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Miryang

Miryang

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Miryang, often spelled Milyang, is a city
Administrative divisions of South Korea
||South Korea is divided into 8 provinces , 1 special autonomous province , 6 metropolitan cities , and 1 special city...

 in Gyeongsangnam-do
Gyeongsangnam-do
Gyeongsangnam-do is a province in the southeast of South Korea. The provincial capital is located at Changwon. It contains the major metropolitan center and port of Busan. Located there is UNESCO World Heritage Site Haeinsa, a Buddhist temple that houses the Tripitaka Koreana and attracts many...

 Province, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

. Neighboring cities include Changnyeong
Changnyeong
Changnyeong County is a county in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea.In the early Three Kingdoms period, Changnyeong was the seat of Bihwa Gaya, a member of the Gaya confederacy which was later conquered by Silla....

 to the west, Cheongdo to the north, Ulsan
Ulsan
Ulsan , officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million. It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north and the Sea of Japan to the east.Ulsan is the...

 to the east, and Yangsan
Yangsan
Yangsan is a city in Gyeongsangnam-do Province, South Korea.-Administrative divisions:Currently, Yangsan is made up of 1 eup, 4 myeon, and 7 dong. There are plans, however, to create a new Ungsang-eup, which would include 4 dong.-Railways:...

, Gimhae
Gimhae
Gimhae, also commonly spelled Kimhae, is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. Gimhae is known to locals as "The Paris of Gyeongsangnamdo." It is the seat of the large Gimhae Kim clan, one of the largest Kim clans in Korea...

, and Changwon
Changwon
Changwon is a city in and the capital of Gyeongsangnam-do in South Korea. Changwon city is 8th most populous city in South Korea, with a 2010 established population of 1,089,039. It encompasses a land area of on southeastern of South Korea. The population of Southeastern part of Korea, that...

 to the south. The city bird is the Korean magpie
Korean Magpie
The Korean Magpie Pica sericea, known as "ggachee" in Korean, is generally treated as an East Asian subspecies, of the European Magpie , but it may be a distinct species. It is a common symbol of the Korean identity, and has been adopted as the "official bird" of numerous South Korean cities,...

, the city tree is the pine
Pine
Pines are trees in the genus Pinus ,in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are about 115 species of pine, although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species.-Etymology:...

, and the city flower is the royal azalea.

The recorded history of Miryang begins in the Samhan
Samhan
The Samhan period of Korean history comprises confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan in central and southern Korean peninsula, during the final century BCE and the early centuries CE....

 period, when it was known as Mirimidongguk
Mirimidongguk
Mirimidongguk was one of the 12 tribes or polities making up the Byeonhan confederation. It is mentioned in the San guo zhi, and is generally believed to have been located near the modern-day city of Miryang in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea....

. Due to its strategic location near the Nakdong River
Nakdong River
The Nakdong River is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan.-Geography:...

, Miryang played an important role from the Silla
Silla
Silla was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the longest sustained dynasties in...

 period forward. It served as an important station on the Great Yeongnam Road
Great Yeongnam Road
The Great Yeongnam Road, or Yeongnamdaero, was one of the principal roads of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty, 1392-1910. It ran between Hanseong and Dongnae . More generally, it served to connect the Gyeongsang province to the capital. It takes its name from Yeongnam, an alternate name for the...

 during the later Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

, and in the 20th century it became a station on the Gyeongbu Line
Gyeongbu Line
The Gyeongbu Line is the most important railway line in South Korea and one of the oldest. It was constructed by Japan in 1905, connecting Seoul to Suwon, Daejeon, Daegu, and Busan. The Gyeongbu Line is by far the most heavily travelled rail line in South Korea...

 railroad that connects Busan
Busan
Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

 to Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

. Miryang remains a key stop along that line, and is now the only city between Busan and Daegu
Daegu
Daegu , also known as Taegu, and officially the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the country with over 2.5 million residents. The city is the capital and principal city of the...

 served by KTX express trains.

Miryang is known around Korea for the Miryang arirang
Arirang
"Arirang" is a Korean folk song, sometimes considered the unofficial national anthem of Korea. Arirang is an ancient native Korean word with no direct modern meaning.- Variations :...

and for the view from the Yeongnamnu
Yeongnamnu (Miryang)
The Yeongnamnu or Yeongnamru is a pavilion on a cliff overlooking the curve of the Miryang River in central Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. It dates to the Joseon Dynasty and is one of the central cultural treasures of Miryang. The current structure was built in 1884 according to the...

 pavilion, subject of numerous poems from the Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

. Other noted landmarks include Eoreumgol
Eoreumgol
Eoreumgol or Ice Valley is a valley in Miryang, South Korea. It gets its name and its notoriety from the freezing cold found there even in midsummer. This phenomenon is believed to be due to local airflow patterns, particularly cold air emerging from underground.The valley is situated on the...

 and the temple of Pyochungsa
Pyochungsa
Pyochungsa, originally Jungnimsa, is a Korean Buddhist temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. It stands on the slopes of Jaeyaksan mountain near Cheonhwangsan in the Yeongnam Alps in Danjang-myeon, northern Miryang, South Korea....

. Famous people from Miryang include 15th-century Neo-Confucian
Neo-Confucianism
Neo-Confucianism is an ethical and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty....

 scholar Kim Jong-jik
Kim Jong-jik
Kim Jong-jik , often known by his pen name Jeompiljae, was a leading Korean Neo-Confucian scholar in the early Joseon Dynasty. He was born in Miryang in Gyeongsang province, to a yangban family of the Seonsan Kim lineage...

 and 16th-century warrior-monk Songun Yu Jeong
Songun Yu Jeong
Samyeongdang , also known by his Buddhist name, Yujeong , was a Korean Buddhist monk during the Joseon Dynasty. He is sometimes identified by his pen name, Song-un. He was born to a family of the Im clan in Miryang, Gyeongsang province...

. The city government works actively to maintain the memory of these figures, and of other local cultural features such as the tale of Arang
Arang (Korean folklore)
Arang is a figure in the folklore of the Miryang area of Korea. According to the legend, she was the daughter of a magistrate of Miryang during the Joseon Dynasty. Her wicked nanny conspired to have the servant Baekga seize her at night and rape her; however, she resisted and Baekga stabbed her...

.

Geography and climate



Miryang's geography is heavily influenced by the two rivers which flow through it, the Miryang and Nakdong
Nakdong River
The Nakdong River is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan.-Geography:...

 Rivers. All of Miryang lies within the Nakdong basin, and the Nakdong River itself runs along Miryang's southern border. The city's topography generally slopes from the high peaks of the Yeongnam Alps
Yeongnam Alps
The Yeongnam Alps are a group of relatively tall mountains in the Yeongnam region of southeastern South Korea. They are much shorter than the European Alps, only slightly over 1000 m...

 in the northeast to the Nakdong valley in the southwest. Much of the city is drained by the Miryang River
Miryang River
The Miryang River is a tributary of the Nakdong River which flows through Miryang City. It rises in Ulsan metropolitan city, on the slopes of Gohyeonsan, and flows for 101.5 kilometers before joining the Nakdong in Miryang's Samnangjin-eup. Its narrower upper reaches are often called the...

, which rises in western Ulsan
Ulsan
Ulsan , officially the Ulsan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's seventh largest metropolis with a population of over 1.1 million. It is located in the south-east of the country, neighboring Busan to the south and facing Gyeongju to the north and the Sea of Japan to the east.Ulsan is the...

 and flows through the city center to join the Nakdong at Samnangjin
Samnangjin
Samnangjin or Samnangjin-eup, is an eup, or town, in Miryang City, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. It is composed of thirteen ri. Samnangjin lies in the southeastern corner of Miryang, bordering Wondong-myeon in Yangsan City.The Gyeongbu Line railroad passes through Samnangjin, and Mugunghwa-ho...

. Portions are drained by other Nakdong tributaries, including the Naejincheon.

The Miryang River valley south of the city center broadens into a fertile plain. This area, including large portions of Samnangjin-eup, Sangnam-myeon, and Hanam-eup
Hanam-eup
Hanam-eup is an eup, or large village, in Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. It stands at the southern tip of Miryang, and looks across the Nakdong River at the northern tips of Gimhae and Changwon....

, serves as a local breadbasket and is almost entirely devoted to rice-farming. In Hanam-eup, it joins another plain running along the Nakdong.

As elsewhere in the Yeongnam
Yeongnam
Yeongnam is the name of a region that coincides with the former Gyeongsang Province in what is now South Korea....

 region, the landscape is very lumpy, with many craggy hills and low mountains. The highest mountain in Miryang is Gajisan
Gajisan (Gyeongsang-do)
Gajisan is a mountain in South Korea. It sits on the boundary between the city of Ulsan, the city of Miryang in the province of Gyeongsangnam-do, and Cheongdo County in Gyeongsangbuk-do. Gajisan has an elevation of .-References:...

 (1240 m), which stands on the northern border. Other high peaks along the border include Hwaaksan
Hwaaksan
Hwaaksan is a mountain in South Korea whose area extends over Gapyeong County, Gyeonggi-do and Hwacheon County, Gangwon-do. It has an elevation of ....

 and Cheonhwangsan
Cheonhwangsan (Gyeongsangnam-do/Ulsan)
Cheonhwangsan is a mountain in South Korea. It sits on the boundary between the city of Ulsan and the city of Miryang, in the province of Gyeongsangnam-do. Cheonhwangsan has an elevation of ....

 (also called Jaeyaksan). These peaks are part of the Yeongnam Alps, a branch of the Taebaek Mountains
Taebaek Mountains
The Taebaek Mountains are a mountain range in both North Korea and South Korea. They form the main ridge of the Korean peninsula.-Geography:...

.

Further south, the mountains are lower but still quite frequent. Notable peaks in this area include Maneosan in Samnangjin and Cheontaesan
Cheontaesan
Cheontaesan can refer to:*Cheontaesan , 631 m, on the border of Miryang and Yangsan cities.*Cheontaesan , 715 m, on the border of Yeongdong and Geumsan counties....

 on the border with Yangsan
Yangsan
Yangsan is a city in Gyeongsangnam-do Province, South Korea.-Administrative divisions:Currently, Yangsan is made up of 1 eup, 4 myeon, and 7 dong. There are plans, however, to create a new Ungsang-eup, which would include 4 dong.-Railways:...

. Steep mountain valleys abound; these are often used for reservoir
Reservoir
A reservoir , artificial lake or dam is used to store water.Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete.The term reservoir may also be used to...

s that store water for irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

 or drinking
Drinking water
Drinking water or potable water is water pure enough to be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually...

 purposes. Some of the larger reservoirs in Miryang include Miryang Lake and Antae Lake.

Climate


Like most of the rest of South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, Miryang enjoys a relatively mild temperate climate. The average windspeed is about 1.4 m/s, the average temperature 14.4 C, and the annual rainfall in 2004 was 1,377.40 mm.

The mountains along its north flank afford Miryang a measure of shelter from heavy winds and other severe weather coming from the north. On the other hand, it is relatively vulnerable to damage from tropical storms encroaching from the south.

The Miryang and Nakdong valleys are subject to frequent floods during typhoons, as well as more predictable flooding during the monsoon season
East Asian monsoon
The East Asian monsoon is a monsoonal flow that carries moist air from the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean to East Asia. It affects approximately one-third of the global population, influencing the climate of Japan , the Koreas, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and much of mainland China...

. Other natural disasters are uncommon.

History


During the Samhan
Samhan
The Samhan period of Korean history comprises confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan in central and southern Korean peninsula, during the final century BCE and the early centuries CE....

 period, Miryang may have been part of the territory of Mirimidongguk
Mirimidongguk
Mirimidongguk was one of the 12 tribes or polities making up the Byeonhan confederation. It is mentioned in the San guo zhi, and is generally believed to have been located near the modern-day city of Miryang in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea....

, one of the Byeonhan tribes mentioned in the San guo zhi. Thereafter, it is believed to have been ruled by Geumgwan Gaya
Geumgwan Gaya
Geumgwan Gaya , also known as Bon-Gaya or Garakguk , was the ruling city-state of the Gaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea. It is believed to have been located around the modern-day city of Gimhae, Southern Gyeongsang province, near the mouth of the Nakdong River...

 before being annexed by Silla
Silla
Silla was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the longest sustained dynasties in...

. The Samguk Sagi
Samguk Sagi
Samguk Sagi is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. The Samguk Sagi is written in Classical Chinese and its compilation was ordered by Goryeo's King Injong Samguk Sagi (History of the Three Kingdoms) is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of...

records Mirimidongguk as being annexed by Jijeung of Silla
Jijeung of Silla
Jijeung of Silla was the 22nd ruler of the Korean kingdom of Silla. He is remembered for strengthening royal authority and building Silla into a centralized kingdom....

 in 505 CE. In this period it was known as Chuhwa-gun (推火郡). Under the general reformation of names carried out by King Gyeongdeok
Gyeongdeok of Silla
King Gyeongdeok of Silla was the 35th ruler who reigned from 742 to 765 over the kingdom of Silla. He is perhaps best known today for his efforts to encourage Buddhism....

 in the 8th century, the name was changed to "Milseong-gun" (密城郡).

In the Goryeo
Goryeo
The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. Korea gets its name from this kingdom which came to be pronounced Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the Joseon dynasty in 1392...

 period (935-1392), Miryang was elevated to the status of a ju
Zhou (political division)
Zhou were historical political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han Dynasty, zhou continued to exist until the establishment of the Republic of China — a period of over 2000 years...

, Mil-ju, by King Seongjong
Seongjong of Goryeo
Seongjong of Goryeo was the sixth monarch of the medieval Korean kingdom Goryeo. He was the second son of Daejong, and a grandson of Emperor Taejo. He ascended the throne after Gyeongjong stepped down....

. In 1194, Miryang was the site of a massive battle between royal forces and a massive rebel army led by Kim Sami of Cheongdo and Hyosim of Ulsan. More than 7000 rebels were slain. Under King Chungnyeol
Chungnyeol of Goryeo
Chungnyeol of Goryeo was the 25th ruler of the medieval Korean kingdom of Goryeo. He was the son of Wonjong, his predecessor on the throne....

 in the late 13th century, local residents led by Jo Cheon rose up against the government; in retaliation, Mil-ju was demoted to a tributary village of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
Gyeongju is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang province in South Korea. It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong, covering with a population of 269,343 people according to the 2008 census. Gyeongju is southeast of Seoul, and east of the...

 (then Gyerim). Later it became a hyeon
Hyeon
The hyeon were administrative subdivisions of Korea during the Silla, Goryeo, and Joseon periods. They were typically slightly smaller than today's si and gun . They were abolished in the Gabo Reform of 1895.During the Goryeo period, there were about 335 Hyeon; during the Joseon period, 164....

. Under King Gongyang
Gongyang of Goryeo
Gongyang of Goryeo was the 34th and final ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea. He was deposed by Yi Seonggye, who then established the Joseon Dynasty....

, it was raised to the status of a bu.

With the dawn of the Joseon
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

 period (1392-1910), Miryang first became known by its modern name. Initially demoted from bu to gun (county) by King Taejo
Taejo of Joseon
Taejo of Joseon , born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty...

, it was then raised back to bu and its name changed from "Milseong" to "Miryang." Under Taejo's son King Taejong
Taejong of Joseon
King Taejong was the third king of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.-Founding of Joseon:...

, it was once again demoted to gun. Later it became a dohobu, or military protectorate, and in 1895 it became a gun once again; it was to carry this status until late in the 20th century.

Under Japanese rule
Korea under Japanese rule
Korea was under Japanese rule as part of Japan's 35-year imperialist expansion . Japanese rule ended in 1945 shortly after the Japanese defeat in World War II....

, Miryang was the site of various clashes between the Korean independence movement
Korean independence movement
The Korean independence movement grew out of the Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula from 1910 to 1945. After the Japanese surrendered, Korea became independent; that day is now an annual holiday called Gwangbokjeol in South Korea, and Chogukhaebangŭi nal in North Korea.-Background:In...

 and the occupation forces. During the March First Movement of 1919, approximately 13,500 Miryang residents took part in peaceful demonstrations in support of Korean independence. This led to the "Miryang massacre," in which 150 Korean civilians were shot by occupation troops. In November 1920, independence fighter Choe Su-bong built and detonated two bombs at the Miryang police station, destroying the structure. He attempted to kill himself but was unsuccessful; later he was put to death and his accomplices were imprisoned.

In 1989 the city center was separated from the rest of Miryang and named "Miryang-si" (Miryang City). In 1995 the city center was reunited with the hinterland and the entire region became known as Miryang-si. Both of these were part of general reorganizations of South Korean local government.

Administrative divisions


Miryang is divided into 16 primary divisions, of which 2 are eup (large villages), 5 are dong (city precincts), and 9 are myeon (rural areas). Some of the dong are further subdivided, so that the city center is composed of eight legal dong in total. The eup and myeon are broken into ri, of which Miryang has a total of 265 administrative or 119 legal.
District Population Area (km²) Population density Number of administrative ri or tong
Samnangjin-eup 8,784 78.37 112.1 31
Hanam-eup
Hanam-eup
Hanam-eup is an eup, or large village, in Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. It stands at the southern tip of Miryang, and looks across the Nakdong River at the northern tips of Gimhae and Changwon....

9,762 37.09 263.2 33
Bubuk-myeon 7,467 55.31 135.0 22
Sangnam-myeon 11,719 56.11 208.9 31
Sangdong-myeon 3,423 52.01 65.8 18
Sannae-myeon 4,205 107.49 39.1 23
Sanoe-myeon 3,143 35.41 88.8 19
Danjang-myeon 4,542 142.12 32.0 24
Chodong-myeon 4,135 48.45 85.3 24
Muan-myeon 6,646 100.33 66.2 28
Cheongdo-myeon 2,214 57.44 38.5 12
Gyo-dong 8,055 4.61 8
Naeil-dong 5,309 12.07 1,747.2 10
Naei-dong 10,347 3.06 3,381.4 12
Gagok-dong 10,509 6.21 1,692.2 13
Sammun-dong 15,936 2.93 5,438.9 14

Government and politics



Like other cities and counties in South Korea, Miryang enjoys a limited degree of local autonomy. Since 1995, the mayor and city council have been elected directly by the local citizens.

The current mayor is Um Yong Su, a member of the Uri Party
Uri Party
The Yeollin Uri Party , generally abbreviated to Uri Party , was the briefly ruling political party in South Korea with a centrist political ideology...

. He took office on July 1, 2006. His victory was one of only two Uri triumphs at the city/county level in Gyeongsangnam-do in the May 2006 local elections, which were a national landslide for the conservative Hannara party.

Economy


The economy of Miryang draws heavily on its central location and prominence as a tourist destination. In addition, agriculture continues to play an important role, particularly in outlying districts. The Miryang River valley supports extensive rice farming operations, while livestock farming is more common on higher ground.

Transportation



Miryang is roughly equidistant from Daegu
Daegu
Daegu , also known as Taegu, and officially the Daegu Metropolitan City, is a city in South Korea, the fourth largest after Seoul, Busan, and Incheon, and the third largest metropolitan area in the country with over 2.5 million residents. The city is the capital and principal city of the...

 and Busan
Busan
Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

, and is connected to both cities by road and rail. By road, Miryang is served by two exits on the Daegu-Busan Expressway
Daegu-Busan Expressway
The Daegu-Busan Expressway is an expressway in southeastern South Korea, connecting the cities of Busan and Daegu. It is 82 kilometers long, with two lanes of traffic in each direction and eight interchanges...

, as well as numerous national and local highways. By rail, it is served both by the Gyeongbu Line
Gyeongbu Line
The Gyeongbu Line is the most important railway line in South Korea and one of the oldest. It was constructed by Japan in 1905, connecting Seoul to Suwon, Daejeon, Daegu, and Busan. The Gyeongbu Line is by far the most heavily travelled rail line in South Korea...

 (Seoul-Busan) and the Gyeongjeon Line
Gyeongjeon Line
The Gyeongjeon Line is a railway line serving South Gyeongsang and South Jeolla Provinces in South Korea. It covers a total of 324.8 km, from Samnangjin Station in Miryang, South Gyeongsang, to Gwangju·Songjeong Station in Gwangju, South Jeolla.-History:An east-west railway along Korea's...

 (to Masan
Masan
Masan was a formerly a municipal city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. The city was situated on Masan Bay , approximately 35 km west of Busan. It was known for its textile industry, and it was the site of Hite Brewery's production facilities.During the control of the Mongolians, the...

); the northern terminus of the Gyeongjeon Line lies just north of Samnangjin
Samnangjin
Samnangjin or Samnangjin-eup, is an eup, or town, in Miryang City, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. It is composed of thirteen ri. Samnangjin lies in the southeastern corner of Miryang, bordering Wondong-myeon in Yangsan City.The Gyeongbu Line railroad passes through Samnangjin, and Mugunghwa-ho...

 near the meeting of the Nakdong and Miryang Rivers. Miryang is the only city between Daegu and Busan currently served by the KTX express train.

In addition to Miryang Station
Miryang Station
Miryang Station is on South Korea's high-speed KTX railway network, 55 km south of Dongdaegu Station.-History:The station opened on January 1, 1905 to trains on the Gyeongbu Line. The building was destroyed by fire on February 12, 1962. The station was elevated in its determined importance...

 in the city center, outlying regions are served by Samnangjin
Samnangjin
Samnangjin or Samnangjin-eup, is an eup, or town, in Miryang City, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. It is composed of thirteen ri. Samnangjin lies in the southeastern corner of Miryang, bordering Wondong-myeon in Yangsan City.The Gyeongbu Line railroad passes through Samnangjin, and Mugunghwa-ho...

 Station and Sangdong Station on the Gyeongbu Line, and Nakdonggang Station
Nakdonggang Station
Nakdonggang Station is a railway station in South Korea. It is on Gyeongjeon Line. Trains go here....

 on the Gyeongjeon Line. These outlying stations are served only by a small number of Mugunghwa-ho
Mugunghwa-ho
The Mugunghwa-ho or Mugunghwa is a class of train operated by Korail, the national railroad of South Korea. Mugunghwa trains are the cheapest class of trains to operate cross-country. Prior to the introduction of the KTX in 2004, they were the most common passenger train along most railroad lines...

 passenger trains.

Except for Nakdonggang Station, the stations in Miryang also serve freight trains. The most active freight station is Sangdong, which sent out 74,762 tons of freight in 2004.

Culture




Miryang is known as the home of the Miryang arirang
Arirang
"Arirang" is a Korean folk song, sometimes considered the unofficial national anthem of Korea. Arirang is an ancient native Korean word with no direct modern meaning.- Variations :...

. This is sometimes considered to be close to the original version of the arirang, which may have drawn its name from the Miryang area folktale of Arang. The Miryang Arirang Festival is held each May to commemorate and keep alive this tradition and other aspects of local heritage.

Other preserved aspects of Korean traditional culture are the Baekjung performances.

The people of Miryang speak a version of the Gyeongsang dialect
Gyeongsang dialect
The Gyeongsang dialect is a dialect of the Korean language which is widely used in the Yeongnam region, which includes North and South Gyeongsang provinces. The Gyeongsang Dialect is considered the direct descendant of the Silla language by Korean linguists...

 of Korean
Korean language
Korean is the official language of the country Korea, in both South and North. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in People's Republic of China. There are about 78 million Korean speakers worldwide. In the 15th century, a national writing...

. In studies of Korean dialectology, Miryang dialect has been contrasted with the Changwon
Changwon
Changwon is a city in and the capital of Gyeongsangnam-do in South Korea. Changwon city is 8th most populous city in South Korea, with a 2010 established population of 1,089,039. It encompasses a land area of on southeastern of South Korea. The population of Southeastern part of Korea, that...

 dialect in terms of the use of pitch.

Education


The history of education in Miryang can be traced back to the Goryeo
Goryeo
The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. Korea gets its name from this kingdom which came to be pronounced Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the Joseon dynasty in 1392...

 period, when a hyanggyo
Hyanggyo
The Hyanggyo were government-run provincial schools established separately during the Goryeo Dynasty and Joseon Dynasty , but did not meet with widespread success in either dynasty...

, a government-run village school, was constructed in the town center (modern-day Gyo-dong). This school, famed for its size, continued in operation through the Joseon
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

 period, although it was gradually supplanted by numerous local seodang
Seodang
Seodang were private village schools providing elementary education during the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties of Korea.-Background:They were primarily occupied with providing initial training in the Chinese classics to boys of 7-16 years of age, but often served students into their twenties. Not...

 and seowon
Seowon
Seowon were the most common educational institution of Korea during the mid- to late Joseon Dynasty. They were private institutions, and combined the functions of a Confucian shrine and a preparatory school. In educational terms, the seowon were primarily occupied with preparing students for the...

. All of these institutions concentrated on training young men for the royal civil service examinations
Gwageo
The gwageo were the national civil service examinations under the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties of Korea. Typically quite demanding, these tests measured candidates' knowledge of the Chinese classics, and sometimes also of technical subjects...

. This system lasted until the abolition of the examinations in the Gabo Reforms of 1894.

Today in Miryang, as elsewhere in South Korea, compulsory public education is provided for all students through middle school, and almost all students complete high school as well. Education within the city is overseen by the Miryang Office of Education, which is administered directly by the Gyeongsangnam-do provincial Office of Education. This is in turn accountable to the national Ministry of Education, which sets the national curriculum for all schools.

There are 23 elementary schools, 14 middle schools, and 8 high schools in Miryang. Supplementary private education is offered through hagwon
Hagwon
Hagwon is the Korean-language word for a for-profit private institute, academy or cram-school prevalent in South Korea. The term is also sometimes used to describe similar institutions operated by Korean Americans in the United States...

s, which are strongly concentrated in the city center, with some in outlying towns.


There is only one institution of higher education in Miryang. This is the Miryang campus of Pusan National University
Pusan National University
Pusan National University is one of ten flagship Korean national universities and a leading university in South Korea...

. The Miryang campus primarily serves commuter students, drawn from Miryang as well as neighboring cities including Changwon
Changwon
Changwon is a city in and the capital of Gyeongsangnam-do in South Korea. Changwon city is 8th most populous city in South Korea, with a 2010 established population of 1,089,039. It encompasses a land area of on southeastern of South Korea. The population of Southeastern part of Korea, that...

, Gimhae
Gimhae
Gimhae, also commonly spelled Kimhae, is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. Gimhae is known to locals as "The Paris of Gyeongsangnamdo." It is the seat of the large Gimhae Kim clan, one of the largest Kim clans in Korea...

, Masan
Masan
Masan was a formerly a municipal city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. The city was situated on Masan Bay , approximately 35 km west of Busan. It was known for its textile industry, and it was the site of Hite Brewery's production facilities.During the control of the Mongolians, the...

, and Busan
Busan
Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

. It is located in northern Samnangjin-eup, near the city center. A branch campus, formerly the main campus, is located near downtown Miryang. These two campuses were merged into Pusan National University in 2006. Previously, they made up a separate university called Miryang National University, which traced its roots back to 1923.

Tourism


Miryang has been known for centuries for its scenery of mountains and valleys; the Yeongnamnu
Yeongnamnu (Miryang)
The Yeongnamnu or Yeongnamru is a pavilion on a cliff overlooking the curve of the Miryang River in central Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. It dates to the Joseon Dynasty and is one of the central cultural treasures of Miryang. The current structure was built in 1884 according to the...

 pavilion overlooking the Miryang River appears in numerous Joseon Dynasty writings. The northeastern corner of the city occupies a portion of the Yeongnam Alps
Yeongnam Alps
The Yeongnam Alps are a group of relatively tall mountains in the Yeongnam region of southeastern South Korea. They are much shorter than the European Alps, only slightly over 1000 m...

; part of this region is included in Gajisan Provincial Park. Noted natural landmarks include the "ice valley" of Eoreumgol
Eoreumgol
Eoreumgol or Ice Valley is a valley in Miryang, South Korea. It gets its name and its notoriety from the freezing cold found there even in midsummer. This phenomenon is believed to be due to local airflow patterns, particularly cold air emerging from underground.The valley is situated on the...

, also located in the northeast.

A number of noted historic landmarks are found in Miryang. These include various seowon
Seowon
Seowon were the most common educational institution of Korea during the mid- to late Joseon Dynasty. They were private institutions, and combined the functions of a Confucian shrine and a preparatory school. In educational terms, the seowon were primarily occupied with preparing students for the...

, or Confucian academies, including the Yerim Seowon
Yerim Seowon
Yerim Seowon is a former seowon in Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do. It is located in Bubuk-myeon on the slopes of Jongnamsan, in the valley of the Miryang River....

 dedicated to Kim Jong-jik
Kim Jong-jik
Kim Jong-jik , often known by his pen name Jeompiljae, was a leading Korean Neo-Confucian scholar in the early Joseon Dynasty. He was born in Miryang in Gyeongsang province, to a yangban family of the Seonsan Kim lineage...

 and the Pyochung Seowon, which is the only seowon constructed inside a Buddhist temple (Pyochungsa
Pyochungsa
Pyochungsa, originally Jungnimsa, is a Korean Buddhist temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. It stands on the slopes of Jaeyaksan mountain near Cheonhwangsan in the Yeongnam Alps in Danjang-myeon, northern Miryang, South Korea....

). The Yeongnamnu pavilion and nearby buildings date from the Joseon
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

 and Goryeo
Goryeo
The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. Korea gets its name from this kingdom which came to be pronounced Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the Joseon dynasty in 1392...

 periods. South Korean National Treasure
National treasures of South Korea
The National Treasures of Korea are a numbered set of tangible treasures, artifacts, sites, and buildings which are recognized by South Korea as having exceptional artistic, cultural and historical value...

No. 75 is located at Pyochungsa.

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