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Military police are police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 organisations connected with, or part of, the military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 of a state. The word can have different meanings in different countries, and may refer to:
  • a section of the military solely responsible for policing the armed forces
    Armed forces
    The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their governing body, and to defend that body and the nation it represents from external aggressors. In some countries paramilitary...

     (referred to as provosts
    Provost (military police)
    Provosts are military police whose duties are policing solely within the Armed Forces, as opposed to Gendarmerie duties in the civilian population. However, many countries use their gendarmerie for provost duties....

    )
  • a section of the military responsible for policing in both the armed forces and in the civilian population (most gendarmerie
    Gendarmerie
    A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military force charged with police duties among civilian populations. Members of such a force are typically called "gendarmes". The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as...

    s, such as the French Gendarmerie)
  • a section of the military solely responsible for policing the civilian population (such as the Romanian Gendarmerie)
  • the preventative police forces of each Brazilian state (Policia Militar), responsible for policing the civilian population, which become auxiliary forces of the Brazilian Army in time of war


The status of military police is usually prominently displayed on the helmet
Helmet
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn on the head to protect it from injuries.Ceremonial or symbolic helmets without protective function are sometimes used. The oldest known use of helmets was by Assyrian soldiers in 900BC, who wore thick leather or bronze helmets to protect the head from...

 and/or on an armband
Armband
An armband is a piece of material worn around the arm over the sleeve of other clothing if present. they may be worn for pure ornamentation to mark the wearer as belonging to group, having a certain rank or role, or being in a particular state or condition...

, brassard
Brassard
A brassard or armlet is an armband or piece of cloth or other material worn around the upper arm, used as an item of military uniform to which rank badges may be attached instead of being stitched into the actual clothing...

, or arm or shoulder flash. In the Second World War, the military police of the German Army still used a metal gorget
Gorget
A gorget originally was a steel or leather collar designed to protect the throat. It was a feature of older types of armour and intended to protect against swords and other non-projectile weapons...

 as an emblem.

Naval police are sometimes called "masters-at-arms
Master-at-arms
A master-at-arms may be a naval rating responsible for discipline and law enforcement, an army officer responsible for physical training, or a member of the crew of a merchant ship responsible for security and law enforcement.-Royal Navy:The master-at-arms is a ship's senior rating, comparable in...

".

Australia



In the Australian Army
Australian Army
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence commands the Australian Defence Force , the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army...

, the Royal Australian Corps of Military Police
Royal Australian Corps of Military Police
The Royal Australian Corps of Military Police is a corps within the Australian Army. Previously known as the Australian Army Provost Corps, it was formed on 3 April 1916 as the ANZAC Provost Corps...

 also performs the role of a secondary communications network in the front battle zone.
In the Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces...

, the Naval Police Coxswain Branch performs dual roles of performing general police duties, investigation of criminal offences and a secondary role of ships' coxswain staff responsible for administration of ships' personnel. In the Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

, the Royal Australian Air Force Security Police perform the military police role, and train military working dogs for the Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

 while the Royal Australian Corps of Military Police train their own working dogs for a more Infantry/combat role.
All major crimes committed by or against personnel of the Australian Defence Force are investigated by the Australian Defence Force Investigative Service
Australian Defence Force Investigative Service
The Australian Defence Force Investigative Service is the body responsible for complex and major investigations involving the Australian Defence Force. The ADFIS conducts investigations of serious incidents and crimes involving persons subject to Defence Force Discipline Act jurisdiction...

.

Austria


Military Police Command (Kommando Militärstreife & Militärpolizei – Kdo MilStrf&MP)

The Austrian Military Police
Austrian Military Police
The Austrian Military Police ' is the branch within the Austrian Armed Forces tasked with law enforcement and the protection of the forces, military events and Austrian Armed Forces property....

 Command, located in Vienna, consists of the following elements
  • Military Police HQ
  • Fundamentals Division
  • Training Division
  • Signal platoon
  • Close protection
  • 3 MP Companies
  • MP militia


The Military Police has three locations in Austria. The Military Police Command and one MP Coy are located in Vienna. One MP Coy is in Graz and one in Salzburg.

The Military Police is the branch within the Austrian Armed Forces tasked with law enforcement and the protection of the forces, military events and Austrian Armed Forces property.
The increasing number of international operations with the participation of Austrian soldiers and new threat scenarios hugely expand the spectrum of tasks.
Additionally to its traditional domestic tasks, the formation now also fulfils tasks in international operations. In Austria the Military Police is only tasked with internal Armed Forces matters. Abroad, the Military Police is tasked with extensive assignments. It closes the security gap between a conflict that has ended and a functioning society.
A large number of experienced specialists and modern equipment are required to meet these demanding tasks.

Tasks
National tasks
  • Check routines and security checks
  • Security duty
  • Traffic control
  • Close Protection
  • Force Protection
  • Law enforcement
  • Inquiries

International tasks
  • Taking down traffic accidents
  • Crime scene investigation
  • Fingerprinting and photographing
  • Interrogations
  • Searches/investigations/support in interventions
  • Detention of dangerous criminals
  • Crowd and riot control
  • Operation of detention facilities
  • Interventions (Special weapons and tactics - SWAT)
  • Close Protection
  • Defence against terrorism


Address
Kommando Militärstreife & Militärpolizei
Maria Theresien Kaserne
Am Fasangarten 2
1130 Vienna, Austria
Telephone: +43-1-5200-39112
Fax: +43 1 5200 17 565
e-mail: kdomilstrf@bmlvs.gv.at

Belgium


The Belgian Army
Belgian Army
The Land Component is organised using the concept of capacities, whereby units are gathered together according to their function and material. Within this framework, there are five capacities: the command capacity, the combat capacity, the support capacity, the services capacity and the training...

's Military Police Group (Groupe Police Militaire in French, Groep Militaire Politie in Dutch) performs military police duties on behalf of all four components of the Belgian military. The group is headed by a lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...

 and has 188 members in five MP detachments. Until the police reformation around 2001, the Belgian Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was, besides its civilian policing tasks, responsible for the nation's Military Police duties.

The Military Police Group staff is located in the Queen Elizabeth Barracks in the Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 suburb of Evere. Alpha Detachment located at Evere covers the province of Flemish Brabant and the capital, Brussels. Bravo Detachment covers the Walloon Brabant, Hainaut and Namur
Namur (province)
Namur is a province of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium. It borders on the Walloon provinces of Hainaut, Walloon Brabant, Liège and Luxembourg in Belgium, and on France. Its capital is the city of Namur...

 areas and is located at Nivelles
Nivelles
Nivelles is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. The Nivelles municipality includes the old communes of Baulers, Bornival, Thines, and Monstreux....

. Charlie Detachment located at Marche-en-Famenne
Marche-en-Famenne
Marche-en-Famenne is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. It is the unofficial capital of the Famenne region, sandwiched between the Condroz, former land of the Condrusi, to the north and the Ardennes to the south....

 covers the Liege
Liège (province)
Liège is the easternmost province of Belgium and belongs to the Walloon Region. It is an area of French and German ethnicity. It borders on the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and in Belgium the provinces of Luxembourg, Namur, Walloon Brabant , and those of Flemish Brabant and Limburg . Its...

 and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...

 areas. Delta Detachment covers the Limbourg
Limbourg
Limbourg is a medieval town located in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium.On 1 January 2008 Limbourg had a total population of 5,680. The total area is 24.63 km² which gives a population density of 231 inhabitants per km²...

 and Antwerp areas and is located at Leopoldsburg
Leopoldsburg
Leopoldsburg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. On January 1, 2006 Leopoldsburg had a total population of 14,403. The total area is 22.49 km² which gives a population density of 640 inhabitants per km².-External links:*...

. Echo Detachment located at Lombardsijde covers Western and Eastern Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

.

The Military Police force carries out the following missions:
  • Maintenance of order and discipline: Consists of monitoring, maintaining and, if necessary, re-establishing discipline and military order. This also involves controlling stragglers and refugees in times of war and guarding and escorting prisoners of war.

  • Traffic regulation: Includes traffic monitoring and regulation to ensure the flow of military movements in accordance with plans. This includes route reconnaissance and marking, convoy and oversize vehicle escort and river crossing control. Traffic accident investigations is also a part of the job.

  • Security missions: Prevents and deters any threat to or attack against the personnel and property of the armed forces. The Military Police force protects, for example, the Palace of the Nation and the Parliaments and Councils of the Regions and the Communities, headquarters and classified conferences. MPs also provide VIP motorcycle escorts and honour guards, perform close protection missions, and escort classified documents and money transports.


The Belgian Military Police has also taken part in multinational peacekeeping missions such as Afghanistan, Kosovo and Congo. The Federal Police’s Military Crime Division (DJMM) performs all investigations involving the armed forces.

In 2003, duties relating to refugees and deserters in wartime were transferred from the then disbanded Belgian Rijkswacht (in Dutch) / Gendarmerie (in French) to the MPs. Members of the former 4 and 6 MP Companies were merged into the new MP Group, along with some Gendarmes previously assigned MP-related duties.

Belgian MPs are identified by black armbands with the letters MP in white block letters, worn on the left arm.

Brazil


'Military police' in Brazil has two meanings - there are provost
Provost (military police)
Provosts are military police whose duties are policing solely within the Armed Forces, as opposed to Gendarmerie duties in the civilian population. However, many countries use their gendarmerie for provost duties....

 corps for each of the Brazilian Armed Forces: Army Police
Army Police (Brazil)
The Army Police are the Military Police of the Brazilian Army. In the Brazilian Army, the Military Police is a specialty of Infantry. The operational units of the Army Police, there are several independent battalions and companies....

  for the Army
Brazilian Army
The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Military. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America and during the 19th century, such as the Brazilian War of Independence , Argentina-Brazil War , War of the Farrapos , Platine War , Uruguayan War ...

, Navy Police for the Navy
Brazilian Navy
The Brazilian Navy is a branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces responsible for conducting naval operations. It is the largest navy in Latin America...

, and Air Force Police for the Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
The Brazilian Air Force is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces"...

.

The second type are the preventative police, with military organization comparable to gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military force charged with police duties among civilian populations. Members of such a force are typically called "gendarmes". The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as...

, called the Military Police . Each State has their own Military Police.

There is also a joint National Public Security Force
National Public Security Force
The National Public Security Force , created in 2004, is a joint cooperation of various Brazilian Public Safety forces, co-ordinated by the National Secretariat of Public Safety , of the Ministry of Justice...

 , created in 1999. This force is composed of the most qualified State Military Police personnel from all the states, only to be used when the governor of a state asks for help to control a significant security crisis.

Cambodia


The Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military force charged with police duties among civilian populations. Members of such a force are typically called "gendarmes". The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as...

, or "Military Police", known as the Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

 is a paramilitary unit with about 7,000 soldiers deployed in all provinces. It is headquartered in Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of Cambodia. Located on the banks of the Mekong River, Phnom Penh has been the national capital since the French colonized Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's center of economic and industrial activities, as well as the center of security,...

. The unit's chain of command is through the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces
The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces are the national military forces of Cambodia. The Commander-in-Chief is HM King Norodom Sihamoni, and consists of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Special Forces....

 High Command.

The Royal Gendarmerie of Cambodia is deployed in every province and cities to keep the law in orders. Military police in Cambodia play an important role in Cambodia society which keep law and orders in cities like the National Police.

Canada




Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
The Canadian Forces , officially the Canadian Armed Forces , are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."...

 military police functions are currently carried out by the Canadian Forces Military Police
Canadian Forces Military Police
The Canadian Forces Military Police provide military police services to the Canadian Forces.Canadian Military Police are unusual in that they are classified as Peace Officers in the Criminal Code of Canada, which gives them the same powers as civilian law enforcement personnel to enforce Acts of...

. The Canadian Forces National Investigation Service
Canadian Forces National Investigation Service
The Canadian Forces National Investigation Service is the investigative arm of the Canadian Forces Military Police.-History:The CFNIS was established in 1997 with a mandate to investigate serious and sensitive matters related to Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces...

 handles investigations.

The Canadian Forces Provost Marshal is the head of the military police in Canada.

Prior to the amalgamation of Canada's Army, Navy and Air Force into the unified Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
The Canadian Forces , officially the Canadian Armed Forces , are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."...

 in 1968, separate service branches had performed military police functions independently: the Canadian Provost Corps
Canadian Provost Corps
The Canadian Provost Corps was the military police corps of the Canadian Army. The Canadian Provost Corps was authorized on 15 Jun 1940. The Canadian Provost Corps was amalgamated into the Canadian Forces in 1968.-Canadian Military Police Corps:...

 and the Royal Canadian Air Force Police
Royal Canadian Air Force Police
The Royal Canadian Air Force Police was responsible for military police functions for the Royal Canadian Air Force .In 1940 the RCAF set up the Guards and Discipline Branch, which later changed its name to the Directorate of Provost and Security Services . The DPSS provided police mainly for guard,...

.

The role of the Military Police in Canada has two main groups. The first group is "Garrison Operations", which includes all policing activities regarding investigations and patrols. The second group is in "Operational Support", such as POW convoy escorts, VIP's close protection, route reconnaissances and provide all elements of security while deployed.

The Canadian Military police all wear a red beret regardless of their attachment to the maritime, land or air command. They also wear a shoulder patches on both shoulders with the Canadian Forces tri-service insignia and the bilingual writing: "Military Police Militaire Canada".

Colombia


In Colombia, MPs (Policia Militar in Spanish) are very common. They can be seen guarding closed roads, museums, embassies, government buildings and airports.

Croatia


The Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

n Military Police (in Croatian
Croatian language
Croatian is the collective name for the standard language and dialects spoken by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries...

: Vojna Policija) is a part of the Croatian Armed Forces
Croatian Armed Forces
The Croatian Armed Forces were the armed forces of the Independent State of Croatia which were formed in 1944 with the uniting of the Croatian Home Guard and the Ustaše militia forces....

 (in Croatian: Oružane Snage Republike Hrvatske). The Croatian Military Police was formed on the 27 August 1991, shortly after the National Guard Corps (Croatian: Zbor Narodne Garde) now the Croatian Army was formed.

Parts of Croatian Military Police are:
  • NSVP - Military Police Education center "Bojnik Alfred Hill"
  • 66th Military Police Battalion
  • 67th Military Police Battalion
  • 68th Military Police Battalion
  • 69th Military Police Company
  • 70th Military Police Company
  • 71st Military Police Battalion
  • 72nd Military Police Battalion
  • 73rd Military Police Battalion (HRM (Croatian Navy))
  • 74th Military Police Company (HRZ (Croatian Air Force))
  • 75th Military Police Battalion

Czech Republic


The MILITARY POLICE Corps (Czech
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

 vojenská policie) was set up on 21 January 1991. Within the provisions of the Czech Law No. 124/1992 Dig. regarding the Military Police, they are responsible for police protection of armed forces, military facilities, military material and other state property controlled by the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic. The Military Police are a professional force.

The Military Police are headed by a Chief, who directly reports to the Minister of Defence.

As of 1 July 2003, the Military Police officers are equipped with accessories black in colour, including their distinctive feature - the black beret.

The structure is based on the territorial principle. The Military Police subordinated headquarters are located in Prague, Stará Boleslav, Tábor, and Olomouc.

Military police officers are assigned directly to military units, and they form also part of military contingents of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic in foreign deployments.
Foreign Deployments:

The military police officers serve within contingents of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic on foreign operations on the territory of Iraq and on the Balkans, and as of March 2007 its Special Operation Group (SOG) also in southern Afghanistan in the Helmand Province.

While the Iraqi Multinational Forces mission and ISAF mission in Afghanistan rotate every three months, the Balkan's Joint Guardian/Joint Enterprise operation in Kosovo (KFOR) is rotated every six months.

Denmark



In Denmark the military police (Danish: militærpoliti) services are carried out by branches under each service. The navy
Royal Danish Navy
The Royal Danish Navy is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force. The RDN is mainly responsible for maritime defence and maintaining the sovereignty of Danish, Greenlandic and Faroese territorial waters...

, army
Royal Danish Army
The Royal Danish Army is the land warfare branch of the Danish Defence Forces, together with the Danish Home Guard.For the last decade, the Royal Danish Army has undergone a massive transformation of structures, equipment and training methods, abandoning its traditional role of anti-invasion...

 and the air force
Royal Danish Air Force
The Royal Danish Air Force is the air force of Denmark with the capability to undertake homeland defense and homeland security roles as well international operations.-History:...

 each have their own military police branch, whereas the air force also has an installation guard branch (Danish: stationselementet), and a combat support wing which handles military guard duties in either national or international tasks.

MP-personnel typically wears either branch-specific display dress uniforms with white shoulder-markings with the text MP or the branch-common daily battle dress uniforms
Battle Dress Uniform
The Battle Dress Uniform were the fatigues that the armed forces of the United States used as their standard uniform for combat situations from September 1981 to April 2005. Since then, it has been replaced in every branch of the U.S. military. Only the U.S. Navy currently authorizes wear of the...

, with a red beret
Beret
A beret is a soft, round, flat-crowned hat, designated a "cap", usually of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, or wool felt, or acrylic fiber....

. In the air force the MP-shoulder markings is typically replaced with markings saing either VAGT or GUARD, but for international missions they also uses the MP-markings.

MP-personnel generally doesn't have elevated legal authority towards civilians in non-military places, but only towards military personnel and on military installations (also public accessible places like Holmen naval base
Holmen naval base
Naval Station Holmen is one of several naval stations of the Royal Danish Navy, supplementing the two Danish naval bases in Frederikshavn and Korsør....

 in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

). On some occasions MP-personnel can support the civilian police in certain tasks, but will only have slightly more legal authority than civilians - similar to the police home guard.

In the army military police are almost without exception NCO's
Non-commissioned officer
A non-commissioned officer , called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission...

 or officers
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

, whereas the navy and air force relies mainly of Danish ranks OR-1 to OR-3
Other ranks, Denmark
Other ranks are a joined term for military personnel that are not officers of various forces, by the NATO system of ranks and insignia. These personnel are NCO's and privates/seamen/aircraftsmen. In the Danish military those ranks are:...

.

Furthermore the home guard
Danish Home Guard
The Danish Home Guard is the fourth service of the Danish military, formerly concerned only with the defence of Danish territory, but since 2008, it has also participated in forward operating base guard duties in Afghanistan. Service is voluntary and unpaid, except that the most basic expenses...

 has a police branch, which supports both the civilian Danish police
Police of Denmark
The police of Denmark is the interior part of the Danish legitimate force providers...

 and the military police.

Typical MP-jobs are:
  • Installation/perimeter guard
  • Personnel protection
  • Traffic control
  • Courier services
  • Prisoner transport

Estonia


The Sõjaväepolitsei are the Military Police of the Estonian Defence Forces . The Estonian MP organization was created in 1994 and is today divided into tactical(patrol) and investigative units[]. Additionally conscript based reserve- MP platoons are trained in Guard Battalion every year. MP tasks include: investigation of serious disciplinary cases and some armed service- related crimes, supervision of military discipline within the Forces, military traffic control and various security tasks. Within conflict/crises areas (Afghanistan) the MP may provide close protection of the Estonian national representative and other visiting VIPs.
When on regular patrol assignment, Estonian MPs wear a black brassard on their right shoulder, with the letters SP in silver, and are usually equipped with an HK USP 9 mm pistol, spare magazines, radio, handcuffs, pepper spray and an expandable police baton.

Finland


The Sotilaspoliisi (literally, "Soldier Police") are the military police of the Finnish Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
The Finnish Defence Forces are responsible for the defence of Finland. It is a cadre army of 15,000, of which 8,900 are professional soldiers , extended with conscripts and reservists such that the standard readiness strength is 34,700 people in uniform...

. The Finnish MPs wear a black armband on the left shoulder with the letters 'SP' in white. A military policeman is usually armed with a 9 mm pistol, a baton, pepper spray and handcuffs on his belt. The military police includes both career and conscript personnel, and is primarily used to guard military installations and supervise military traffic. All military police personnel are trained with basic police techniques and usually receive training for fighting in urban areas. The military police have power over civilians only inside military areas and installations. However, a military police patrol may stop a crime that it witnesses in process in a civilian area. Additionally if a military police unit is near to a serious crime taking place, such as a robbery or an assault, and the civilian police are delayed, a military police unit that is near to the scene can offer to handle the situation until the civilian police arrive.

As with some other Finnish Defence Forces units, the military police can be used to provide assistance to the civilian police when they are undermanned or lack special resources. In such case, the military police may take measures which the civilian police deems necessary. For example, during the 2005 Helsinki World Athletic Championship Games, military police conscripts and career personnel were placed along the marathon
Marathon
The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometres , that is usually run as a road race...

 route to prevent the large numbers of spectators from obstructing the runners.

The crimes committed by military personnel are, as a rule, investigated by the military. Minor infractions are usually investigated by the career personnel of the unit, while more serious crimes are investigated by the investigative section of the General Staff of the Finnish Defence Forces. In minor matters, the company commander or his superiors may use disciplinary powers, but more serious cases are deferred to the civilian prosecutor who will take the case to the district court. In military cases, the district court and superior courts include military members in addition to the professional judge. Officers with at least major's rank have privilegium fori
Privilegium fori
The privilegium fori, Latin for "Privilege of the forum", is a generic term for legal privileges to be tried in a particular court or type of court of law....

to have their cases tried by the Court of Appeals as a court of first instance.

France



The Gendarmerie Nationale acts as both the military police and one of the two law enforcement forces of France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

.

Special divisions

The Gendarmerie Navale
Gendarmerie Navale
The Maritime Gendarmerie is a component of French gendarmerie under operational control of the chief of staff of the French Navy. It employs 1,100 soldiers and it has about thirty patrol craft and high-speed motorboats distributed on all the littoral waterways as well.-Missions:Commanded by a...

(also called the Gendarmerie Maritime) polices the Navy
French Navy
The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale and often called La Royale is the maritime arm of the French military. It includes a full range of fighting vessels, from patrol boats to a nuclear powered aircraft carrier and 10 nuclear-powered submarines, four of which are capable of launching...

 (and also acts as a coast guard
Coast guard
A coast guard or coastguard is a national organization responsible for various services at sea. However the term implies widely different responsibilities in different countries, from being a heavily armed military force with customs and security duties to being a volunteer organization tasked with...

 and water police
Water police
Water police, also called harbour patrols, port police, marine/maritime police, nautical patrols, bay constables or river police, are police officers, usually a department of a larger police organisation, who patrol in water craft...

 force).

The Gendarmerie de l'Air polices the Air Force
French Air Force
The French Air Force , literally Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1933...

, it is placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the Air Force, it fulfills police and security missions in the air bases, and goes on the site of an accident involving military aircraft. This branche is separate from the Air Transport Gendarmerie
Air Transport Gendarmerie
The Air Transport Gendarmerie is a branch of the French Gendarmerie placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the Direction of Civilian Aviation of the Transportation Ministry...

(Gendarmerie des Transports Aériens) which is placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the direction of civilian aviation and fulfills police and security missions in civilian airfields and airports.

The Ordnance Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie de l'Armement) fulfills police and security missions in the establishments of the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement
Délégation Générale pour l'Armement
The Direction générale de l’armement, which could be translated as “General Directorate for Armament”, or DGA, is the French Government Defence procurement agency responsible for the program management, development and purchase of weapon systems for the French military.-Armament programs...

 (France's defence procurement agency).

The Gendarmeries non-metropolitan branches include units serving in the French overseas départements and territories (such as the Gendarmerie of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), staff at the disposal of independent States for technical co-operation, provost detachments in French bases located in some independent States, Germany, security guards in French embassies and consulates abroad.

Germany



During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 had numerous military police units. The primary units were the Feldgendarmerie
Feldgendarmerie
The Feldgendarmerie were the uniformed military police units of the armies of the German Empire from the mid 19th Century until the conclusion of World War II.- Early history :...

, which comprised members of the Gendarmerie. Other units included the Army Patrol Service (Heeres-Streifendienst), the Train Station Guards (Bahnhofswache), and the Feldjägerkorps
Feldjägerkorps
For the modern German Military Police see: FeldjaegerThe Feldjägerkorps was a military police organization in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. It was formed on 27 November 1943 from distinguished veterans and Patrol Service personnel...

. Criminal investigations were conducted by the Geheime Feldpolizei
Geheime Feldpolizei
The ' or GFP, was the secret military police of the German Wehrmacht until the end of Second World War. These units were used to carry out plain-clothed security work in the field such as counter-espionage, counter sabotage, detection of treasonable activities, counter-propaganda and to provide...

 or Secret Field Police.

The Feldjäger
Feldjäger
For the German Military Police in WWII see: Feldjaegerkorps and FeldgendarmerieIn presence Feldjäger is the name of military police of the Bundeswehr, Germany's armed forces. The term Feldjäger, literally meaning field huntsmen or field Jäger, has a long tradition and dates back to the mid-17th...

are the current military police of the German Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

. The term Feldjäger ("field rifleman" or "field hunter") has a long tradition and dates back to the mid-17th century. Their motto is Suum Cuique ("To each his own", derived from Cicero
Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero , was a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and Roman constitutionalist. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.He introduced the Romans to the chief...

, De Finibus, Bonorum et Malorum, liber V, 67: "(...) ut fortitudo in laboribus periculisque cernatur, (...), iustitia in suo cuique tribuendo.").

Greece


From early on it was necessary to create a body responsible to the disciplinary control of the military departments and the certificate of compliance with the orders of the Tribunal. The former military police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 units started up in 1945 under the orders of Hellenic Army General Staff
Hellenic Army General Staff
The Hellenic Army General Staff is the general staff of the Hellenic Army, the terrestrial component of the Greek Armed Forces. It was established in 1906 as the Army Staff Service . Since 1950, the HAGS is subordinated to the Hellenic National Defense General Staff...

. From 1951 to the Law 1746/51 is now the official organ of the Administration with mission and responsibilities. Then reorganized several times by the Law 276/76 renamed military police (Greek: Στρατονομία) link title , as it is called today.
The Hellenic Military Police (Ellinikí Stratiotikí Astinomía (ESA), Greek: Ελληνική Στρατιωτική Αστυνομία (ΕΣΑ)) was the main security secret police
Secret police
Secret police are a police agency which operates in secrecy and beyond the law to protect the political power of an individual dictator or an authoritarian political regime....

 and intelligence organisation during the Greek military junta from 1967 to 1974. The Air Force in 1945 founded the unit titled Greek Police Aviation (ΕΑΑ), (Greek: Ελληνική Αεροπορική Αστυνομία) or Aeronomia Athens (Αερονομία Αθηνών). In 1976 was renamed by the Greek Police Aviation in Aερονομία link title.
The Police Military of Navy (Υ.NA., Greek: Υπηρεσία Ναυτονομίας) was created by the Greek Navy on 31 January 2005.

These three Military Police forces work together often but are independent from each other.

India




The Corps of Military Police (CMP) is the military police of the Indian Army
Indian Army
The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

. In addition, the CMP is trained to handle prisoners of war and to regulate traffic, as well as to handle basic telecommunication equipment such as telephone exchanges. They can be identified by their red berets, white lanyards and belts, and they also wear a black brassard
Brassard
A brassard or armlet is an armband or piece of cloth or other material worn around the upper arm, used as an item of military uniform to which rank badges may be attached instead of being stitched into the actual clothing...

 with the letters "MP" imprinted in red.

Internal policing duties in a regiment (or a station) are handled by the Regimental Police
Regimental Police
Regimental Police , sometimes called Regimental Provost Staff in the United Kingdom, are soldiers responsible for regimental discipline enforcement and unit custody in the British Army, some other Commonwealth armies and some armed forces structured in the British tradition...

, who are soldiers of the unit who are assigned to policing tasks for a short period of time. They are essentially used to regulate traffic, and can be identified by a black brassard with the letters "RP" embossed in gold or white.

The Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict...

 is policed by the Indian Air Force Police. They can be identified by their white peaked caps, white lanyards and belts (with a pistol holster). They also wear a black brassard with the letters "IAFP" imprinted in red.

The Indian Navy
Indian Navy
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. The President of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. The Chief of Naval Staff , usually a four-star officer in the rank of Admiral, commands the Navy...

 has the Navy Police, and they can be identified by a black brassard with the letters "NP" in gold, with the state emblem placed in between the N and the P.

Ireland


The Irish Military Police
Póilíní Airm
The Póilíní Airm is the corps of the Irish Army responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment. Its tasks increase during wartime to include traffic control organisation and POW and refugee control...

 (colloquially “PA”s, deriving from the official title, Póilíní Airm
Póilíní Airm
The Póilíní Airm is the corps of the Irish Army responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment. Its tasks increase during wartime to include traffic control organisation and POW and refugee control...

) are responsible for the prevention and detection of crime in the Irish Defence Forces
Irish Defence Forces
The armed forces of Ireland, known as the Defence Forces encompass the Army, Naval Service, Air Corps and Reserve Defence Force.The current Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence forces is His Excellency Michael D Higgins in his role as President of Ireland...

. Entry to the PA is restricted to serving members of the Defence Forces. All members of the Corps are NCOs, with Officers being transferred in for temporary assignments. Unlike many Military Police Services, they retain responsibility for the controlling access to many, but not all, military posts. In addition they provide a military detachment to the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
The Oireachtas , sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the "national parliament" or legislature of Ireland. The Oireachtas consists of:*The President of Ireland*The two Houses of the Oireachtas :**Dáil Éireann...

 (Houses of Parliament) and have a large ceremonial role. In the past they had a role in training armed elements of the Garda Síochána
Garda Síochána
, more commonly referred to as the Gardaí , is the police force of Ireland. The service is headed by the Commissioner who is appointed by the Irish Government. Its headquarters are located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin.- Terminology :...

 but in recent times this has decreased. Historically, they were responsible for detaining political prisoners in Military Prisons (until the handing over of Military Prisons at Cork, Spike Island, Arbour Hill and the Curragh to the Civil Authorities) and in the past occasionally provided firing squads for executions (the last time being the “Emergency” period of 1939-1946).

Israel


The Israeli Military Police Corps (Heil HaMishtara HaTzva'it) is the military police/provost
Provost (military police)
Provosts are military police whose duties are policing solely within the Armed Forces, as opposed to Gendarmerie duties in the civilian population. However, many countries use their gendarmerie for provost duties....

 of the Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces
The Israel Defense Forces , commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal , are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force and navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel...

. It also helps monitor prisons containing Israeli soldiers. At times of emergency enemy
Enemy combatant
Enemy combatant is a term historically referring to members of the armed forces of the state with which another state is at war. Prior to 2008, the definition was: "Any person in an armed conflict who could be properly detained under the laws and customs of war." In the case of a civil war or an...

 detainees are held and sorted by the military police.

The corps has very few civilian jurisdiction and for that reason works in conjunction with the Israel Police
Israel Police
The Israel Police is the civilian police force of Israel. As with most other police forces in the world, its duties include crime fighting, traffic control, maintaining public safety, and counter-terrorism...

 when civilians are involved. The Israel Border Police
Israel Border Police
The Israel Border Police is the gendarmerie and border security branch of the Israel National Police. It is also commonly known by its Hebrew abbreviation Magav , meaning border guard, whilst its members are colloquially known as Magavnikim . Border Guard is often used as the official name of the...

 is Israel's Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military force charged with police duties among civilian populations. Members of such a force are typically called "gendarmes". The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as...

-equivalent.

Italy



The Arma dei Carabinieri is a gendarmerie force which acts as both the military police and one of the three national police forces in Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. Formed on July 13, 1814, it has been for almost two centuries the senior branch of the Italian Army, until on October 5, 2000 it had become a fully independent Service of the Italian military.

With a strength of about 120 000, the Arma dei Carabinieri is a very large organization, including its own Air and Naval Services, but most of its personnel is used for civilian police duties.

The properly Military Police components of the Arma dei Carabinieri are grouped into the "Divisione Unità Mobili Carabinieri" (Carabinieri Mobile Units Division), organized as follows:

2nd Brigade:
1st Carabinieri Parachutist Regiment "Tuscania".
7th Carabinieri Battalion "Trentino - Alto Adige".
13th Carabinieri Battalion "Friuli - Venezia Giulia".
Gruppo Intervento Speciale.

From this units are drawn most of the elements that form the Carabinieri MP coys, platoons and detachments assigned to all the major Italian Army, Navy and Air Force units, as well as many of the personnel forming the MSU Regiments (Multinational Specialist Units) and the IPUs (Integrated Police Units) serving abroad in support of European Union, NATO and United Nation missions. The Arma dei Carabinieri have gained a very good reputation for the professionalism and organization of their MP units in support of international missions, so much that during the 2004 G8 Sea Island Conference the Carabinieri have been tasked to organize and run the CoESPU (Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units), to centralize the training of multinational MP units for international missions.

The 1st Brigade of the same "Divisione Unità Mobili Carabinieri", organized on 11 Mobile battalions and 1 Cavalry Regiment, does contribute to form the same Military Police components as the 1st Brigade, but is mostly tasked to riot control civilian police duties. It is worth to note that inside each of its battalions there is usually a small Mechanized company, so in case of war they are likely to be mobilized for combat duties (as it happened during both World Wars).

The Guardia di Finanza
Guardia di Finanza
The Guardia di Finanza is a Italian law enforcement agency under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance. Like the Carabinieri, it is part of the Italian Armed Forces. The Guard is essentially responsible for dealing with financial crime and smuggling; it has also evolved into Italy's...

acts as a specialized Military Police force when called upon. Its normal duties include being a force acting in border control, customs duties, and police investigations about financial crimes and illegal drug trafficking.

Japan


During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the Kempeitai
Kempeitai
The was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. It was not an English-style military police, but a French-style gendarmerie...

were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

 and the Tokeitai
Tokeitai
The was the Imperial Japanese Navy's military police, they were equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Army's Kempeitai. They were also the smallest military police service....

were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy
The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes...

. They also performed intelligence
Military intelligence
Military intelligence is a military discipline that exploits a number of information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to commanders in support of their decisions....

 and secret police
Secret police
Secret police are a police agency which operates in secrecy and beyond the law to protect the political power of an individual dictator or an authoritarian political regime....

 functions and were active in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and its occupied territories.

Today's Japan Self-Defense Forces
Japan Self-Defense Forces
The , or JSDF, occasionally referred to as JSF or SDF, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established after the end of the post–World War II Allied occupation of Japan. For most of the post-war period the JSDF was confined to the islands of Japan and not permitted to be deployed...

 maintain military police units.

Malaysia



The Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja
Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja
Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja is the Military Police branch of the Malaysian Army. Called "Redcaps" like their British cousins, Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja, more popularly called just "MPs", keep discipline within the Army ranks and ensure security at Malaysian Army Installations.- History :At the end of...

(Royal Military Police Corps) performs military police duties in the Malaysian Army
Malaysian Army
The Malaysian Army is the land component of the Malaysian Armed Forces. Steeped in British Army traditions, the Malaysian Army does not carry the title ‘royal’ as do the Royal Malaysian Air Force and the Royal Malaysian Navy...

. Apart from enforcing discipline and conduct of members of the Army, the Corps oversees security of designated Army installations, performs escort and ceremonial duties, and assists civil law enforcement authorities. The Kor Polis Tentera is also tasked with crime prevention and investigating criminal activities on Army property or by military personnel.

With its roots in the British Royal Military Police
Royal Military Police
The Royal Military Police is the corps of the British Army responsible for the policing of service personnel, and for providing a military police presence both in the UK, and whilst service personnel are deployed overseas on operations and exercises.Members of the RMP are generally known as...

, members of the Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja also wear the distinctive red peaked cap, white lanyard and belt, as well as a black brassard
Brassard
A brassard or armlet is an armband or piece of cloth or other material worn around the upper arm, used as an item of military uniform to which rank badges may be attached instead of being stitched into the actual clothing...

 with the letters "PT" imprinted. PT stands for "Polis Tentera", the Malay words for "Military Police". Military police on traffic duty wear armbands which sport the letters "MP" in red.

NATO


Evolution of Military Policing: during the Cold War the approach of NATO to military policing was to provide Military Police support to National Forces in terms of:
  • Traffic Control
  • Military Security
  • Law & Order


Post cold war, this has now evolved into:
  • Mobility Support
  • Security
  • Policing
  • Detention

Netherlands


In the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, the function of military police is performed by the Koninklijke Marechaussee
Koninklijke Marechaussee
The Koninklijke Marechaussee, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee, abbreviated to KMar, is one of the four Services of the armed forces of the Netherlands...

("Royal Constabulary"), a separate branch of the military
Military of the Netherlands
The Armed forces of the Netherlands consist of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.The service branches consist of:* Koninklijke Landmacht , Royal Netherlands Army....

 independent of the Army
Royal Netherlands Army
The Royal Netherlands Army is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.-Short history:The Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, but its origins date back to 1572, when the so-called Staatse Leger was raised...

, Navy
Royal Netherlands Navy
The Koninklijke Marine is the navy of the Netherlands. In the mid-17th century the Dutch Navy was the most powerful navy in the world and it played an active role in the wars of the Dutch Republic and later those of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands...

 and Air Force
Royal Netherlands Air Force
The Royal Netherlands Air Force , Dutch Koninklijke Luchtmacht , is the military aviation branch of the Netherlands Armed Forces. Its ancestor, the Luchtvaartafdeling of the Dutch Army was founded on 1 July 1913, with four pilots...

. Besides performing military duties, the Marechaussee is also a gendarmerie force.

The word Marechaussee
Marshal
Marshal , is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word is an ancient loan word from Old French, cf...

seems to derive from the old French name Marecheaux given to an ancient court of justice in Paris called the "Tribunal of Constables and Marshals of France". These constables and marshals were to become members of the Gendarmerie which served as a model for the police forces of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The term Marechaussee was also used for the Continental Army
Continental Army
The Continental Army was formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in...

's military police during the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

.

New Zealand


In the New Zealand Defence Force
New Zealand Defence Force
The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three services: the Royal New Zealand Navy; the New Zealand Army; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. The Commander-in-Chief of the NZDF is His Excellency Rt. Hon...

, ‘Military Police’ refers to elements within the New Zealand Army only. The term ‘Service Police’ is used to refer to the elements that provide military police services within the three services.

Service policing within the Royal New Zealand Navy
Royal New Zealand Navy
The Royal New Zealand Navy is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force...

 is performed by the Master-at-Arms
Master-at-arms
A master-at-arms may be a naval rating responsible for discipline and law enforcement, an army officer responsible for physical training, or a member of the crew of a merchant ship responsible for security and law enforcement.-Royal Navy:The master-at-arms is a ship's senior rating, comparable in...

 trade. These regular force (full-time) service members conduct criminal investigation services at sea and ashore, with additional duties also performed while at sea. Security of shore bases is the responsibility of New Zealand Defence Force
New Zealand Defence Force
The New Zealand Defence Force consists of three services: the Royal New Zealand Navy; the New Zealand Army; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. The Commander-in-Chief of the NZDF is His Excellency Rt. Hon...

 civilian security personnel.

The Corps of Royal New Zealand Military Police
Corps of Royal New Zealand Military Police
The Corps of Royal New Zealand Military Police provide military police services to the New Zealand Army, including criminal investigative services. It consists of one major unit, 1st Military Police Company; though members of the Corps are included in other units within the New Zealand Army...

 provide military policing within the New Zealand Army
New Zealand Army
The New Zealand Army , is the land component of the New Zealand Defence Force and comprises around 4,500 Regular Force personnel, 2,000 Territorial Force personnel and 500 civilians. Formerly the New Zealand Military Forces, the current name was adopted around 1946...

. Consisting of full-time and part-time service members, the RNZMP conduct Policing Operations, Investigation Operations, Custodial Operations, Security Operations and Battlefield Circulation Control domestically (within New Zealand) and deployed.

Service policing within the Royal New Zealand Air Force
Royal New Zealand Air Force
The Royal New Zealand Air Force is the air arm of the New Zealand Defence Force...

 is conducted by RNZAF Force Protection
RNZAF Force Protection
RNZAF Force Protection is the Royal New Zealand Air Force unit responsible for Base Security and Investigations, Ground Defence, Service Policing, Physical Fitness and Core Military Skills...

 (formerly RNZAF Police / Air Security Police). RNZAF Force Protection
RNZAF Force Protection
RNZAF Force Protection is the Royal New Zealand Air Force unit responsible for Base Security and Investigations, Ground Defence, Service Policing, Physical Fitness and Core Military Skills...

 personnel conduct security of airfields and Air Force bases, policing and investigation services, and provide training for Air Force personnel in ground defence, Core Military Skills and drill/ceremonial training. The recent amalgamation of trades within RNZAF has seen Physical Training Instructors and the RNZAF Survival Centre come under RNZAF Force Protection
RNZAF Force Protection
RNZAF Force Protection is the Royal New Zealand Air Force unit responsible for Base Security and Investigations, Ground Defence, Service Policing, Physical Fitness and Core Military Skills...

, the Military Working Dog unit also provides an additional security function for airfields and aircraft.

Criminal investigations into offending by service personnel or involving service property are undertaken by the Service Police elements of the respective single service (Navy, Army or Air Force). At all NZDF facilities, civilian staff are used to augment physical security manpower, particularly for relatively simple tasks like ID checking and security patrols.

Norway



In Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

, military police are service members of the Norwegian Army
Norwegian Army
Norway achieved full independence in 1905, and in the first century of its short life has contributed to two major conflicts, the Cold War and the War on Terror. The Norwegian Army currently operates in the north of Norway and in Afghanistan as well as in Eastern Europe. The Army is the oldest of...

, Royal Norwegian Navy
Royal Norwegian Navy
The Royal Norwegian Navy is the branch of the Norwegian Defence Force responsible for naval operations. , the RNoN consists of approximately 3,700 personnel and 70 vessels, including 5 heavy frigates, 6 submarines, 14 patrol boats, 4 minesweepers, 4 minehunters, 1 mine detection vessel, 4 support...

 or Royal Norwegian Air Force
Royal Norwegian Air Force
The Royal Norwegian Air Force is the air force of Norway. It was established as a separate arm of the Norwegian armed forces on 10 November 1944. The RNoAF's peace force is approximately 1,430 employees . 600 personnel also serve their draft period in the RNoAF...

. Since about 2002, all are trained at Sessvollmoen Camp. MPs in the Army are assigned to the Military Police Battalion, located at Bardufoss, Troms
Troms
or Romsa is a county in North Norway, bordering Finnmark to the northeast and Nordland in the southwest. To the south is Norrbotten Län in Sweden and further southeast is a shorter border with Lapland Province in Finland. To the west is the Norwegian Sea...

 county. The first battalion commander and Provost Marshal of 6. division Norwegian Army was Maj M Langvik, the current battalion
Battalion
A battalion is a military unit of around 300–1,200 soldiers usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by either a Lieutenant Colonel or a Colonel...

 commander is Lieutenant Colonel Jan Henry Norvalls. The battalion consists of approximately 50 officers and NCOs, and 150 privates and corporals. Norwegian MPs first go through a six-month selection/educational period, before being assigned to the battalion or to regimental duties with other units for the remainder of their twelve-month service. Norwegian MPs do not have authority over civilians, except on or in the vicinity of military installations, vehicles or other property or under martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

. They do have authority over military personnel, including in certain circumstances reservists, anywhere, including when such personnel are off duty.

The Heimevernet
Norwegian Home Guard
The Norwegian Home Guard , is a rapid mobilisation force in the Norwegian military. Founded 6 December 1946, it is the youngest branch in the Norwegian forces.-Organization:...

 ("Home Guard") also has MPs in its ranks. Usually each District (regiment) has one or two platoons, consisting exclusively of former regular or conscript military police personnel.

Norwegian MPs wear a red beret and a red lanyard around the left shoulder extending to the left front pocket. Only personnel currently serving as MPs are allowed to wear this. When on official duty, they also wear the MP armband, which is black with "MP" in red letters. It was previously worn on the right shoulder, but is now worn on the left shoulder, following NATO practice. They can also wear white webbing, or a number of items for special duties, like high visibility vests for traffic duty, or as mounted personnel while performing motorcycle escort for the Royal Family or their official guests, etc.

Army canine units are also assigned to the MP battalion, but the personnel in such units are not necessarily MPs. Such personnel do not hold military police authority, and do not wear the MP insignia.

MPs have no other powers over civilians than ordinary members of the public, except inside, or in the immediate vicinity of military installations. More serious cases, like narcotics, are handed over to civilian police for investigation.

Pakistan


Since the establishment and inception of Pakistan Armed Forces, Pakistan Armed Forces maintain their own military police. It was followed by establishing Pakistan Army Rangers, though, they were given the status of special paramilitary unit of Pakistan Army completely under control of civil government. Later, Pakistan Navy
Pakistan Navy
The Pakistan Navy is the naval warfare/service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Pakistan's Navy is responsible for Pakistan's coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important civilian harbors and military bases...

 established the "naval police", and Pakistan Air Force later established Air Police to maintain order in Air Force. Pakistan Government later established the Frontier Corps
Frontier Corps
The Frontier Corps is a federally-controlled paramilitary force of Pakistan, recruited mostly from the tribal areas along the western borders and led by officers from the Pakistan Army...

, (North-West Frontier Province
North-West Frontier Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country...

), Mehran Force
Mehran Force
The Mehran Force was an auxiliary of the Pakistan Army used for internal security duties in Sindh. In 1994 the Mehran Force had a strength of 24,000 and was organizationally divided into "wings" of approximately 800 men each....

, Maritime Security Agency
Maritime Security Agency
Pakistan Maritime Security Agency is a para-military law enforcement agency in Pakistan. Pakistan Maritime Security Agency responsible for protecting territorial waters of Pakistan. This should not be confused with the Maritime Wing of Pakistan Coast Guards, which performs Littoral patrolling of...

 and Pakistan national guards join it to law enforcement in Pakistan.

The "Naval police" is Pakistan Navy
Pakistan Navy
The Pakistan Navy is the naval warfare/service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces. Pakistan's Navy is responsible for Pakistan's coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important civilian harbors and military bases...

's established military police, and they can be identified as white brassard with the letters "NP", and the white beret . The Army maintains its own Military Police which is known as "Pakistan Army Corps of Military Police". The Army's Corps of Military Police can be identified as white armlet and white combat helmet
Combat helmet
A combat helmet or battle helmet is a type of personal armor designed specifically to protect the head during combat. Helmets are among the oldest forms of personal protective equipment and are known to have been worn by the Akkadians/Sumerians in the 23rd century BC, Mycenaean Greeks since 17th...

 with the letters "MP", written in Green colors. The Air Force established its own military police known as "Pakistan Air Force Police Corps". The Air Police can be identified as white armlet and the white combat helmet as the letters are written in Blue colors in the combat helmet. The "Pakistan Rangers" are a special operations paramilitary force under control of Interior Ministry of Pakistan Government. The Rangers are credited to participated alongside with Army's Special Forces in numerous battles.

The Naval, Army, and the Air Force Military Police Corps does not have civilian jurisdiction nor the civil courts can interfere in the operations of Military Police Corps . Instead, all the of combined Military Corps are under jurisdiction of the Judge Advocate General Branch
Judge Advocate General Branch
The Judge Advocate General Branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces is composed of Pakistan's Military senior officers, lawyers and judges who provide legal services to the Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marines at all levels of command...

 (also known as JAG Corps), the military justice system of Pakistan Armed Forces. In a very few cases, the Military Police Corps have worked with the civil Police Services of Pakistan if the civilians are involved.

Philippines


The Philippine Armed Forces each maintain their own military police.

The former Philippine Constabulary
Philippine Constabulary
The Philippine Constabulary ' was the oldest of four service commands of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. It was a gendarmerie type para-military police force of the Philippines established in 1901 by the United States-appointed administrative authority replacing the Guardia Civil...

 was also known as the Military Police Command
The Republic Act 6975 also known as The DILG Reorganization Act of 1991, the PC formed the basis of the PNP
Philippine National Police
The Philippine National Police is the national police force of the Republic of the Philippines. It is both a national and a local police force in that it does provides all law enforcement services throughout the Philippines...

 now under the Department of Interior and Local Government.

Poland


The Military Gendarmerie
Military Gendarmerie
The Military Gendarmerie is a military provost formation created in 1990 in Poland.-History:Polish military police traces its history to the communist era Military Internal Service , World War II-era Service for Protection of the Uprising , interwar-era military police in the Second Polish Republic,...

 (Żandarmeria Wojskowa, ŻW) are the MP's for the entire Polish military
Polish Armed Forces
Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej are the national defense forces of Poland...

.

Portugal



In Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, each branch of the armed forces has its own military police force. The Portuguese Navy
Portuguese Navy
The Portuguese Navy is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defence of Portugal....

 has the Polícia Naval (Naval Police), the Portuguese Army
Portuguese Army
The Portuguese Army is the ground branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in co-operation with other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the defence of Portugal...

 has the Polícia do Exército (Army Police), and the Portuguese Air Force
Portuguese Air Force
The Portuguese Air Force is the air force of Portugal. Formed on July 1, 1952, with the Aeronáutica Militar and Aviação Naval united in a single independent Air Force, it is one of the three branches of the Portuguese Armed Forces and its origins dates back to 1912, when the military aviation...

 has the Polícia Aérea
Polícia Aérea
The Polícia Aérea are a Special Forces unit, a Police unit from Portuguese Air Force. The primary mission of the Air Police is to guarantee the security and immediate defense of the Air Force units in the Portuguese territory. Outside the national territory, it exerts its mission of supporting...

(Air Police). The Air Police is an Arm of its own inside the Air Force, but the Army Police is only a speciality of the Cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

 Arm and the Naval Police is a speciality of the Fuzileiros (Marines) Corps. The Navy also has a coast guard police force, composed by Portuguese Navy troops, the Polícia Maritima (Maritime Police), with the responsibility of guarding the Lisbon Naval Base and some other naval facilities, and to serve as a coast guard and criminal police in the area of responsibility of the Maritime Authority.

Portugal, also, has a gendarmerie type force, the GNR - Guarda Nacional Republicana (National Republican Guard), a special corps of troops that executes both civil public security missions and military missions. In time of peace, the GNR is under operacional command of the Minister of Internal Affairs, but in time of war it can be put under the command of the Armed Forces.

Romania


In Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, the Romanian Military Police
Romanian Military Police
The Romanian Military Police is the military police of the Romanian Armed Forces. It was formed in 1990, immediately after the 1989 Romanian Revolution, although the Romanian Gendarmerie performed military police duties between 1850 and 1949.-Mission:The duties of the Military Police are:*...

 (Poliţia Militară) carries out police duties for the Romanian Armed Forces
Romanian Armed Forces
The Land Forces, Air Force and Naval Forces of Romania are collectively known as the Romanian Armed Forces...

. It usually handles military security and military crimes and it has national jurisdiction. The Romanian military police is organized in four battalions (two of them are headquartered in Bucharest
Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

, one in Iaşi
Iasi
Iași is the second most populous city and a municipality in Romania. Located in the historical Moldavia region, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural, academic and artistic life...

 and one in Târgu Mureş).

The Romanian Gendarmerie
Jandarmeria Româna
Jandarmeria Română is the military branch of the two Romanian police forces .The gendarmerie is subordinated to the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform and does not have responsibility for policing the Romanian Armed Forces...

, although a military force with national jurisdiction, is not tasked with enforcing the law within the armed forces (in contrast to the French Gendarmerie, which acts as both military and national police force).

Russia


The Russian Military Police
Russian Military Police
Russian Military Police is a law enforcement body within the Russian Armed Forces, operated by the Russian Ministry of Defence. The Chief of Military Police is ex officio the First Deputy Minister of Defense...

 (Военная полиция России) are the MP's for the entire Russian military and carries out police duties for the Russian Armed Forces.

Serbia


(Latin: Vojna Policija, Cyrillic: Војна полиција) The Military Police are one of the best qualified and most combat-prepared organizations within the Serbian Military
Military of Serbia
The Serbian Armed Forces are the armed services of Serbia. They consist of the Serbian Army and the Serbian Air Force and Air Defence...

. Their responsibilities include counter terrorist operations, combating organized crime, close protection,securing hostages and search and rescue.

Specific training is provided for members of special units of the Military Police. Drills for Military Police units, from squad to battalion, are based on their anticipated tactical employment, including training in putting down civil disorder.
The Military Police Directorate of the General Staff
Serbian General Staff
The Serbian General Staff, also known as the General Staff of the Military of Serbia , is Serbia's highest unit of military organization and authority of the military...

 of the Serbian Military is responsible for overseeing the units of the Military Police.

See also:
  • Military Police Battalion Cobra
  • Military Police Counter-terrorist Battalion
    Counter-terrorist Battalion of MP Serbian Special Brigade
    The Counter-terrorist Battalion nicknamed: "Sokolovi" is a battalion within the Special Brigade unit of the Serbian Army. In the near past it was brigade-size, with 72nd Reconnaissance-Commando Battalion, and together was named 72 Special Brigade. It has the status of a battalion within the...

  • Žandarmerija
    Gendarmerie (Serbia)
    The Žandarmerija is the gendarmery of Serbia, Dissolved at the end of World War II, it was reestablished on 28 June 2001, by the Interior Minister Dušan Mihailović. The Special Operations Unit and Special Police Unit were later attached to the Gendarmery...


Sri Lanka


Each of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces has its own military police/Provost branch. The Sri Lanka Army is policed by the Sri Lanka Corps of Military Police
Sri Lanka Corps of Military Police
The Sri Lanka Corps of Military Police is the branch of the Sri Lanka Army responsible for the policing of service personnel and providing a military police presence on service property, operations and exercises. It is made up of three regular regiments and with headquartered at Regiment Center...

 and by Regimental Police
Regimental Police
Regimental Police , sometimes called Regimental Provost Staff in the United Kingdom, are soldiers responsible for regimental discipline enforcement and unit custody in the British Army, some other Commonwealth armies and some armed forces structured in the British tradition...

, who belong to each individual regiment
Regiment
A regiment is a major tactical military unit, composed of variable numbers of batteries, squadrons or battalions, commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel...

s or corps
Corps
A corps is either a large formation, or an administrative grouping of troops within an armed force with a common function such as Artillery or Signals representing an arm of service...

.

The Military Police force carries out the following missions:
  • Maintenance of order and discipline: Consists of monitoring, maintaining and, if necessary, re-establishing discipline and military order. This also involves controlling stragglers and refugees in times of war and guarding and escorting prisoners of war.

  • Security missions: Prevents and deters any threat to or attack against the personnel and property of the armed forces. MPs also provide VIP motorcycle escorts and honour guards, perform close protection missions, and escort classified documents and money transports.


The Sri Lanka Navy is policed by the Provost Branch. The Sri Lanka Air Force is policed by the Air Force Police (AFP).

Singapore


In Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, the Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command serves as the law enforcement agency of the Singapore Armed Forces
Singapore Armed Forces
The Singapore Armed Forces is the military arm of the Total Defence of the Republic of Singapore; as well as the military component of the Ministry of Defence. The SAF comprises three branches: the Singapore Army, the Republic of Singapore Air Force and the Republic of Singapore Navy...

. The Command is headed by a Colonel, otherwise also known as the Provost Marshal. Its sub-units included the Military Police Enforcement Unit (including Special Investigations Branch and the ceremonial and drill components), the Detention Barracks (DB), The 1st Provost Bn, MP Training School and the Security Support Forces (including Military working Dog Wing, Close Protection and Security Ops Unit). The Command also collaborates closely with the Singapore Police Force
Singapore Police Force
The Singapore Police Force is the main agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the city-state. Formerly known as the Republic of Singapore Police , it has grown from an 11-man organisation to a 38,587 strong force...

 in terms of policing work duties, investigations, etc.

Spain


Civil Guard (in Spanish Guardia Civil) is the equivalent to the gendarmerie in Spain. Despite their name, they are not civilians but military and subjected to military discipline. Their main and historical role is as rural police in rural areas. Nowadays they are also in charge of counter terrorism, road traffic control out of the cities, coast guards and customs, search and rescue and at sea and in the mountains and the security of the Spanish Prime Minister and the Government. They have jurisdiction in all the Spanish territory and over the civilian population. Therefore they are comparable to French Gendarmerie or Italian Carabinieri.

Besides the Guardia Civil, each branch of the Spanish Armed Forces (Army, Navy and Air Force) has it own military police (Policia Militar, Policia Naval y Policia Aerea respectively). They are only recognised as constabularies with jurisdiction over the military installations and military personnel. They have no jurisdiction over civilians out of the military installations. They are also in charge of the security of the military installations, play a role as bodyguards of the Generals, Admirals and other relevant military personnel, provide security services to military transports and police the military personnel abroad.

Sweden


In the Swedish Army
Swedish Army
The Swedish Army is one of the oldest standing armies in the world and a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces; it is in charge of land operations. General Sverker Göranson is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Army.- Organization :...

, dragoon
Dragoon
The word dragoon originally meant mounted infantry, who were trained in horse riding as well as infantry fighting skills. However, usage altered over time and during the 18th century, dragoons evolved into conventional light cavalry units and personnel...

s are the Military Police and Military Police Security Forces (MP SÄK). They form the Dragoons Battalion of the Life Guards. The Dragoons Battalion have roots that go back as far as 1536 making it one of the worlds oldest military units still in service. "Livdragon" is the rank of a private cavalryman. The Swedish Army Dragoons are one of few units that still use horses. Horses are being used for ceremonial purposes only, most often when the dragoons take part at the change of the guards at The Royal Castle.

Since 1 July 2010 The Swedish MPs are as the rest of the Swedish armed forces, hired and not conscripts anymore. There are two MP-companies currently operative. The 14. (part-time employed) and 15. (Full time employed) MP-Komp. The Sweden Democrats
Sweden Democrats
The Sweden Democrats is a political party in Sweden, founded in 1988. SD describes itself as a nationalist movement although others use the term far-right. Since 2005, its party chairman is Jimmie Åkesson, while Björn Söder is the party secretary and parliamentary group leader. An Anemone...

 have proposed introducing a military police which would be used to support regular police authorities.

Switzerland


In the Swiss Armed Forces, the Military Police is responsible for law enforcement on military property and for all incidents where military personnel or equipment is involved. Furthermore, the military police provides protection of Swiss representatives abroad and is in part responsible for the guarding of embassies and foreign VIPs in Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

, as well as maintaining personal security for members of the Swiss Federal Council
Swiss Federal Council
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of Switzerland and serves as the Swiss collective head of state....

. In addition, the Swiss Explosive Ordnance Disposal Center is a branch of the MP for the disposal of unexploded ordnance
Unexploded ordnance
Unexploded ordnance are explosive weapons that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, potentially many decades after they were used or discarded.While "UXO" is widely and informally used, munitions and explosives of...

 and also participates in various demining
Demining
Demining or mine clearance is the process of removing either land mines, or naval mines, from an area, while minesweeping describes the act of detecting of mines. There are two distinct types of mine detection and removal: military and humanitarian.Minesweepers use many tools in order to accomplish...

 operations around the world.

The professional MP units comprise 758 officers and are divided into four Regions, each consisting of two companies and additional groups specialised on criminal investigations and training. In addition, there are two militia MP battalions with a head count of roughly 2000 men.

Unlike regular army personnel, military policemen wear grey uniforms in order to provide distinct identification. Moreover, the MP is equipped uniquely, armed with SIG Pro
SIG Pro
The SIG Pro is a series of semi-automatic pistols developed and manufactured jointly by Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft and J. P. Sauer & Sohn...

 side arms and SIG 552 assault rifles (compared to the standard issue SIG P220
SIG P220
The SIG P220 is a semi-automatic pistol designed in Switzerland by Swiss Arms AG . It is manufactured in Eckernförde, Germany, by J.P. Sauer und Sohn GmbH. It uses the Browning linkless cam short recoil action of self-loading with a double action trigger mechanism...

 pistol and SIG 550 assault rifle). Professional MP units drive patrol cars
Police car
A police car is a ground vehicle used by police, to assist with their duties in patrolling and responding to incidents. Typical uses of a police car include transportation for officers to reach the scene of an incident quickly, to transport criminal suspects, or to patrol an area, while providing a...

 similar to those of the civilian police
Cantonal police
The Cantonal police are the law enforcement agencies for each of the 26 Swiss Cantons. Law enforcement in Switzerland is mainly a responsibility of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, which each operate cantonal police agencies. Some cities also operate municipal police agencies as provided for by...

, but also use Piranha
Mowag Piranha
The MOWAG Piranha is a family of armoured fighting vehicles designed by the Swiss MOWAG , corporation....

 and Duro
Mowag Duro
The MOWAG DURO is a tactical military vehicle in both four and six wheel drive. Initially developed for Switzerland by Bucher-Guyer AG in Niederweningen, Switzerland, who started production of all-wheel-drive trucks in 1976. An initial 3,000 vehicles order for the Swiss Armed Forces came through...

 APCs
Armoured personnel carrier
An armoured personnel carrier is an armoured fighting vehicle designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.APCs are usually armed with only a machine gun although variants carry recoilless rifles, anti-tank guided missiles , or mortars...

.

Taiwan


The ROCMP are responsible for enforcing military law, maintaining military discipline, providing backup for the civilian police force or serving as combat troops during times of emergency, providing security for certain government buildings, including the Presidential Building in Taipei
Taipei
Taipei City is the capital of the Republic of China and the central city of the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tip of the island, Taipei is located on the Tamsui River, and is about 25 km southwest of Keelung, its port on the Pacific Ocean...

 City, as well as performing counter-terrorism and VIP protection operations. The ROCMP are also charged with the defense of the capital Taipei.

Thailand



In Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, each branch of the armed forces has its own military police force. The Royal Thai Navy has the สารวัตรทหารเรือ (Naval Military Police) , the Royal Thai Army has the สารวัตรทหาร (Army Military Police), and the Royal Thai Air force has the สารวัตรทหารอากาศ (Air Force Military Police).

Air Military Police Department


The duties of the Air Military Police Department (กรมทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ) are peacekeeping, securing, regulating the traffic discipline within the Air Force installations and housing area, tackling illegal objects including deserted officers and runaway accusers, escorting VIPs and investigating crimes which are under the authority of the Military Court. These investigations include prisoners of war, enemy aliens, refugees and displaced officers within the Air Force and designated areas. It is under supervision of the Commander of the Air Military Police Department.

There is one active Air MP Battalion called the Battalion of Military Air Police (กองพันทหารสารวัตรทหารอากาศ). The Air Military Police Department is one unit under the supervision of the Office of Don Muang RTAF Base Commander (สำนักงานผู้บังคับทหารอากาศดอนเมือง).

Turkey


The Military Police (Askeri İnzibat, or As.Iz.) are part of the Turkish Gendarmerie
Turkish Gendarmerie
The Turkish Gendarmerie is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces and it is responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces , as well as assuring internal security and general border control along with carrying out other specific...

, one of the five branches of the Turkish Armed Forces
Turkish Armed Forces
The Turkish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy , and the Air Force...

, and constitute a very small dedicated force which handles military security and military crimes.

Ukraine


The Ukrainian Military Police
Ukrainian Military Police
The Ukrainian Military Law-Enforcement Service is the military police of the Ukrainian Armed Forces. It was formed on May 19, 2002.-Iraq :...

 (VSP) is the military police for the Ukrainian Armed Forces

United Kingdom



In the United Kingdom the term 'Military Police' refers to the Royal Military Police. The Royal Military Police are a Corps, belonging to the Adjutant General's Corps, that is responsible for policing the British Army (both at home and overseas).

The term 'Service Police' is now used to describe the three separate police forces for the three branches of the UK's Armed Forces:
  • The Royal Navy
    Royal Navy
    The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

     is policed by the Royal Navy Police, the members of which are traditionally known as Regulators (or Master-at-Arms
    Master-at-arms
    A master-at-arms may be a naval rating responsible for discipline and law enforcement, an army officer responsible for physical training, or a member of the crew of a merchant ship responsible for security and law enforcement.-Royal Navy:The master-at-arms is a ship's senior rating, comparable in...

     if a Chief Petty Officer
    Chief Petty Officer
    A chief petty officer is a senior non-commissioned officer in many navies and coast guards.-Canada:"Chief Petty Officer" refers to two ranks in the Canadian Navy...

     or Warrant Officer
    Warrant Officer
    A warrant officer is an officer in a military organization who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, or from non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer by virtue of seniority.The rank was first...

    ).
    • The RN Police also provides Royal Marines
      Royal Marines
      The Corps of Her Majesty's Royal Marines, commonly just referred to as the Royal Marines , are the marine corps and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service...

       specialising as Service Policemen. Prior to 2009 the Royal Marines Police
      Royal Marines Police
      The Royal Marines Police is the military police of the British Royal Marines.The RM Police is responsible for providing garrison policing services; law enforcement and crime prevention as well as general security advice to the command, and includes a Special Investigation Branch section for the...

       was an independent organisation within the Corps.
  • The British Army
    British Army
    The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

     is policed by the Royal Military Police
    Royal Military Police
    The Royal Military Police is the corps of the British Army responsible for the policing of service personnel, and for providing a military police presence both in the UK, and whilst service personnel are deployed overseas on operations and exercises.Members of the RMP are generally known as...

     (RMP.) Despite their title, Regimental Police (RP) Do NOT have any police powers, they are merely disciplinarians within units. They are normally located in the Guardroom.
  • The Royal Air Force
    Royal Air Force
    The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

     is policed by the Royal Air Force Police
    Royal Air Force Police
    The Royal Air Force Police is the Service Police branch of the Royal Air Force. It was formed on 1 April 1918, when the RAF was formed by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service . It is responsible for the policing of all service personnel much like there RN or Army...

     (RAFP).


In addition, each of the three service police has its own Special Investigation Branch
Special Investigation Branch
The Special Investigation Branch is the name given to the detective branches of all three British military police arms: the Royal Navy Police, Royal Military Police and Royal Air Force Police. It is most closely associated with the Royal Military Police, which has the largest SIB. SIB members...

 (SIB) to undertake investigation of more serious crime and plain-clothes investigations, and utilise the joint Service Police Crime Bureau
Service Police Crime Bureau
The Service Police Crime Bureau is operated by the Royal Military Police, Royal Air Force Police and Royal Navy Police. It is located at the Defence College of Policing and Guarding at Southwick Park, near Portsmouth, England.The Bureau includes:...

 operated by the RNP, RMP and RAFP.

United States


Each branch of the military of the United States
Military of the United States
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

 maintains its own military police force, except for the US Coast Guard which is its own law enforcement agency; the coast guard uses its shore patrol, Reserve Investigators, and members of the Coast Guard Investigative Service to regulate its own population. Here is a list of military police forces:
  • Military Police Corps/Office of the Provost Marshal General
    United States Army Provost Marshal General
    The Provost Marshal General is a United States Army staff position that handles investigations and incarcerations of U.S. Army personnel. It is the senior-most Provost Marshal position in the U.S. Army, reporting to the Chief of Staff of the United States Army. The position brings all aspects of...

    United States Army
    United States Army
    The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

  • Provost Marshal
    Provost Marshal
    The Provost Marshal is the officer in the armed forces who is in charge of the military police .There may be a Provost Marshal serving at many levels of the hierarchy and he may also be the public safety officer of a military installation, responsible for the provision of fire, gate security, and...

    's Office—United States Marine Corps
    United States Marine Corps
    The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

  • Masters-at-Arms branch (occasionally aided by temporary members of the Shore Patrol
    Shore patrol
    Shore patrol are service members that are provided to aid in security for the U.S. Navy, United States Coast Guard, United States Marine Corps, and the British Royal Navy while on shore...

    )—United States Navy
    United States Navy
    The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

  • Air Force Security Forces
    Air Force Security Forces
    United States Air Force Security Forces are the Military Police, Base Security and Air Base Ground Defense forces of the United States Air Force...

     (formerly known as Military Police, Air Police and Security Police)—United States Air Force
    United States Air Force
    The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

  • U.S. Naval Security Forces (NSF)


Each service also maintains uniformed civilian police departments. They are referred to as Department of Defense Police
Department of Defense Police
Department of Defense Police, not to be confused with Pentagon Police, are the uniformed civilian police officers of the United States Department of Defense various branches of the United States Armed Forces . They are also referred to as DoD Police...

 (DoD Police). These police fall under each directorate they work for within the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

, for example: DoD Army or DoD Navy Police. The Department of the Air Force Police
Department of the Air Force Police
The United States Air Force Police are the civilian uniformed police service of the United States Air Force, responsible for the Force Protection of assets and all aspects of Law Enforcement on Air Force installations, and other facilities operated by United States Air Force.The Air Force Police...

 operate under the Air Provost Marshal. The police officers' duties are similar to those of local civilian police officers. They enforce the Uniform Code of Military Justice
Uniform Code of Military Justice
The Uniform Code of Military Justice , is the foundation of military law in the United States. It is was established by the United States Congress in accordance with the authority given by the United States Constitution in Article I, Section 8, which provides that "The Congress shall have Power . ....

 (UCMJ), federal
Law of the United States
The law of the United States consists of many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States...

 and state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 laws, and the regulations of their particular installation.

Criminal investigations in the United States Armed Forces are carried out by separate agencies:
  • United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID)—Army
  • Naval Criminal Investigative Service
    Naval Criminal Investigative Service
    The United States Naval Criminal Investigative Service is the primary security, counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism, and law enforcement agency of the United States Department of the Navy...

     (NCIS)—Navy and Marine Corps
  • United States Marine Corps Criminal Investigation Division
    United States Marine Corps Criminal Investigation Division
    United States Marine Corps Criminal Investigation Division is a federal law enforcement agency that investigates crimes against persons and property within the United States Marine Corps. CID agents operate under the Provost Marshal's Office...

     (minor crimes)
  • Air Force Office of Special Investigations
    Air Force Office of Special Investigations
    The Air Force Office of Special Investigations , is a Field Operating Agency of the United States Air Force that provides professional investigative services to commanders throughout the Air Force...

     (OSI)—Air Force
  • Coast Guard Investigative Service
    Coast Guard Investigative Service
    The Coast Guard Investigative Service is a division of the United States Coast Guard that investigates crimes where the Coast Guard has an interest...

     (CGIS)—Coast Guard


The Defense Criminal Investigative Service
Defense Criminal Investigative Service
The Defense Criminal Investigative Service is the criminal investigative arm of the Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense...

 (DCIS) is a civilian agency that answers directly to the DOD as well as the Pentagon Force Protection Agency
Pentagon Force Protection Agency
The Pentagon Force Protection Agency is a civilian Defense Agency within the Department of Defense charged with protecting and safeguarding the occupants, visitors, and infrastructure of the Pentagon, Navy Annex and other assigned Pentagon facilities.This mission is accomplished with law...

 (PFPA).

The United States Constabulary
United States Constabulary
The United States Constabulary was a United States Army military Constabulary force. From 1946 to 1952, in the aftermath of World War II, it acted as an occupation and security force in the U.S...

 was a gendarmerie force used to secure and patrol the American Zone of West Germany
Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
The Allied powers who defeated Nazi Germany in World War II divided the country west of the Oder-Neisse line into four occupation zones for administrative purposes during 1945–49. In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, US forces had pushed beyond the previously agreed boundaries for the...

 immediately after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

Military police are trained to provide area security, usually by vehicle patrol, which is the mission of most military police stationed in Iraq. They are also trained in dealing with prisoners of war and other detainees, with special training in restraining, searching, and transporting prisoners to detainee camps. MPs can also be used as prison guards in detainee camps, although that responsibility usually falls on Internment/Resettlement Specialists, MOS 31E (Formerly Corrections Specialists).

Limitation of authority and jurisdiction


United States military police are prohibited from enacting state police powers and domestic peace officer
Peace officer
A law enforcement officer , in North America, is any public-sector employee or agent whose duties involve the enforcement of laws. The phrase can include police officers, prison officers, customs officers, immigration officers, bailiffs, probation officers, parole officers, auxiliary officers, and...

 powers under the Posse Comitatus Act
Posse Comitatus Act
The Posse Comitatus Act is an often misunderstood and misquoted United States federal law passed on June 18, 1878, after the end of Reconstruction. Its intent was to limit the powers of local governments and law enforcement agencies from using federal military personnel to enforce the laws of...

, a federal law passed in 1878. MPs may enforce certain limited powers, such as traffic stops, on access roads and other federal property not necessarily within the boundaries of their military base or installation. The only way MPs are allowed to enforce law and order outside of the military realm as stated above is when martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 is in effect. When combined, the Posse Comitatus Act and Insurrection Act
Insurrection Act
The Insurrection Act of 1807 is the set of laws that govern the US President's ability to deploy troops within the United States to put down lawlessness, insurrection and rebellion. The laws are chiefly contained in - . The general aim is to limit Presidential power as much as possible, relying on...

 place significant limits on presidential power to use the military in a law enforcement capacity. This allows the state more time to use their resources and authorities to the fullest extent, allowing for the possibility of military involvement only when their resources have been completely used up.

The Posse Comitatus Act applies specifically to the U.S. Army (and, by extension the U.S. Air Force which evolved from a service of the Army under the National Security Act of 1947
National Security Act of 1947
The National Security Act of 1947 was signed by United States President Harry S. Truman on July 26, 1947, and realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II...

). The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps are not included in the statute but the Department of the Navy (which oversees both services) adopted the statute by regulation.

The only military force exempt from the act is the United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

, as its mission includes maritime law enforcement duties; and state National Guard troops under state authority and State Defense Forces
State Defense Forces
State defense forces in the United States are military units that operate under the sole authority of a state government; they are partially regulated by the National Guard Bureau but they are not a part of the Army National Guard of the United States...

, which are state troops serving under the governor and may be assigned enforcement support duties. The Alaska State Defense Force
Alaska State Defense Force
The Alaska State Defense Force is the State Defense Force of Alaska. It is one of 23 such forces in the U.S. states.The Alaska State Defense Force is the successor of the Alaska Territorial Guard founded during World War II...

 has a Military Police section, who are state constable
Constable
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions.-Etymology:...

s. Louisiana National Guard
Louisiana National Guard
The Louisiana National Guard consists of the:*Louisiana Army National Guard** includes the U.S. 256th Infantry Brigade*Louisiana Air National Guard-External links:*** compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History...

 MPs are frequently present at Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras in the United States
While Mardi Gras in the United States is not observed nationally across the country, a number of cities and regions in the U.S. have notable Carnival celebrations. Because of the French and Spanish colonial history of the settlements, the earliest Carnival celebrations occurred in Mobile, Biloxi,...

, assisting local and state law enforcement.

Warsaw Pact


The armed forces of the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
The Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance , or more commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe...

/USSR
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 did not "officially" have military police, as the Soviet government put forth the philosophy that crime is virtually nonexistent within the communist utopia; therefore, the government considered it unnecessary to maintain a force to police the military. There were generally two separate agencies which handled military police duties:

The Komendantskaya sluzhba or "Kommandant's Service" of the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 wore a yellow letter "K" on a red patch on the sleeve to indicate their membership of this service—the "de facto" army police.

A second organisation called the Traffic Regulators
Traffic Guard
A traffic guard, "traffic controller", "flagman", or "flagger" is a person who directs traffic through a construction site or other temporary traffic control zone past an area using signs or flags. They are responsible for maintaining the safety and efficiency of traffic, as well as the safety of...

 existed within the Rear Services
Rear services
Rear services were those agencies in Warsaw Pact and Soviet style military forces concerned with military logistics and support. The Rear Services supplied the armed forces with ammunition, fuel, spare parts, food, clothing, and other matériel. Usually a deputy minister of defense served as chief...

. Traffic Regulators served to control military highway and motor vehicle traffic. Traffic Regulators also wear a white painted helmet with red stripes to indicate their status and either an armband ar patch with the Cyrillic letter "P" (R).

Note: When the Warsaw Pact countries did find it necessary to form police forces they called them "Militsiya
Militsiya
Militsiya or militia is used as an official name of the civilian police in several former communist states, despite its original military connotation...

" (militia).

External links