical to the flag of Indonesia
Flag of Indonesia
The national flag of Indonesia, which is known as Sang Saka Merah-Putih or Bendera Merah-Putih or simply Merah-Putih in Indonesian, is based on the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire in East Java...

, except for the ratio of height to width.

Transport


Monaco is served by several train systems and the Monte Carlo International Heliport. The closest airport is Côte d'Azur Airport in Nice, France. Some airlines marketed Monaco via Nice Airport.

See also



  • Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco
    Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco
    Monaco has one of the world's smallest national Scouting and Guiding organizations, the Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco . The association has about 84 members...

  • Foreign relations of Monaco
    Foreign relations of Monaco
    The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919...

    • France–Monaco relations
      France–Monaco relations
      France-Monaco relations refers to international relations between Monaco and France. The two share a special relationship.-History:Only in 1489 did Monaco gain control of its own sovereignty from French control after Lambert Grimaldi convinced the French king Charles VIII to grant it independence...

  • List of radio stations in Monaco
  • List of rulers of Monaco
  • Microstate
    Microstate
    A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, but usually both. Some examples include Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Nauru, Singapore, and Vatican City....

  • Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra
    Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra
    The Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra is the main orchestra in the principality of Monaco...

  • Music of Monaco
    Music of Monaco
    Monaco is a city and independent state located in the south of France, along the Mediterranean coast. The country has long been under the control of the Grimaldi family, who have encouraged musical development...

  • Postage stamps and postal history of Monaco
    Postage stamps and postal history of Monaco
    The postal history of Monaco can be traced to the principality’s first postmark in 1704. Stampless covers are known with both manuscript and handstamp postmarks for Monaco and Fort d'Hercule ; as the principality was once much larger, postmarks of the communes of Menton and Roquebrune prior to...

  • Repossi
    Repossi
    Repossi Joailliers is a jewelry company owned by Italian-born Alberto Repossi. The company has headquarters in Paris, Milan, and Monte Carlo. It also has two Tokyo-based branches, WAG Incorporated and Nagahori Corporation.- History :...

     jewellers
  • Telecommunications in Monaco
  • The Princess Grace Hospital Centre
    The Princess Grace Hospital Centre
    -History:By 1818 there were no hospitals or charitable institution in Monaco, the Prince Honoré V had the idea of building a modern hospital in the west part of Monaco, in the district of The Salines....


External links


Government
General information
Travel
Work

Other