ε 134 (Soden), is a Greek
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...
A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...
of the New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....
, on parchment leaves. Paleographically
Palaeography, also spelt paleography is the study of ancient writing. Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of...
it has been assigned to the 11th century.
The manuscript has complex contents, but some leaves of the codex were supplied on paper by a modern hand. It has full marginalia
Marginalia are scribbles, comments, and illuminations in the margins of a book.- Biblical manuscripts :Biblical manuscripts have liturgical notes at the margin, for liturgical use. Numbers of texts' divisions are given at the margin...
. The text represents the Byzantine tradition.
The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospel
A gospel is an account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the good news message of the New Testament. It is primarily used in reference to the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John...
s on 270 parchment leaves (size ). The text is written in one column per page, in 26 lines per page, with a wide margins (size of the text is ). The leaves are arranged in quarto
Quarto could refer to:* Quarto, a size or format of a book in which four leaves of a book are created from a standard size sheet of paper* For specific information about quarto texts of William Shakespeare's works, see:...
(four leaves in quires). It has decorated headpieces (flowers). The large initial letters are decorated (zoomorphic motifs), the small initials are written in gold. It has breathings (spiritus asper
In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing , is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an sound before a vowel, diphthong, or rho. It remained in the polytonic orthography even after the Hellenistic period, when the sound disappeared from the Greek language...
and spiritus lenis
The smooth breathing is a diacritical mark used in polytonic orthography. In ancient Greek, it marks the absence of the voiceless glottal fricative from the beginning of a word....
) and accents. The nomina sacra
Nomina sacra means "sacred names" in Latin, and can be used to refer to traditions of abbreviated writing of several frequently occurring divine names or titles in early Greek language Holy Scripture...
are written in an abbreviated way.
Folios 1–13 were added on paper (possibly in the 16th century), with small initials and simple headpiece in red.
The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια (chapters
), whose numbers are given at the margin of the text, and their τιτλοι (titles
) at the top of the pages. There is also another division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections
Eusebian canons or Eusebian sections, also known as Ammonian Sections, are the system of dividing the four Gospels used between late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The divisions into chapters and verses used in modern texts date only from the 13th and 16th centuries, respectively...
, whose numbers are given at the margin, with a references to the Eusebian Canons (written below number of section). The conclusions of each section of text are written in geometric shapes.
It contains Prolegomena of Cosmas, Epistula ad Carpianum
The Epistula ad Carpianum is the title traditionally given to a letter from Eusebius of Caesarea to a Christian named Carpianus....
, the Eusebian tables in colours and gold, tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents
) before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin for the church's readings, synaxaria (later hand), subscriptions at the end of each Gospel, and 24 pictures (portraits of Evangelists, important biblical stories, etc.).
The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type
The Byzantine text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not in the oldest...
with some alien readings. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family Iκ
, now known as Family Π. Kurt Aland
Kurt Aland was a German Theologian and Professor of New Testament Research and Church History. He founded the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung in Münster and served as its first director for many years...
did not place the Greek text of the codex in any Category
New Testament manuscripts in Greek are categorized into five groups, according to a scheme introduced in 1981 by Kurt and Barbara Aland in Der Text des Neuen Testaments. The categories are based on how each manuscript relates to the various text-types. Generally speaking, earlier Alexandrian...
According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents the textual family Kx
Family Kx is a large group of the New Testament manuscripts. It belongs to the Byzantine text-type as one of the textual families of this group. It includes uncials, and although hundreds of minuscules, no early ones.- Description :...
in Luke 1 and Π473 in Luke 10 and Luke 20 (along with minuscule 473
Minuscule 473 , α 1390 , is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th century.Scrivener labelled it by number 512...
). It belongs to the textual cluster 1053 in Luke 1. The cluster has the following profile in Luke 10: 1, 8 15, 22, 23, 25, 30, 47, 48, 53, 57, 60, 63, 64, in Luke 20: 4, 8, 9, 13, 19, 24, 26, 28, 34, 61, 62.
Some textual variants
The word before the bracket is the reading of the UBS
The United Bible Societies is a worldwide association of Bible societies. In 1946 delegates from 13 countries formed the UBS, as an effort to coordinate the activities of the bible societies. The first headquarters were London and in Geneva...
edition. The profile of a manuscript is formed by noting the numbers of those test readings where the manuscript agrees with the bold reading. The readings which are not bold are those of the Textus Receptus
Textus Receptus is the name subsequently given to the succession of printed Greek texts of the New Testament which constituted the translation base for the original German Luther Bible, the translation of the New Testament into English by William Tyndale, the King James Version, and for most other...
Luke 10:1 — δυο δυο ] δυο
Luke 10:2 — οπως ] οπως αν
Luke 10:6 — εαν ] εαν μεν
Luke 10:11 — εις τους ποδας ] omit
Luke 10:12 — λεγω ] λεγω δε
Luke 10:13 — Βηθσαιδα ] βηθσαιδαν
Luke 10:16 — ακουων υμων ] υμων ακουων
Luke 10:32 — ελθων ] omit
Luke 10:32 — ιδων ] ιδων αυτον
Luke 10:35 — τι ] τι δ'
Luke 10:36 — πλησιον δοκει σοι ] δοκει σοι πλησιον
Luke 10:39 — τον λογον ] των λογων
Luke 10:41 — ειπεν αυτη ο κυριος (or Ιησους) ] ο κυριος ειπεν αυτη
Luke 10:42 — γαρ ] δε
Luke 20:1 — αρχιερεις ] ιερεις
Luke 20:3 — υμας καγω ] καγω υμας
Luke 20:3 — ενα λογον (=Textus Receptus) ] λογον ενα
Luke 20:5 — δια τι ] πας ο λαος
Luke 20:9 — τις ] omit
Luke 20:12 — και τουτον ] κακεινον
Luke 20:14 — διελογιζοντο ] διελογισαντο
Luke 20:14 — κληρονομος ] κληρονομος δευτε
Luke 20:19 — τας χειρας ] την χειρα
Luke 20:34 — γαμισκονται ] εκγαμιζονται (Τextus Receptus reads: εκγαμισκονται)
Luke 20:35 — γαμισκονται ] εκγαμιζονται (Τextus Receptus reads: εκγαμισκονται)
The place of origin of the codex is unknown. It is believed that it could be written in Eastern Mediterranean (perhaps Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....
). The manuscript was bound in a modern time.
Johann Jakob Griesbach , German biblical textual critic, was born at Butzbach, a small town in the state of Hesse, where his father, Konrad Kaspar , was pastor...
dated the manuscript to the 10th or 11th century. Scrivener and Gregory dated the manuscript to the 11th century. Currently it is dated by the INTF
The Institute for New Testament Textual Research at the University of Münster, Westphalia, Germany, is an institute for the investigation of the text of the New Testament. The INTF was founded in Münster in 1959 by Professor Kurt Aland , the first director of the Institute...
to the 11th century.
According to the inscription on the first folio it once belonged to Botiros (?), in the 16th century. It was a part of the collection of Robert Harley (1661–1724), and his son Edward Harley
Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer , styled Lord Harley between 1711 and 1724, was a British politician, bibliophile, collector and patron of the arts.-Background:...
(1689–1741). In 1753, it was purchased by the British government for the British Museum
The British Museum is a museum of human history and culture in London. Its collections, which number more than seven million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its...
The manuscript was examined by Richard Bentley
Richard Bentley was an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian. He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge....
, who designated it by θ'. Griesbach examined several of its passages and occasionally cited their texts in his Novum Testemantum Graece
(e.g. in Matthew 3:8). It was also examined by Birch, Scholz, and Bloomfield
Samuel Thomas Bloomfield was an English clergyman and Biblical textual critic. His Greek New Testament was widely used, in England and the United States.-Life:His surname was also spelled Blomfield or Blumfield...
. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1883.
The manuscript was not mentioned on the list of Wettstein
Johann Jakob Wettstein was a Swiss theologian, best known as a New Testament critic.-Youth and study:...
(the last number 112). It was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Griesbach, who gave for it number 113.
It is currently housed at the British Library
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom, and is the world's largest library in terms of total number of items. The library is a major research library, holding over 150 million items from every country in the world, in virtually all known languages and in many formats,...
(Harley 1810), in London.
- List of New Testament minuscules
- Biblical manuscript
A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. The word Bible comes from the Greek biblia ; manuscript comes from Latin manu and scriptum...
- Textual criticism
Textual criticism is a branch of literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of transcription errors in the texts of manuscripts...