Mining in Iran

Mining in Iran

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{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2011}} [[Image:Iran industry mining78.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Industry and Mining from U.S. Central Intelligence Agency map of Iran 1978.]] '''Mining in Iran''' is under-developed. Yet the country is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral rich countries, holding some 68 types of minerals, 37 billion tonnes of proven reserves and more than 57 billion tonnes of potential reservoirs. Mineral production contributes only 0.6 per cent to the country’s GDP. Add other mining-related industries and this figure increases to just four per cent (2005). Many factors have contributed to this, namely lack of suitable infrastructure, legal barriers, exploration difficulties, and government control over all resources. The most important mines in Iran include coal, metallic minerals, sand and gravel, chemical minerals and salt. [[Khorasan (Province)|Khorasan]] has the most operating mines in [[Iran]]. Other large deposits which mostly remain underdeveloped are [[zinc]] (world's largest), copper (world's ninth largest - revised from second largest in 2010), iron (world's ninth largest), [[uranium]] (world's tenth largest) and lead (world's eleventh largest). Iran with roughly 1% of the world's population holds more than 7% of the world's total mineral reserves. ==Economics== {{see also|Economy of Iran|Iran Mercantile Exchange|Tehran Stock Exchange}} Close to 30 percent of the country’s investment has been made in the mining field in recent years. In 2008, forty five percent of the [[Tehran Stock Exchange#Economic sectors|stock market's capitalization]] was in the mineral industries. In 2008 the share of the mining sector and mineral industries increased to over five percent in GDP. The sector with the highest [[profit margin]] among the [[List of Iranian companies|top 100 Iranian companies]] in 2009 was mining, with a margin of 58%, while those in the [[Fortune 500]] had a gross profit margin of 11%. In the first quarter of 2009–2010, Iran exported close to 5.6 million tons of mineral products worth over $1.2 billion. In 2009–2010 the mining sector had exports reaching $8.13 billion, accounting for about 32 percent of the country’s non-oil exports. Every year, the iron ore price is determined by the government after negotiations between iron ore and steel producers. In 2008, the average price of iron ore was set at $56 per tonne. The steel, cement and iron ore prices are currently being liberalized in Iran. In 2005, of 3125 ''operating'' mines, 2747 and 378 mines were run by private and public sectors respectively. As of 2010, 5,574 mines are being exploited in 30 provinces of the country (which are ''active'', ''inactive'' or in the state of being equipped). The rate of extraction from these mines stood at approximately 217.5 million tons in previous years. More than 100,000 people are presently engaged in the mines sector while as a whole some 500,000 people are employed in the mine sector. The number of operating mining units stands at 20,375. ''National Iranian mining company'' is the world's 23rd largest mining company with 0.6% of the world's total mining production. Exploration projects implemented by the ''National Geology and Mineral Exploration Organization'' in the three years period of 2005–2008 are six times higher than the figure for the same period during the previous government. Since 2005, mortality rate in mining mishaps has declined to one death for every 10 million tons of mining production from the previous figure of six million tons. ==Commodities== {{See also|IMIDRO}} Although the petroleum industry provides the majority of economic revenues, about 75 percent of all mining sector employees work in mines producing minerals other than oil and natural gas. These include coal, iron ore, copper, lead, [[zinc]], chromium, [[barite]] (world's sixth largest producer), salt, [[gypsum]], [[molybdenum]], [[strontium]], [[silica]], [[uranium]], and gold (most as a coproduct of the Sar Cheshmeh copper complex operations). The mines at [[Sar Cheshmeh]] in Kerman Province contain the world's second largest lode of copper ore (5% of the world's total). Some 128,500 tons were extracted in 2000–2001. Large iron ore deposits exist in central Iran, near Bafq, [[Yazd]], and [[Kerman]]. Iran produces [[orpiment]] and [[realgar]] [[arsenic]] concentrates, silver, [[asbestos]], [[borax]], hydraulic cement, clays ([[bentonite]], industrial, and [[kaolin]]), [[diatomite]], [[feldspar]], [[fluorspar]], [[turquoise]], industrial or glass sand ([[quartzite]] and [[silica]]), [[Agricultural lime|lime]], [[magnesite]], nitrogen (of [[ammonia]] and [[urea]]), [[perlite]], natural [[ocher]] and iron oxide mineral pigments, [[pumice]] and related volcanic materials, [[caustic soda]], [[Rock (geology)|stones]] and [[List of decorative stones|decorative stones]] (including [[granite]], [[marble]], [[travertine]], [[dolomite]], and [[limestone]]), [[celestite]], [[Sodium sulfate|natural sulfates]] ([[Potassium alum|aluminum potassium sulfate]] and [[sodium sulfate]]), [[amber]], [[tungsten]], [[agate]], [[lapislazuli]] and [[talc]]. Iran also produces [[ferromanganese]], [[ferromolybdenum]], [[nepheline syenite]], [[demantoid]]s, [[phosphate]] rock, [[selenium]], shell, [[andalusite]], [[rockwool]], [[garnet]], [[gabbro]], [[diorite]], [[vermiculite]], [[attapulgite]], [[calcium]], [[barium]], [[rare earth element]]s, [[scandium]], [[yttrium]] and [[zeolite]], and had the capacity to mine [[onyx]]. ====Iron ore==== In 2009 Iran will produce 25.5 million tons of iron ore (fines, lumps and concentrate), – Alternatively, [[U.S. Geological Survey]] ranked Iran, the 8th largest producer of iron ore in 2009 with 33 million tons of output. *[[Chadormalu Mining and Industrial Company]] produced 9,498,000 mt of iron ore. It is the largest iron ore producer listed on the [[Tehran Stock Exchange]], *[http://golgohar.com/ Gol-e-Gohar Iron Ore Company] produced 7,209,000 mt of iron ore; Gol-e-Gohar [[pelletizing|pellet]] plant near the southern city of [[Sirjan]], the biggest of its kind in the Middle East, uses iron ore concentrates from the Gol-e-Gohar mine in the province. The new plant produces five million tonnes of iron ore per year; enough for production of 2.5 million tonnes of steel. *Iran Central Iron Ore Company produced 5,310,000 mt, with the remainder produced by other smaller public sector miners. In 2009, Iran exported about 10 million metric tons of iron ore, mainly to China. [[Taxation in Iran#Customs|Tariffs for the export]] of iron ore concentrate and [[pellet]] have been set at 50% and 35% respectively (2010). ====Steel==== [[File:Foolad Mobarakeh50.jpg|thumb|right|200px|[[Mobarakeh Steel Co.|Mobarakeh Steel Mill]] in [[Esfahan]] is [[Iran]]'s largest [[steel mill]].]] Steel production capacity will reach 17 million tons from 10 million tons in 2009 after the private and state projects come on stream, and 40 million tons in 2012. Main [[steel mill]]s are located in [[Esfahan]] and [[Khuzestan]]. Major raw steel producers in Iran are: *[[Mobarakeh Steel Co.|Mobarakeh Steel Mill]] (47% market share as of 2010), *[[IMIDRO|Khuzestan Steel Company]] (23% market share, with new capacity of 80,000 tons), *[[Esfahan Steel Company|Isfahan Foundry]] (20% market share), *[[IMIDRO#Main subsidiaries|Iran National Steel Industries Group]] (10% market share), Other notable or new steel producers in Iran are: *Azerbaijan Steel Company, *Iran Steel Alloy Company, *Ahvaz Pipe and Rolling Company, *Khorasan Steel Company, *[[Natanz]] Steel Complex, near the city of [[Isfahan]] with annual production capacity of 800,000 tonnes of steel rods and is the largest steel rod plant in the Middle East, *Bonab Steel Complex, in the north-western province of [[East Azerbaijan]]. The first unit is a corrugated steel bar production line, with a production capacity of 1 million tonnes per annum and is the largest of its kind in the Middle East. The second unit is a steel ingot production plant, with an annual capacity of 500,000 tonnes. Iran became self-sufficient in steel production in 2009. In 2008 Iran produced 7.5 million tons of direct reduced iron (DRI). It produces 13 percent of global DRI production and 41 percent of total Middle East DRI production. In addition, these projects have resulted in industrial decentralization, development of underprivileged regions, increase in GNP and promotion of industrial infrastructure. Iran is the world's 16th steel producer. In 2010, Iran also inaugurated the largest [[galvanized]] sheet production plant for [[Automotive industry in Iran|automobiles]] in the Middle East in the city of [[Shahrekord]]. The plant, which was financed by [[Iran Khodro]] and [[Saipa group]], has a capacity of 400,000 tpy. ====Aluminum==== Aluminum production is projected to hit 245,000 tons by March 2009 (457,000 tons in 2010). The largest plants for aluminum production in Iran are: *[[Iranian Aluminium Company|Iralco]], *Almahdi, *Hormozal aluminum smelter plant in [[Bandar Abbas]]. The newly built Hormozal plant with an annual production capacity of 147,000 tonnes is a joint venture between Iran and Italy. ===Coal=== {{see also|Energy in Iran}} Iran has recoverable proven coal reserves of nearly 1.9bn [[short ton]]nes, and with total estimated coal reserves of more than 50 billion [[short ton]]nes. By mid-2008, the country produced about 1.3m short tonnes of coal annually and consumed about 1.5m short tonnes, making it a small net importer of coal. Iran plans to increase hard-coal production to 5 million tons in 2012 from 2 million tons in November 2008. Major coal producers and exporters in Iran are: *Kerman Coal Company, *East Alborz Coal Company, and *Central Alborz Coal Company. ===Zinc and lead=== Iran has over 220 million tonnes of proven zinc and lead ore reserves. With approximately 11 million tonnes of [[zinc]] metal constituent and 5 million tonnes of lead metal constituent, Iran has just below 5% of the world’s metal constituent reserves. Two important mines in Iran are: *Mahdi-Abad, which has 75 million tonnes of ore with a zinc concentration of 6% and a lead concentration of 2.7%, *Angouran mine, which has 16 million tonnes of ore with a zinc concentration of 26% and a lead concentration of 6%. In 2009, with approximately 165,000 tonnes of production, Iran ranked first in the Middle East and 15th in the world in terms of zinc and lead production. In 2009, Iran exported 77,000 tonnes of zinc and lead concentrate and ingot. The largest or most profitable producers of zinc and lead in Iran are: *Iran Zinc Mines Development Group (largest producer), *Bama Mining & Industrial Co., *Bafgh Mines Co. *Kalsimin Co. (the largest zinc producer in the Middle East) ===Copper=== In 2009 Iran will produce 383,000 tons of copper. As of 2011, Iran had the world’s 9th largest reserves of copper at 32.5 million tons. The mines at [[Sar Cheshmeh]] in Kerman Province contain the world's second largest lode of copper ore (5% of the world's total). As of 2010, Iran ranked 10th in copper production and 17th in [[copper cathode]]s production (220,000 tons). In 2009, Iran exported $1.2 billion worth of copper cathodes. [[IMIDRO#Main subsidiaries|National Iranian Copper Industries Company (NICICO)]] is one of the largest companies listed on the [[Tehran Stock Exchange#Economic sectors|Tehran Stock Exchange]] and was the largest non-oil exporter in Iran in 2010 with exports worth $1.3 billion. ===Gold=== {{See also|Central Bank of Iran#Foreign reserves|l1=Central Bank of Iran & gold reserves}} Based on a short-term program (2008), [[Gold mining|gold production]] will reach five tons per year. Under the long-term plan, the figure will rise to 25 tons per annum. The main gold-rich regions in Iran are: *Meydouk in Shahr-e Babak (Kerman province), *Khorapeh in Piranshahr (West Azarbaijan), *Nabijan in Kalaybar, (East Azarbaijan province) *Alikh in Jolfa (East Azarbaijan province), *Logheh (Zanjan province), *Qolqoleh (Kurdestan province), *Saqqez, in the west, *Piranshahr in the west, *Maherabad, in the east, *Sheikhabad, in the east. The gold mine in the city of [[Takab]] in the West Azarbaijan province (Iran's largest Gold mine) has over 4mln tons of proven gold reserves and 5.81 grams of gold can be netted from each ton of gold ore extracted from the mine. ===Cement=== {{see also|Construction in Iran}} In 2009, [[IMIDRO]] reported that 9 countries including [[Syria]], Venezuela, [[Bolivia]], Algeria, [[Lebanon]], Ecuador, [[Iraq]], Belarus and one of the Mid-Asian countries will have [[cement plant]]s which will be constructed by Iranian engineers. Iran is the 8th cement producer in world and 2nd in the Middle East, after [[Turkey]]. In 2009 Iran produced some 65 million tons of cement per year and exported to 40 countries. There are 57 active production units in Iran as of 2010. As of 2010, 28 cement companies were listed on the [[Tehran Stock Exchange]]. Iran constitutes 1.8% of the world’s cement production and 1.6% of the world’s cement consumption. The main producers of cement are: *Fars & Khuzestan Group is Iran’s largest producer of cement with a market share of 24%, *Abyek with 8% market share, *Tehran with 7% market share, *Sepahan with 6% market share. Cement production/prices in Iran are being liberalized since 2008. The cement industry is one of the economic sectors that will be hit the hardest in Iran following of the [[Iranian Economic Reform Plan#Subsidy reform plan|2010 subsidy reform plan]], because many Iranian cement factories are energy inefficient. ==Foreign Investments== {{see also|Foreign Direct Investment in Iran|Privatization in Iran#Mines & Metals|Labor and tax laws in Iran#Tax Advantages & Exemptions|l2=Privatization of mining sector in Iran|l3=Tax exemptions in Iran}} The government owns 90 per cent of all mines and related large industries in Iran and is seeking [[Foreign Direct Investment in Iran|foreign investment]] for the development of the mining sector. In the steel and copper sectors alone, the government is seeking to raise around US$1.1 billion in foreign financing. In the early 1990s the buy-back method of transaction (the government buys back the industrial project after the foreign direct investor has recouped his initial investment in the project ''plus'' a predefined profit) was introduced to bypass constitutional constraints on foreign investment and avoid potential political difficulties within the country. The scheme has government support for being an efficient means of attracting foreign capital, services and technical [[expertise]], while reducing foreign exchange expenditures and expanding exports. If the Iranian Government is to fulfil its 20-year plan to improve the country’s mining sector, it’s estimated that US$20 billion, mostly in foreign investment, will be required. *Projects eligible for buy-back agreements and foreign loan facilities are: :Projects that complete aluminium metal production lines :Projects that mobilise coal, iron ore, steel, copper and pigment metals production :Ferro alloys projects and gold production *Iran imports the following equipment to support its mining sector: :Mining equipment such as [[drill]]s, [[Loader (equipment)|loaders]] and [[shovel]]s :Support equipment such as [[bulldozer]]s, [[grader]]s, trucks and auxiliaries :Utility equipment such as compressed air plant equipment, water and waste-water treatment equipment :Mechanical equipment including equipment for crude ore handling, grinding, separation and treatment purposes :Laboratory and workshop equipment :Power supply and distribution equipment :Process control instruments Most of the electrical distribution equipment for water supply and treatment utilities, along with steelworks and storage facilities are manufactured locally. There is a demand for high quality second-hand [[machinery]] in Iran. To date, doing business in Iran has had political overtones. In this regard, countries which can maintain a [[Neutrality (international relations)|neutral]] and impartial political image in the Middle East are advantaged. ==Production statistics== The following is a list of some of Iran's industrial mining production and their international rankings: {{see also|International rankings of Iran}} {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left" |+'''Rankings''' !Name !Rank !Out of !Source !Notes !Year |- |[[Steel production by country]] |16th |World |[[World Steel Association]]/[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=raw-steel&graph=production US Geological Survey] |More than 10.9 million tonnes produced in 2009 and 14 million tonnes produced in 2010; Iran's production capacity reached 20 million tonnes/year in 2010; Iran plans to increase its steel production to more than 35 million tonnes/year by 2015 and to more than 55 million tonnes by 2020 |2009 |- |[[List of countries by aluminium oxide production|Aluminium Oxide production]] |26th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |130,000 tonnes/Year |2006 |- |[[Bauxite#Production trends|Bauxite production]] |10th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 500,000 tonnes |2008 |- |[[List of countries by copper mine production|Copper mine production]] |12th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 249,100 tonnes |2006 |- |[[List of countries by aluminium production|Aluminium production]] |17th |World |[[List of countries by aluminium production]] |Annual production of 457,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[[List of countries by cement production|Cement production]] |5th |World |[[List of countries by cement production]]/[[Media:Cement Production.JPG|Pie Chart of World's Production]] |In 2009: Annual production of 45 million tonnes, or ~1.6% of the world's total output & total production capacity of 55 million tonnes annually; Iran ranks 10th globally in terms of cement export |2010 |- |[[List of countries by iron production|Iron production]] |8th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 33 million tonnes |2009 |- |[[List of countries by manganese production|Manganese production]] |12th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 115,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[[Strontium#Occurrence|Strontium production]] |5th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |World's fifth largest producer of strontium |2007 |- |[[List of countries by zinc production|Zinc production]] |14th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 166,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[[Chromium#Production|Chromium production]] |5th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Iran produces more than 4% of world's total production |2002 |- |[[List of countries by feldspar production|Feldspar production]] |12th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 411,807 tonnes |2006 |- |[[List of countries by bentonite production#List of producing countries|Bentonite production]] |12th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 186,323 tonnes; Alternatively ranked at 13th by [[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] with production of 200,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[[Molybdenum|Molybdenum production]] |9th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 2,000 tonnes |2005 |- |[[List of countries by salt production|Sodium Chloride Production]] |15th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 2.62 million tonnes, or ~1.25% of world's total output |2006 |- |[[Baryte#Mineral associations and locations|Baryte production]] |6th |World |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=barite&graph=production Baryte Production Rankings] |Iran produces 290,000 tonnes or ~3.67% of world's total output |2006 |- |[[Gypsum#Occurrence|Gypsum production]] |2nd |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Iran is the world's second largest producer after China |2006 |- |[[Iron ore#Production and consumption|Iron ore production]] |9th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 35 million tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=perlite&graph=production Perlite production] |10th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Annual production of 30,000 tonnes of [[perlite]] |2006 |- |[[Silver|Silver production]] |19th |World |[http://www.silverinstitute.org/production.php The Silver Institute] |Annual production of 3.2 millions ounces |2008 |- |[[Turquoise#Iran|Turquoise production]] |1st |World |{{Citation needed|date=April 2011}} |Iran is the world's oldest, finest and largest producer of [[turquoise]] |2010 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=soda-ash&graph=production Production of Soda Ash] |20th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[Sodium carbonate|soda ash]] production of 140,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=quicklime&graph=production Production of quicklime, hydrated lime including Dead-Burned Dolomite] |13th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[Calcium oxide|quicklime & dolomite]] production of 2.5 million tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=iron-oxide&graph=production Production of natural iron oxide] |9th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual natural [[iron oxide]] production of 2,600 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=mica&graph=production Production of mica] |9th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[Mica#Occurrence|mica]] production of 7,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=magnesite&graph=production Production of magnesite] |13th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[magnesite]] production of 90,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=lead&graph=production Production of lead] |16th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual lead production of 24,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=kaolin&graph=production Production of kaolin] |12th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[kaolin]] production of 550,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=sand&graph=production Industrial silica production] |14th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[Silica|industrial silica]] production of 1.9 million tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=cement&graph=production Production of hydraulic cement] |14th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[Cement|hydraulic cement]] production of 32.7 million tonnes |2006 |- |[[List of countries by gold production|Production of gold]] |66th |World |[[British Geological Survey]] |Iran produces 850 Kilograms of gold per year |2008 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=ferrochromium&graph=production Production of ferrochromium] |14th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[ferrochromium]] production of 8,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=diatomite&graph=production Diatomite production] |20th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[diatomite]] production of 8,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=celestite&graph=production Production of celestite] |6th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[celestite]] production of 7,500 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=boron&graph=production Boron production] |9th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[boron]] production of 3,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=asbestos&graph=production Asbestos production] |9th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[asbestos]] production of 5,000 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=arsenic&graph=production Production of arsenic] |11th |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[arsenic]] production of 100 tonnes |2006 |- |[http://www.indexmundi.com/minerals/?product=ammonia&graph=production Production of ammonia] |21st |World |[[United States Geological Survey|US Geological Survey]] |Annual [[ammonia]] production of 1.02 million tonnes |2006 |} ==See also== *[[Ministry of Industries and Mines (Iran)]] *[[Iran Chamber of Commerce Industries and Mines]] *[[Industry of Iran]] *[[Petroleum industry in Iran]] **[[National Iranian Oil Company]] *[[List of Major Iranian Companies]] **[[Bank of Industry and Mine]] **[[IMIDRO]] **[[Chadormalu Mining and Industrial Company]] *[[Sungun copper mine]] *[[Economy of Iran]] *[[Privatization in Iran]] *[[Foreign Direct Investment in Iran]] *[[International rankings of Iran]] ==External links== *[http://www.mim.gov.ir/ Ministry of Industries and Mines] – Iran *[http://en.tpo.ir/documents/document/11971/12478/Annual-Reviews.aspx Annual Reviews] – Reports by the [[Central Bank of Iran]], including statistics about the mining sector in Iran. *[http://www.iranyellowpages.net/en/about_iran/Economy/mining_sector/mining_sector1.shtm Iran's Mining Sector] *[http://web.archive.org/web/20080723094637/http://www.austrade.gov.au/Mining-to-Iran/default.aspx Mining to Iran – Australian Trade] *[http://www.ngdir.ir/Default.asp National Geoscience Database of Iran] **[http://www.ngdir.ir/MINEMINERAL/MineMineral.asp Mineral Database of Iran] *[http://www.iranmining.com/eindex.asp? Iran mining & related industries information center] *[http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1997/9215097.pdf Mining Industry of Iran 1997] *[http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/ferroalloys/myb1-2006-feall.pdf FERROALLOYS: WORLD PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY, FURNACE TYPE AND ALLOY TYPE] *[http://www.mta.gov.tr/english/dergi/dergi_pdf/71/6.pdf Importance of mining cooperation between Iran, Turkey and Pakistan] Videos *[http://presstv.com/Program/169493.html Iran's mining industry] ([[PressTV]] 2011-video) {{coord missing|Iran}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Mining In Iran}}