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Military chaplain

Military chaplain

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A military chaplain is a chaplain
Chaplain
Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam or lay representative of a religion attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel...

 who ministers to soldier
Soldier
A soldier is a member of the land component of national armed forces; whereas a soldier hired for service in a foreign army would be termed a mercenary...

s, sailors
Seaman
Seaman is one of the lowest ranks in a Navy. In the Commonwealth it is the lowest rank in the Navy, followed by Able Seaman and Leading Seaman, and followed by the Petty Officer ranks....

, airmen, marines and other members of the military. In many countries, chaplains also minister to the family members of military personnel, to civilian noncombatants working for military organizations and to civilians within the military organization's area of operations.

Although the term chaplain originally had Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 roots, it is generally used today in military organizations to describe all professionals specially trained to serve any spiritual need, regardless of religious affiliation. Often, in addition to offering pastoral care
Pastoral care
Pastoral care is the ministry of care and counseling provided by pastors, chaplains and other religious leaders to members of their church or congregation, or to persons of all faiths and none within institutional settings. This can range anywhere from home visitation to formal counseling provided...

 to individuals, and supporting their religious rights and needs, military chaplains also advise senior officers on issues of religion, ethics
Ethics
Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.Major branches of ethics include:...

, troop morale
Morale
Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group, is an intangible term used to describe the capacity of people to maintain belief in an institution or a goal, or even in oneself and others...

 and morals, while also increasingly functioning as liaisons to local religious leaders in an effort to understand the role of religion as both a factor in hostility and war and as a force for reconciliation and peace.

Some military's chaplains only work with men and women of their faith group but in many cases chaplains work with military personnel of all faiths, as well as those who claim no faith or religious affiliation. While most military chaplains represent a religion or faith group, some countries, like the Netherlands, also employ humanist
Humanism
Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. In philosophy and social science, humanism is a perspective which affirms some notion of human nature, and is contrasted with anti-humanism....

chaplains who offer a non-religious approach to chaplain support. Some groups such as the Military Association of Atheists and Freethinkers, support the idea of such humanist chaplains in the military, and also work to make all chaplains more sensitive to the needs and rights of those who profess no belief in a god. Others advocate for secular chaplains who have no faith identification but who do have the professional qualifications for the counseling and advisory responsibilities of chaplains.

Nomination, selection, and commissioning



In countries where the term "nomination" is applied to candidates for the role of Chaplain, candidates are nominated in different ways in different countries. A military chaplain can be an army-trained soldier with additional theological
Theology
Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

 training or a priest nominated to the army by religious authorities. In the United Kingdom, the Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces....

 employs chaplains, but their authority comes from their sending church. Royal Navy chaplains undertake a 16-week bespoke
Bespoke
Bespoke is a term employed in a variety of applications to mean an item custom-made to the buyer's specification...

 induction and training course, including a short course at Britannia Royal Naval College, and specialist fleet time at sea alongside a more experienced chaplain. Naval Chaplains called to service with the Royal Marines may undertake a gruelling 5-month long Commando Course, and if successful wear the commandos' Green Beret. British Army chaplains undertake seven-weeks training at The Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre Amport House
Amport House
Amport House, currently the British Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre , is a manor house in the village of Amport, near Andover, Hampshire....

 and The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Royal Air Force chaplains must complete 12 weeks Specialist Entrant course at the RAF College Cranwell followed by a Chaplains' Induction Course at Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre Amport House
Amport House
Amport House, currently the British Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre , is a manor house in the village of Amport, near Andover, Hampshire....

 of a further 2 weeks.

In the United States, the term, nomination, is not generally applied to the process of becoming a military chaplain. Individuals volunteer, and if they are accepted, they are commissioned as military staff officers in the Chaplain Corps. Members of the clergy who meet the qualifications for service as an officer in the military are free to apply for service with any of the three United States Chaplain Corps: the Army, Navy, and Air Force each has a Chaplain Corps, with Navy chaplains also assigned to serve with Marine Corps units, Coast Guard units, and the Merchant Marine Academy
United States Merchant Marine Academy
The United States Merchant Marine Academy is one of the five United States Service academies...

. Some clergy, like rabbis, can apply without permission from any individual or organization within their faith group; others, in faith groups that have a hierarchy established to make decisions on the postings or positions of their members, must be granted permission from the appropriate official, such as the appropriate Bishop. As the application process proceeds, and the military determines whether the applicant will meet standards in areas such as health, physical fitness, age, education, citizenship, past criminal history, and suitability for service, which includes supporting the free exercise of religion for men and women of all faiths, an endorsement from an endorsing agency that is recognized by the Department of Defense, representing one or more faith groups in the United States, will be required, in part to ensure that the separation of church and state is honored. Neither the government as a whole nor the military in particular will be put into the position of determining whether an individual is a bona fide priest, minister, rabbi, imam, etc. (The requirement for such an endorsement has been in force since 1901, and today many of the various religious endorsing agencies work together under such non-governmental voluntary umbrella groups as the National Conference on Ministry to the Armed Forces.) Although ordination is normally required for chaplain service, some "equivalent" status is accepted for individuals from religious groups which do not have ordination, such as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) or the Church of Christ. Additionally, in cases where an endorsing agency is not yet established for an individual's religion, it is possible for him or her to be endorsed by the endorsing agency of another group, a process which was followed for the first Muslim chaplains in the military. In any event, this endorsement is recognized as necessary, but not sufficient for acceptance as a chaplain: in other words, the military will not accept an individual for service as a chaplain, nor allow him or her to continue to serve, without such an endorsement remaining in force; however, the decision as to whether to accept that individual remains with the military service, and the individual can be rejected for a number of reasons, including the needs of the military, even with the endorsement of an endorsing agency.

Noncombatant status


The Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of the victims of war...

 are silent on whether chaplains may bear arms. However, the Conventions do state (Protocol I, 8 June 1977, Art 43.2) that chaplains are noncombatants
Non-combatant
Non-combatant is a term in the law of war describing civilians not taking a direct part in hostilities, as well as persons such as medical personnel and military chaplains who are regular soldiers but are protected because of their function as well as soldiers who are hors de combat ; that is, sick,...

: they do not have the right to participate directly in hostilities.

It is generally assumed that during WWII chaplains were unarmed. Crosby describes an incident where a US chaplain became a trained tank gunner and was removed from the military for this "entirely illegal, not to mention imprudent" action (1994, pxxi). At least some UK WWII chaplains serving in the Far East, however, were armed: George MacDonald Fraser
George MacDonald Fraser
George MacDonald Fraser, OBE was an English-born author of Scottish descent, who wrote both historical novels and non-fiction books, as well as several screenplays.-Early life and military career:...

 recalls (1995, p109) "the tall figure of the battalion chaplain, swinging along good style with his .38 on his hip" immediately behind the lead platoon during a battalion attack. Fraser asks "if the padre shot [an enemy], what would the harvest be ... apart from three ringing cheers from the whole battalion?" (1995, p110).

In recent years both the UK and US have required chaplains, but not medical personnel, to be unarmed in combat, although the US does not prohibit chaplains from earning marksmanship awards or participating in marksmanship competitions. Other nations, notably Norway, Denmark and Sweden, make it an issue of individual conscience. There are anecdotal accounts that even US and UK chaplains have at least occasionally unofficially borne weapons: Chaplain (then Captain) James D. Johnson, of the 9th Infantry Division, Mobile Riverine Force in Vietnam describes (Combat Chaplain: A Thirty-Year Vietnam Battle) carrying the M-16 rifle while embedded with a combat patrol. Since 1909 US Chaplains on operations have been accompanied by an armed 'Chaplain Assistant'. However, perhaps on this occasion it was felt that an unarmed uniformed man would draw unwelcome attention.

Captured chaplains are not considered prisoners of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 (Third Convention, 12 August 1949, Chapter IV Art 33) and must be returned to their home nation unless retained to minister to prisoners of war.

Inevitably, serving chaplains have died in action, sometimes in significant numbers. The U.S. Army and Marines lost 100 chaplains killed in action during WWII: the third highest casualty rate behind the infantry and the Army Air Corps (Crosby, 1994, pxxiii). Many have been decorated for bravery in action (five have won Britain's highest award for gallantry, the Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories....

). The Chaplain's Medal for Heroism
Chaplain's Medal for Heroism
The Chaplain's Medal for Heroism is a decoration of the United States Congress which was authorized by an act of Congress on July 14, 1960. Also known as the Chaplain's Medal of Honor and the Four Chaplains' Medal, the decoration commemorates the actions of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives...

 is a special U.S. military decoration
Awards and decorations of the United States military
Awards and decorations of the United States Military are military decorations which recognize service and personal accomplishments while a member of the United States armed forces...

 given to military chaplains who have been killed in the line of duty, although it has to date only been awarded to the famous Four Chaplains
Four Chaplains
The Four Chaplains, also sometimes referred to as the "Immortal Chaplains," were four United States Army chaplains who gave their lives to save other civilian and military personnel during the sinking of the troop ship USAT Dorchester during World War II. They helped other soldiers board lifeboats...

, all of whom died in the USAT Dorchester
USAT Dorchester
USAT Dorchester was a United States Army Transport ship that was sunk by a torpedo from a German U-boat on February 3, 1943, during World War II...

 sinking in 1943 after giving up their lifejackets to others.

Badges and insignia




Military Chaplains are normally accorded officer status, although Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone , officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the north and east, Liberia to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and southwest. Sierra Leone covers a total area of and has an estimated population between 5.4 and 6.4...

 had a Naval Lance Corporal chaplain in 2001. In most navies, their badges and insignia do not differentiate their levels of responsibility and status. By contrast, in Air Forces and Armies, they typically carry ranks and are differentiated by crosses or other equivalent religious insignia. However, United States military chaplains in every branch carry both rank and Chaplain Corps insignia.

Chaplain's badges and insignia follow this general pattern (taken from the Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces...

):
  • A gilt cross is worn by chaplains of all Christian
    Christian
    A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

     denominations and worn in the same manner as specialist badges.
  • A chaplain’s cap badge is of the same design as an officer’s cap badge except that the laurel leaves are embroidered in black silk, edged and veined in gold. The peak of the cap is covered with black cloth.
  • A clerical collar stock and/or black military style clerical shirt may be worn instead of white shirt and tie (including dress shirt and bow tie for evening wear.)
  • The badge worn by chaplains on shoulder boards consists of a gold embroidered foul anchor on a Maltese cross
    Maltese cross
    The Maltese cross, also known as the Amalfi cross, is identified as the symbol of an order of Christian warriors known as the Knights Hospitaller or Knights of Malta and through them came to be identified with the Mediterranean island of Malta and is one of the National symbols of Malta...

     of embroidered silver
    Silver
    Silver is a metallic chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal...

    . This is similar, in embroidery, for soft rank insignia for shirts.
  • Honorary Chaplains to the Sovereign wear a red cassock and a special bronze badge consisting of the Royal Cypher and crown within an oval wreath. The badge is worn above medal ribbons or miniature medals during the conduct of religious services. On the left side of the scarf by chaplains, who wear the scarf and on academic or ordinary clerical dress by other chaplains.
  • Royal Navy Chaplains had no uniform until WWII when Churchill was allegedly concerned about German spies dressed as clergy entering Dockyards. Chaplains still enjoy the privilege of wearing a clerical suit as their uniform: it is in general Anglican chaplains serving ashore other than with the Royal Marines who use this right. Commando trained chaplains wear a small badge depicting a gold commando dagger on the right sleeve of mess dress
    Mess dress
    Mess dress is the military term for the formal evening dress worn in the mess or at other formal occasions. It is also known as mess uniform and mess kit...

     and No 1 uniforms.


In addition to badges and insignias for individual chaplains, certain nations, including the United States, fly a Church or Worship Pennant
Pennant (church)
A Church Pennant is a pennant flown to indicate that a religious service is in progress. It is flown on ships and establishments .-Marine Nationale:The French Navy maintained a church pennant but it fell into disuse in 1905....

 during the time a chaplain leads a religious worship service, especially on ships at sea.
On United States Navy ships it is the only pennant that flies above the United States flag.

Recently the Army cessioned the first Buddhist Chaplain. The insignia for the Buddhist faith is the "Dharma Wheel."

Expanding role of military chaplains


Beginning with United States and NATO involvement in Bosnia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 and Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

, some military commands began to understand the potential to use military chaplains as liaisons to religious leaders as part of the process of engagement
Engagement (military)
A military engagement is a combat between two forces, neither larger than a division and not smaller than a company, in which each has an assigned or perceived mission...

, building ties and strengthening relationships with leaders in other nations that could promote understanding. Some key American chaplains began to speak and write about the fact that Americans often want to avoid involvement with religious issues because it is something "personal," but that approach ignores the fact that religion often matters greatly to the combatants, and therefore could also be a force for understanding and peace. This was especially true in nations where religious leaders had close ties or even official links to government leaders, or where religion itself had an official place in national policies—such as in Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, where the official census determined the "confessional balance"
Politics of Lebanon
Lebanon is a parliamentary republic within the overall framework of confessionalism, a form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. The constitution grants the people the right to change their government...

 of national officials (that is, the percentage of the population that represented one religion determined the percentage of officials of that religion in the government). One early example were the efforts of the Command Chaplain for the U.S. European Command:

With the NATO Kosovo war
Kosovo War
The term Kosovo War or Kosovo conflict was two sequential, and at times parallel, armed conflicts in Kosovo province, then part of FR Yugoslav Republic of Serbia; from early 1998 to 1999, there was an armed conflict initiated by the ethnic Albanian "Kosovo Liberation Army" , who sought independence...

 over in Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

 and the rebuilding process begun, one high-ranking U.S. Navy officer wants to try and avoid future ethnic conflicts with the help of military chaplains. Rabbi Arnold E. Resnicoff
Arnold Resnicoff
Arnold E. Resnicoff is an American Conservative rabbi, a decorated retired military officer and military chaplain, and a consultant on leadership, values, and interreligious affairs to military and civilian leaders...

, chaplain on the staff of Gen. Wesley K. Clark, the commander in chief of the U.S. European Command, is pushing an initiative to include chaplains from all faiths in military decisions to prevent violence and, if that fails, in the healing process. "We all know that religion can play a role in conflict, and has been used to fan the flames of hatred during a conflict," Resnicoff says. "We must investigate ways that religion can also play a role in conflict resolution
Conflict resolution
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of some social conflict. Often, committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest...

 and reconciliation." To that end, the soft-spoken Conservative rabbi says NATO chaplains should have a greater role in supporting Allied troops with personal moral conflicts, and in reducing misunderstandings about foreign religious beliefs. He says it is important to move fast and establish regional cooperative programs in such potential hot spots as Eastern Europe and South Africa "so that we are ahead of the power curve before another Kosovo explodes." Capt. Resnicoff says American military leaders have come a long way in understanding other religious cultures since the UN shot at a minaret
Minaret
A minaret مناره , sometimes مئذنه) is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic mosques, generally a tall spire with an onion-shaped or conical crown, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery....

 in Gaza
Gaza
Gaza , also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of about 450,000, making it the largest city in the Palestinian territories.Inhabited since at least the 15th century BC,...

 in 1957, "because unfamiliarity with the call to prayer
Adhan
The adhān is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day. The root of the word is meaning "to permit"; another derivative of this word is , meaning "ear"....

 made them think it might be a 'call to revolt.' "But we are not yet at the stage where we can use the stories from other cultures as opportunities to show understanding and respect in a way that can strengthen relationships and create opportunities for progress. "There are still large pockets in our knowledge, which the chaplain can help fill in through staff work and advice." Resnicoff also believes chaplains can become bridges to suspicious ethnic civilians wary of foreign troops. "Again and again I see that civilians ... who are still mistrustful of the military, respond in a much more positive way to chaplains." He notes that British chaplains tell him that chaplains even cross religious and political lines more easily than others in the supercharged atmosphere of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

. The rabbi is traveling around the globe trying to gain support for the proposal.

Chief of Chaplains/Chaplain General


Military chaplains are often supervised by a Chaplain General
Chaplain General
In the Anglican Church, chaplains general are the seniormost Anglican chaplains in otherwise non-Anglican organizations. Chaplains general are most commonly appointed in Commonwealth Realms, and are responsible for conducting religious services and ceremonies, and generally representing the...

 or Chief of Chaplains, on the staff of the leader of the nation's military forces. In some countries, like Israel, Canada, and South Africa, one Chief of Chaplains/Chaplain General serves in that position for all chaplains of all religions, in all branches of the military. In many other countries, such as France, there is a separate Chaplain General/Chief of Chaplains for each faith group represented by chaplains. In other countries, like the United States, there is one Chaplain General/Chief of Chaplains
Chiefs of Chaplains of the United States
In the United States armed forces, the Chiefs of Chaplains of the United States are the senior service chaplains who lead and represent the Chaplain Corps of the United States Army, Navy, and Air Force...

 for each branch of the military. So, for example, in the United States, there is an Army
Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army
The Chief of Chaplains of the United States Army is the chief supervising officer of the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps. . From 1775 to 1920, chaplains were attached to separate units. The Office of the Chief of Chaplains was created by the National Defense Act of 1920 in order to better organize the...

, Navy
Chief of Chaplains of the United States Navy
The Chief of Chaplains of the United States Navy is the Senior Chaplain in the Navy, the Head of the U.S. Navy Chaplain Corps, and the Director of Religious Ministry Support for the Department of the Navy...

, and Air Force
Chief of Chaplains of the United States Air Force
The Chief of Chaplains of the United States Air Force is the commanding officer of the U.S. Air Force Chaplain Corps. The current CCHAF is Major General Cecil R. Richardson.-U.S...

 Chief of Chaplains. They meet on as representatives to the Armed Forces Chaplains Board
Armed Forces Chaplains Board
The Armed Forces Chaplains Board is an organizational entity within the United States Department of Defense established to advise the Secretary of Defense and the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness on religious, ethical, and moral matters, in addition to a number of policy...

, to discuss issues that cross service lines, but each reports as a staff officer of his or her service, to the Chief of Staff of the Army or Air Force, or the Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Naval Operations
The Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral in the United States Navy, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Navy. The office is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy...

 of the Navy. (In the U.S., Navy chaplains serve Navy, Marine Corps
Chaplain of the United States Marine Corps
The Chaplain of the United States Marine Corps is a position always filled by the officer serving as Deputy Chief of Chaplains of the United States Navy as a "dual hatted" billet since 2000...

, and Coast Guard
Chaplain of the Coast Guard
The Chaplain of the United States Coast Guard is the senior chaplain of the United States Coast Guard and is attached to USCG Headquarters in Washington, D.C. as a United States Navy Chaplain Corps officer who reports directly to the Commandant of the Coast Guard. The current Chaplain of the...

 personnel, with Navy chaplains also assigned to the Merchant Marine Academy
United States Merchant Marine Academy
The United States Merchant Marine Academy is one of the five United States Service academies...

, for Merchant Marine personnel.)

Annual International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference


In February 1990, the United States European Command
United States European Command
The United States European Command is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. Its area of focus covers and 51 countries and territories, including Europe, Russia, Iceland, Greenland, and Israel...

 (USEUCOM) convened and hosted a NATO Chiefs of Chaplains Conference, in Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991, a second conference took place in Church House, British Army of the Rhine
British Army of the Rhine
There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine . Both were originally occupation forces in Germany, one after the First World War, and the other after the Second World War.-1919–1929:...

, Lubbecke, Federal Republic of Germany. During its discussions, the conference title was changed to the North America/European Chiefs of Chaplains Conference. Participants also discussed the possibility of expanding the forum to include countries from the former Warsaw Pact. The following year, in February 1992, the conference was held for the first time in a location outside of Germany, taking place in Rome, Italy. The conference was co-sponsored by USEUCOM and the Italian Ministry of Defense. Co-sponsorship by USEUCOM and the Ministry of Defense of the conference host nation became the model for future conferences. Additionally, the conference title was changed to the “International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference".

In later years, the conference further expanded, to include chiefs of chaplains from other nations within the USEUCOM Area of Responsibility
Area of responsibility
Area Of Responsibility is a pre-defined geographic region assigned to a Combatant commanders of the Unified Command Plan , that are used to define an area with specific geographic boundaries where they have the authority to plan and conduct operations; for which a force, or component commander...

, an area that included many nations in Africa before the establishment of the United States Africa Command
United States Africa Command
The United States Africa Command is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. It is responsible for U.S. military operations and military relations with 53 African nations – an area of responsibility covering all...

 (USAFRICOM). Eventually, any chief of chaplains (or chaplain general, an equivalent term used by many nations) was welcomed from any nation's military, and the conference soon included participants from countries as far away from the USEUCOM headquarters as Australia and South Korea. Additionally, some nations that did not have military chaplains began to send representatives involved with issues of religion for military personnel—and in some cases, this participation helped lead to the establishment of that nation's chaplaincy. In 1997, the conference name was once again changed, to the "International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference", its current title.

At the 1999 Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference, outside Vienna, Austria, more than 90 chaplains from 33 nations discussed the possibility of a chaplains council for NATO.

Because not all nations were represented, the Chaplain General of the South African National Defence Force
South African National Defence Force
The South African National Defence Force is the armed forces of South Africa. The military as it exists today was created in 1994, following South Africa's first post-apartheid national elections and the adoption of a new constitution...

 (SANDF), Brigadier General M. Cornelissen—on behalf of the Chief of SANDF—proposed to co-host the first International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference in Cape Town, South Africa.

The 2009 International Chiefs of Chaplains Conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, the first time the conference was held outside of Europe.

Some nations participating in these conferences have one chief of chaplains or chaplain general, as is the case in Canada and South Africa. Other nations, including the United States, have one chief of chaplains for each branch of the military armed forces; In many other nations, one chief of chaplains is designated for each major religion or faith group represented by a significant number of their military personnel.

Roman Catholic Church



Roman
Roman Catholic (term)
The term Roman Catholic appeared in the English language at the beginning of the 17th century, to differentiate specific groups of Christians in communion with the Pope from others; comparable terms in other languages already existed...

 Catholic chaplains are generally organized into military ordinariate
Military ordinariate
A military ordinariate is an ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church, of Latin or Eastern Rite, responsible for the pastoral care of Catholics serving in the armed forces of a nation....

s, such as the Archdiocese for the Military Services, USA. Potential Roman Catholic chaplains must seek permission from their diocesan
Diocesan bishop
A diocesan bishop — in general — is a bishop in charge of a diocese. These are to be distinguished from suffragan bishops, assistant bishops, coadjutor bishops, auxiliary bishops, metropolitans, and primates....

 bishop
Bishop (Catholic Church)
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders and is responsible for teaching the Catholic faith and ruling the Church....

 or religious superior to serve as a military chaplain. While serving as a chaplain, the priest
Priesthood (Catholic Church)
The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church include the orders of bishops, deacons and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. The ordained priesthood and common priesthood are different in function and essence....

 or deacon
Deacon
Deacon is a ministry in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions...

  remains incardinated in his home diocese
Diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...

, but is temporarily under the direction of the prelate
Prelate
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means "carry before", "be set above or over" or "prefer"; hence, a prelate is one set over others.-Related...

 of the ordinariate for the duration of his service.

Protestant denominations


Each of the various Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 Christian denominations may set its own requirements for certification as a minister.

Army and Air Force



Chaplains in the Australian Defence Force (ADF) have almost the same status as chaplains in the British armed services. Chaplains in the Australian Army
Australian Army
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence commands the Australian Defence Force , the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army...

 and Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

 (RAAF) are commissioned officers and wear the uniform of officers of their particular branch of the services as well as the rank to which they are qualified. Chaplains in the Australian Army
Australian Army
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence commands the Australian Defence Force , the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army...

 and the Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

 begin their commission as a Captain (Army) or Flight Lieutenant (RAAF) respectively. There are five levels or "divisions" for the seniority of chaplains in the Australian Army and Air Force with each division corresponding to a worn rank. The highest "division" is Division 5 who are "Principal Chaplains," of which there are three per service representing the three major Christian denominations: Catholic
Catholic
The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

, Anglican and Protestant. The Principal Chaplains of the Army wear the rank of Brigadier and in the RAAF, Air Commodore. Australian Army chaplains, whatever their rank, are mostly referred to as "Padre" by officers and soldiers alike. The title is also widely used in the RAAF for their chaplains.

Navy

See: Royal Australian Navy#Chaplains

Like chaplains in the Australian Army
Australian Army
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence commands the Australian Defence Force , the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army...

 and RAAF, Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces...

 (RAN) chaplains are commissioned officers and wear the uniform of an RAN officer, but like chaplains in the British Royal Navy (RN) they do not wear a rank. Rather they wear the same cross and anchor emblem worn by RN chaplains on their shoulder rank slides and do not have gold braided rings or executive loops on their winter sleeve coat or summer shoulder boards. Like other chaplains in the ADF, Navy chaplains have five divisions of seniority. Interestingly, whilst Australian Navy chaplains do not wear rank, they are accorded a certain rank for protocol and ceremonial occasions and for saluting purposes. Division 1, 2 and 3 Australian Navy chaplains are accorded the rank and status as Commander
Commander
Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement.-Commander as a naval...

 (Lieutenant Colonel equivalent in the Australian Army). Division 4 Australian Navy chaplains are accorded the rank and status of Captain (equiv. of Colonel). Division 5 Australian Navy chaplains are "Principal Chaplains," and these three chaplains, representing the three major Christian denominations: Catholic
Catholic
The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

, Anglican and Protestant, are accorded the rank and status of Commodore
Commodore (rank)
Commodore is a military rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. Non-English-speaking nations often use the rank of flotilla admiral or counter admiral as an equivalent .It is often regarded as a one-star rank with a NATO code of OF-6, but is not always...

. The title "Padre" for chaplains is less common and not officially encouraged in the Royal Australian Navy, although it is known to be used by some sailors and Navy chaplains in preference to the more formal title of "Chaplain" or form of address towards an officer such as "Sir." Like British Royal Navy chaplains, Royal Australian Navy chaplains wear a slightly different peaked cap to other Navy officers which apparently was designed by Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

.

Heads of Denominations


In the Australian Defence Force (ADF), the heads of military chaplaincy for those Christian denominations and of the Jewish faith that have an official association with the ADF, are also members of the ADF's "Religious Advisory Committee" (RAC). With respect to the Catholic
Catholic
The word catholic comes from the Greek phrase , meaning "on the whole," "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words meaning "about" and meaning "whole"...

 and Anglican churches, their Bishops are members of RAC and they and the other members of RAC have the status of a two star General (US) or Major General (Australian Army), or Rear Admiral (RAN) or Air Vice-Marshal (RAAF).

France


During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, the relic
Relic
In religion, a relic is a part of the body of a saint or a venerated person, or else another type of ancient religious object, carefully preserved for purposes of veneration or as a tangible memorial...

 of Saint Martin
Martin of Tours
Martin of Tours was a Bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. Around his name much legendary material accrued, and he has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints...

’s cloak, (cappa Sancti Martini), one of the most sacred relics of the Frankish kings, would be carried everywhere the king went, even into battle, as a holy relic upon which oath
Oath
An oath is either a statement of fact or a promise calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually God, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. To swear is to take an oath, to make a solemn vow...

s were sworn. The priest who cared for the cloak in its reliquary
Reliquary
A reliquary is a container for relics. These may be the physical remains of saints, such as bones, pieces of clothing, or some object associated with saints or other religious figures...

 was called a cappellanu, and ultimately all priests who served the military were called cappellani. The French translation is chapelains, which is where the English word, chaplain derives from.

Saint Louis
Louis IX of France
Louis IX , commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. He was also styled Louis II, Count of Artois from 1226 to 1237. Born at Poissy, near Paris, he was an eighth-generation descendant of Hugh Capet, and thus a member of the House of Capet, and the son of Louis VIII and...

 was the king who gave legal status to the military almoner
Almoner
An almoner is a chaplain or church officer who originally was in charge of distributing cash to the deserving poor.Historically, almoners were Christian religious functionaries whose duty was to distribute alms to the poor. Monasteries were required to spend one tenth of their income in charity to...

s, since chaplains supporting their lord into crusades were the first to be militarized.
In 1531, during the Battle of Cappel, the Swiss reformist, Huldrych Zwingli
Huldrych Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism...

, became the very first Protestant military almoner to be killed in a battlefield.

The actual French Aumônerie Militaire (military almonry) status is based on the July 8th, 1880 law, which involves the Catholic, Protestant and Jewish faiths. The 1905 laicity law, definitely rejecting religion out of the French Republic, exceptionally, doesn't apply to the army. The Minister of Defence names three Chief-Staff-linked military almoners - one per faith - in charge of all chaplains. The chaplains, serving in the army, are named by one of these three military almoners. The first Muslim Chaplain-General, Abdelkader Arbi, was commissioned in 2006.1

French military chaplains wear a uniform, since World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, but don't have any rank nor rank insignia. The modern military almonry is rooted in WWII, where military chaplains were incorporated in almost every Free French Forces
Free French Forces
The Free French Forces were French partisans in World War II who decided to continue fighting against the forces of the Axis powers after the surrender of France and subsequent German occupation and, in the case of Vichy France, collaboration with the Germans.-Definition:In many sources, Free...

 fighting units and made of personnel coming from either Metropolitan France, England or from the French Empire. After the war, military almoners where sent to occupation zones in Germany and Austria.

In the 1950s, military almoners where sent in the French Union
French Union
The French Union was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system, the "French Empire" and to abolish its "indigenous" status.-History:...

's territories, including Indochina
Indochina
The Indochinese peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. It lies roughly southwest of China, and east of India. The name has its origins in the French, Indochine, as a combination of the names of "China" and "India", and was adopted when French colonizers in Vietnam began expanding their territory...

 and Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

. In 1954, pastor Tissot was one of the last paratrooper volunteers to jump over the besieged Dien Bien Phu
Dien Bien Phu
Điện Biên Phủ is a city in northwestern Vietnam. It is the capital of Dien Bien province, and is known for the events there during the First Indochina War, the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, during which the region was a breadbasket for the Việt Minh.-Population:...

 fortified camp in northern Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

. On May 7, he was made prisoner of the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
Việt Minh was a national independence coalition formed at Pac Bo on May 19, 1941. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire. When the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China...

 and sent to a re-education camp, deep in the jungle.

Since 1984, French military chaplains are involved in every military operations - including the Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

 - from Rapid Reaction Force
Rapid reaction force
A rapid reaction force is a military or police unit designed to respond in very short time frames to emergencies. When used in reference to police forces such as SWAT teams, the time frame is minutes, while in military applications, such as with the use of paratroops or other commandos, the time...

 (Force d'Action Rapide) units to navy ships.

In France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, the existence of military chaplains has come under debate because of the separation of Church and State
Separation of church and state
The concept of the separation of church and state refers to the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state....

; however, their position has been maintained .http://www.defense.gouv.fr/ema/orgs_ext/aumoneries/

Israel


The Military Rabbinate is a unit in the Israel Defense Forces that provides religious services for military personnel, Jewish and non-Jewish, and makes decisions on issues of religion and military affairs. The Military Rabbinate is headed by the Chief Military Rabbi, who carries the rank of a Brigadier General.

The Military Rabbinate constitutes the body responsible for religious institutions in the military. In every unit or military base there are Military Rabbinate military personnel assigned responsibility for conducting or coordinating religious services, overseeing the kosher operation
Kashrut
Kashrut is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha is termed kosher in English, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér , meaning "fit" Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Food in accord with halakha (Jewish law) is termed...

 of the kitchen, and the maintenance of the synagogue and religious supplies. Actively serving military personnel can request Military Rabbinate representatives to perform marriage ceremonies and brit mila
Brit milah
The brit milah is a Jewish religious circumcision ceremony performed on 8-day old male infants by a mohel. The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal .-Biblical references:...

, circumcision ceremonies, for babies. The unit also oversees the legal and religious certification of marriages and divorces of individuals during their military service.

The Military Rabbinate is responsible for treating the bodies of soldiers in accordance with religious law, including the identifications and post-mortem treatment of bodies, and conducting military funerals. The Military Rabbinate also coordinates the burial of enemy soldiers and the exhuming of bodies in conjunction with prisoner exchanges.

The Military Rabbinate was founded in 1948 by Rabbi Shlomo Goren, who headed it until 1968.

South Africa


Prior to 1968, chaplains wore badges of rank as commissioned officers
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

.

Since 1968, however, all Chaplains have been senior officers and accorded the protocol status of Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 / Captain (Navy). They carry the military rank of Chaplain
Chaplain
Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam or lay representative of a religion attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel...

 and the rank insignia, which is unique to the Chaplains Service, comprises a Chi-Rho monogramme surrounded by a triangle. The monogramme represents the first three letters of Christ in Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

. It originates from the days of Constantine
Constantine I
Constantine the Great , also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, Constantine and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerance of all...

, the first Emperor of Rome
Roman Emperor
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

 to grant religious freedom to Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s. His own conversion to the Christian faith was initiated by a dream in which the Chi-Rho monogramme appeared to him. The triangle surrounding the monogramme is the symbolic representation of the Holy Trinity
Trinity
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity defines God as three divine persons : the Father, the Son , and the Holy Spirit. The three persons are distinct yet coexist in unity, and are co-equal, co-eternal and consubstantial . Put another way, the three persons of the Trinity are of one being...

.

During the vision of the monogramme, Constantine heard the Latin words in hoc signo vinces. The English translation of these Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 words is: "In this sign, you will conquer". This is the motto of the Chaplains Service and forms part of the Corps
Corps
A corps is either a large formation, or an administrative grouping of troops within an armed force with a common function such as Artillery or Signals representing an arm of service...

 Badge.

In 1998, after working as Chaplain General in Exile for the ANC, the African National Congress
African National Congress
The African National Congress is South Africa's governing Africanist political party, supported by its tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party , since the establishment of non-racial democracy in April 1994. It defines itself as a...

, during the fight against apartheid, Fumanekile Gqiba was appointed as the first black Chaplain General for SANDF, the South African National Defense Force. In 2004, Major General Gqiba left the military to accept his appointment as South African Ambassador to Israel.

In the SANDF Chaplain Service, the Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 faith is represented by a Regular Force chaplain. The rank is Cpln (Vipra) and the mode of address Vipra. The rank insignia is a deepa (lamp) with flame. This is the symbolic representation of enlightenment, the life objective of all Hindus.

The Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s do not have Regular Force chaplains in the SANDF because they are small in number. They are however served by part time workers through the Chaplains Service of the SANDF and are addressed according to their religious customs as imam
Imam
An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

s.

Christian chaplains are generally referred to and addressed as Padre. They may however, be addressed according to the practice of their religious bodies e.g., Father, Pastor
Pastor
The word pastor usually refers to an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, this role may be abbreviated to "Pr." or often "Ps"....

, Umfundisi (Zulu and Xhosa), Moruti (Sotho), Dominee (Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language, spoken natively in South Africa and Namibia. It is a daughter language of Dutch, originating in its 17th century dialects, collectively referred to as Cape Dutch .Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch; see , , , , , .Afrikaans was historically called Cape...

) etc. The official written form of address is Cpln (for Chaplain) followed by the appropriate ecclesiastical title of the respective chaplain e.g., Cpln (Rev), Cpln (Fr), Cpln (Pastor), Cpln, etc.

Along with chaplains from many other nations in the southern region of the continent of Africa, South African chaplains participate in SARMCA, the South Africa Regional Military Chaplains Association, which is a component organization of SADC, the Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
The Southern African Development Community is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana. Its goal is to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states...

.

United Kingdom


The first English
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

 military-oriented chaplains were priests on board proto-naval vessels during the eighth century A.D. Land based chaplains appeared during the reign of King Edward I
Edward I of England
Edward I , also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons...

, although their duties included jobs that today would come under the jurisdiction of military engineer
Military engineer
In military science, engineering refers to the practice of designing, building, maintaining and dismantling military works, including offensive, defensive and logistical structures, to shape the physical operating environment in war...

s and medical officer
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

s. A priest attached to a feudal noble household would follow his liege
Feudalism
Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

 lord into battle. In 1796 the Parliament of Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 passed a Royal Warrant
Royal Warrant
Royal warrants of appointment have been issued for centuries to those who supply goods or services to a royal court or certain royal personages. The warrant enables the supplier to advertise the fact that they supply to the royal family, so lending prestige to the supplier...

 that established the Army Chaplains' Department in the British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

. The Department was awarded its "Royal" prefix in 1919 in recognition of their Chaplains' service during World War I.

The current form of military chaplain dates from the era of the First World War
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. A chaplain provides spiritual and pastoral support for service personnel, including the conduct of religious services at sea or in the field. In the Royal Navy chaplains are traditionally addressed by their Christian name, or with one of many nicknames (Bish; Sin-Bosun; Devil Dodger; Sky-Pilot etc.). In the British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 and Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

, chaplains are traditionally referred to (and addressed) as padre or as Sir/Ma'am (although not the latter in the RAF).

In the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 chaplains have no rank other than "chaplain" while in the British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 they hold commissioned executive rank. On the foundation of the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 Chaplains' Branch an attempt was made to amalgamate these differing systems creating "Relative Rank", where rank is worn but without executive authority. In practice chaplains of all three services work in similar ways using what influence and authority they have on behalf of those who consult them or seek their advice.

During World War II the head of Chaplaincy in the British Army was an (Anglican) Chaplain-General, (a Major-General), who was formally under the control of the Permanent Under-Secretary of State. An Assistant Chaplain-General was a Chaplain 1st class (full Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

) and a senior Chaplain was a Chaplain 2nd class (Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...

).

All chaplains are commissioned officers
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

 and wear uniform. British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

 and Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 chaplains bear ranks and wear rank insignia, but Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 chaplains do not, wearing a cross and a special version of the officers' cap badge
Cap badge
A cap badge, also known as head badge or hat badge, is a badge worn on uniform headgear and distinguishes the wearer's nationality and/or organisation. The wearing of cap badges is a convention commonly found among military and police forces, as well as uniformed civilian groups such as the Boy...

 as their only insignia.

Chaplains in the armed forces were previously all Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 or Jewish
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

. The first Jewish chaplain was appointed in 1892 and some 20 to 30 were commissioned during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. In recent times, the Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces....

 (MoD) has employed only Christian chaplains, with the Jewish community providing an honorary chaplain under long-standing arrangements, although Jewish chaplains have served in the Territorial Army. In October 2005 the Ministry of Defence appointed four chaplains to the military; one each from the Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, Hindu
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, Muslim
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 and Sikh
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 faith communities. The Museum of Army Chaplaincy
The Museum of Army Chaplaincy
The Museum of Army Chaplaincy is a museum at Amport House, Hampshire, United Kingdom, which tells the story of British Army Chaplaincy from earliest times to the present day with the help of archive material and historical relics from several centuries...

 holds information and archive material relating to the history of the Army Chaplains' Department.

In the era before call sign
Call sign
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitting station. In North America they are used as names for broadcasting stations...

s the radio "appointment title" for the Padre was "Sky pilot".

United States



In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, military chaplains have a military officer's rank based on their years of service and promotion selection amongst their peers. They are identified in uniform by both their rank and religious symbol insignias which serve for example in the US Army as 'branch insignia
United States Army branch insignia
Branch insignia of the United States Army refers to military emblems that may be worn on the uniform of the United States Army to denote membership in a particular area of expertise and series of functional areas...

'. See United States Military Chaplains Association. They also are the oldest branch in the U.S. military to be in uniform, dating back to the Revolutionary War.

Military chaplains must be endorsed by a religious organization in order to serve on active duty. This religious endorsement must be maintained throughout the chaplain's military service and can be withdrawn at any time for religious or disciplinary reasons by the religious body with which the chaplain is affiliated.

There is an exception to withdrawal of endorsement at "any time". When a chaplain notifies his or her endorsing agent in writing of intent to seek endorsement in a different faith group, the code of ethics of the National Conference on Ministry to the Armed Forces (NCMAF) - the principal organization of endorsing agents - requires the chaplain's current endorser to continue endorsement until the chaplain is able to meet requirements for endorsement by the gaining faith group. The endorsing agent is not required to continue endorsement in this situation if there is a moral charge against the chaplain that would otherwise have resulted in revocation of endorsement.

In the contemporary US military, endorsement is a complex area and many different paths are available.

U.S. Armed Forces uniforms, badges, and insignia



Chaplains serving in the U.S. Armed Forces wear the uniform of their respective branch of service, and normally only wear clerical attire during the performance of a religious service. The position of rank and chaplain faith group insignia varies in each military department and may vary significantly from one type of uniform to the another within a military department.

On Army Combat Uniforms (ACUs) chaplains wear their rank in the center of the chest. Their distinctive faith group insignia is centered over the name tapes on the right breast of the ACU coat. The distinctive faith group insignia is also centered on the front of the cap. On dress uniform jackets, rank is worn on both shoulders and faith group insignia on both lapels of the jacket. On dress uniform shirts, rank is worn on both shoulders and faith group insignia is centered over the left shirt pocket.

On Air Force dress uniform shirts, rank is worn on both shoulders and chaplain corps insignia is centered over the left shirt pocket. On dress uniform jackets, rank is worn on both shoulders and chaplain corps insignia is worn over the left breast pocket.

Chaplains do not wear the ceremonial officer's sword nor do they carry or wear firearms in combat or the normal course of duty (although they may take part in range fire and marksmanship competitions at their discretion). In the U.S. Navy, Chaplain Corps
United States Navy Chaplain Corps
The Chaplain Corps of the United States Navy consists of ordained clergy who are commissioned naval officers. Their principal purpose is to "promote the spiritual, religious, moral, and personal well-being of the members of the Department of the Navy," which includes the Navy and the United States...

 officers also do not qualify for or wear warfare pins
Badges of the United States Navy
Insignia and badges of the United States Navy are military "badges" issued by the United States Department of the Navy to naval service members who achieve certain qualifications and accomplishments while serving on both active and reserve duty in the United States Navy...

 (with the exception of the Fleet Marine Force Pin minus crossed rifles), unless these were earned prior to the servicemember becoming a chaplain. Many chaplains are assigned a chaplain's assistant
Chaplains assistants
In the US Army Chaplain Corps, Chaplain Assistants provide support to Chaplains. A Chaplain Assistant is part of the Unit Ministry Team and supports UMT programs including worship services...

 who, among other mainly administrative responsibilities, is required to maintain service qualifications with a primary weapon and at times serves as the chaplain's bodyguard while in hazardous areas.

Controversies within the military



A chaplain's religious beliefs and practices sometimes conflict with military regulations, policies, and procedures.

In January 1991 Lieutenant Colonel Garland Robertson, a US Air Force chaplain during Operation Desert Shield, wrote to the Abilene Reporter-News, asserting that "... the American people are not united in their decision to support a military offensive against the aggression of Saddam Hussein in Kuwait." http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_n7_v111/ai_14868898 Robertson was investigated by Air Force psychologists and relieved of his pastoral duties. According to Robertson, a visiting officer from the Chief of Chaplains office "indicated that compromise was essential for becoming a successful military chaplain," and that "if Jesus had been an Air Force chaplain ... he would have been court-martialled." (But, it is not clear that the actions taken against Lt. Col. Robertson were taken based on his position as a chaplain, rather than because of his actions as an officer who wrote a letter to a newspaper without prior approval from his chain of command.)
US Navy Chaplain Lieutenant Gordon Klingenschmitt was reprimanded and fined http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/14/AR2006091401544.html during a September 14, 2006 court martial for wearing his uniform at a protest in March 2006 held by Roy Moore
Roy Moore
Roy Stewart Moore is an American jurist and Republican politician noted for his refusal, as the elected Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama, to remove a monument of the Ten Commandments from the state courthouse despite orders to do so from a federal judge...

, after having been given a direct order not to wear his uniform. (Military policies allowed participation in such events by military personnel, so long as they did not wear uniforms or appear to be in attendance in a way that gave the appearance of endorsement by the military). Klingenschmitt was released from the Navy in March 2007. He had been battling military policies that he considered to be an infringement of the rights of every chaplain to "conduct public worship according to the manner and forms of the church of which he is a member." http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=51536 The disagreement centered on prayers in public programs and ceremonies, as opposed to religious worship services. During the latter, chaplains normally pray according to the traditions of their faith groups. In non-religious ceremonies, programs are crafted to include a non-denominational or "non-sectarian" prayer, and chaplains are allowed to refrain from participation if they are not comfortable offering such a prayer.

Some have sensed an effort upon the part of the United States military to put pressure upon chaplains to promote universalism
Universalism
Universalism in its primary meaning refers to religious, theological, and philosophical concepts with universal application or applicability...

, even if their personal religious beliefs and affiliation do not endorse this. http://www.danielrjennings.org/TheUglySideOfTheU.S.AirForceChaplaincy.html In 2005 the U.S. Air Force published an article on its official website promoting universalism.http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?storyID=123011023 On the other hand, many military leaders, including senior chaplains, have taken the position that we must respect the rights of others to their beliefs , without respecting the rightness (or truth) of their beliefs, which is a different position than universalism. Chaplains in the United States, like all U.S. military officers, take an oath to protect and defend the constitution, which includes the right of religious free exercise. Chaplains are expected to support the rights of personnel of all faiths to their "free exercise of religion," while maintaining their own personal right to disagree with the beliefs of others. Such a philosophy is more akin to pluralism than universalism, and, many argue, part of the democratic tradition of defending the rights of others.

Numerous complaints have been waged against Chaplains for mandatory prayers, coercion, and using government money to promote Evangelical Christianity. Atheists, whose religious position would not be represented by references to a generic God or the amorphic "spiritual fitness" initiatives in the Army, have created groups to ensure the separation of Church and State in the military. Moreover, groups representing atheists have even pushed for the appointment of one of their own to the chaplaincy.

Criticism of employing chaplains in the U.S. Armed Forces and Congress


At the New York Public Library
New York Public Library
The New York Public Library is the largest public library in North America and is one of the United States' most significant research libraries...

 in May 2007, Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Eric Hitchens is an Anglo-American author and journalist whose books, essays, and journalistic career span more than four decades. He has been a columnist and literary critic at The Atlantic, Vanity Fair, Slate, World Affairs, The Nation, Free Inquiry, and became a media fellow at the...

 debated the Reverend Al Sharpton
Al Sharpton
Alfred Charles "Al" Sharpton, Jr. is an American Baptist minister, civil rights activist, and television/radio talk show host. In 2004, he was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. presidential election...

 on the issue of theism
Theism
Theism, in the broadest sense, is the belief that at least one deity exists.In a more specific sense, theism refers to a doctrine concerning the nature of a monotheistic God and God's relationship to the universe....

 and anti-theism. During the question and answer period which followed the debate, a question was posed by a male audience member in which the interlocutor mentioned that his brother-in-law was a U.S. Air Force Chaplain. In responding to the man's larger question, Hitchens first responded,


Well, at the risk of being callous...I don't think that we should be paying for Chaplains...I don't think that the U.S. Government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 should be employing any. James Madison
James Madison
James Madison, Jr. was an American statesman and political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United States and is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being the primary author of the United States Constitution and at first an opponent of, and then a key author of the United...

, co-author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia. In 1786, the Assembly enacted the statute into the state's law...

 and of the First Amendment
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering...

 was very adamant on the point, and very clear; there shouldn't be...it's flat-out unconstitutional to pay or to employ a Chaplain to oversee the proceedings of Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 or to be in the Armed Forces. We can't have Chaplains on our payroll, that's that.


Mr. Hitchens is not the first person to challenge military chaplains. This issue has been the subject of extensive litigation in the past, most notably in 1986 with Katcoff vs. Marsh. The suit was brought in 1979 by two Harvard law students (neither of whom had served in the military) who argued that military chaplains should be replaced with non combat volunteers or contractors. In Katcoff v. Marsh, the courts upheld the right of the military to employ chaplains. This case is the subject of a 2006-2007 University of Toledo Law Review article (Vol. 38) by Richard D. Rosen. One key idea, as stated by Rosen, is "if Congress did not establish an Army chaplaincy, it would deny soldiers the right to exercise their religion freely, particularly given the mobile and deployable nature of the nation’s armed forces." Any religious group that were presented with the cost of keeping a minister in the field, prepared to deploy with an army unit at a moment's notice, and provide for their physical safety and security in modern combat, plus transportation costs, would almost certainly balk at the cost. At best, this would mean only the largest, and wealthiest churches, could send ministers. Another key idea is that the "free expression" clause and the "establishment" clause of the first amendment regarding religion are separate issues. If churches were required to field their own chaplains it would, as Rosen and the court decided, mean denying the soldiers "free expression" of their faith, and, in effect, deny soldiers access to, or opportunity, to practice their faith and infringing on their religious freedoms. The "free exercise" clause has largely become the primary reason chaplains exist. "[T]he Supreme Court has seemingly given the Free Exercise Clause – upon which the military chaplaincy is now largely justified – a preferred position in our constitutional order" (Rosen 1144-1145). In Rosen's conclusion to the law review article it neatly summarizes the current legal and constitutional environment in which chaplains work (Rosen p. 1178):
The Katcoff case partially fell apart due to "lack of standing" of the Harvard students regarding certain aspects of the case. In the Katcoff decision, the door was left open for a servicemember to challenge the constitutionality of the U.S. military chaplaincy based upon "standing" (and, of course, grounds) to do so. For example, there are some religious faiths that do not fully respect the value the civil law places on (civil ceremony) marriage regarding members of their faith community who fall within a characterization of such "constraints". Members of some religious faiths are encouraged to practice partial or complete "shunning" in some cases. When military chaplains, including chaplains of such faith groups, become immersed in boundary issues, the constitutionality of their actions, and of the institutionalized US military chaplaincy, can be called into question.

U.S. military chaplain deaths


Death during service
War Number of Death
Revolutionary War 25
War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

1
Mexican War 1
Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 (Union
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty free states and five border slave states. It was opposed by 11 southern slave states that had declared a secession to join together to form the...

)
117
Civil War (Confederacy
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

)
41
World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

23
World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

182
Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

13
Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

15
Iraq/Afghan 1 (by September 2010)

See also


  • United States military chaplain symbols
    United States military chaplain symbols
    Religious symbolism in the United States military includes the use of religious symbols for military chaplain insignia, uniforms, emblems, flags, and chapels; symbolic gestures, actions, and words used in military rituals and ceremonies; and religious symbols or designations used in areas such as...

  • Imam
    Imam
    An imam is an Islamic leadership position, often the worship leader of a mosque and the Muslim community. Similar to spiritual leaders, the imam is the one who leads Islamic worship services. More often, the community turns to the mosque imam if they have a religious question...

  • Minister
  • Patron saints for the military
  • Priest
    Priesthood (Catholic Church)
    The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church include the orders of bishops, deacons and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. The ordained priesthood and common priesthood are different in function and essence....

  • Rabbi
    Rabbi
    In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...


Further reading

  • Autry, Jerry D., Gun Totin' Chaplain (Airborne Press, 2006) ISBN 0-934145-11-3
  • Bergen, Doris. L., (ed), 2004. The Sword of the Lord: Military Chaplains from the First to the Twenty-First Century. University of Notre Dame Press ISBN 0-268-02176-7
  • Betts, A. D. Experience of a Confederate Chaplain 1861-1865, ISBN 1-84685-338-9
  • Budd, Richard M., Serving Two Masters: The Development of American Military Chaplaincy, 1860-1920 (University of Nebraska Press, 2002)
  • Crosby, Donald F., 1994. Battlefield Chaplains: Catholic Priests in World War II. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0814-1
  • Duffy, Fr. Francis P. ,Father Duffy’s Story, George H. Doran Company
    George H. Doran Company
    George H. Doran Company was an American book publishing company established by George Henry Doran. He organized the company in Toronto and moved it to New York City on February 22, 1908....

    , 1919.
  • Fraser, G. M., 1995 trade paperback edition. Quartered Safe Out Here: A Recollection of the War in Burma. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-272687-4
  • Harris, Stephen L.,Duffy's War: Fr. Francis Duffy, Wild Bill Donovan, and the Irish Fighting 69th in World War I Potomac Books, 2006.
  • Johnson, James D., Combat Chaplain: A 30-Year Vietnam Battle (University of North Texas Press, 2001)
  • Jones, J. William Christ in the Camp - Religion in Lee's Army, Diggory Press, ISBN 978-1-84685-543-6
  • Kennedy, Geoffrey Anketell Studdert
    Geoffrey Anketell Studdert Kennedy
    Geoffrey Anketell Studdert Kennedy, MC , was an Anglican priest and poet. He was nicknamed 'Woodbine Willie' during World War I for giving Woodbine cigarettes along with spiritual aid to injured and dying soldiers.-Early Life:...

     The Unutterable Beauty, ISBN 1-84685-110-6
  • Loudon, Stephen H. Chaplains in Conflict. The Role of Army Chaplains since 1914. Avon Books, London: 1996. ISBN 1-86033-840-2
  • MacDonald, David R. Padre E. C. Crosse and 'the Devonshire Epitaph': The Astonishing Story of One Man at the Battle of the Somme (with Antecedents to Today's 'Just War' Dialogue), ISBN 978-1-929569-45-8
  • McLaren, Stuart John (ed.) Somewhere in Flanders. A Norfolk Padre in the Great War. The War Letters of the Revd Samuel Frederick Leighton Green MC, Army Chaplain 1916-1919. The Larks Press, Norfolk, UK (www.booksatlarkspress.co.uk): 2005. ISBN 1-904006-25-6
  • Montell, Hugh (2002) A Chaplain's War. The Story of Noel Mellish VC, MC. ISBN 1-84394-008-6
  • Nay, Robert "The Operational, Social, Religious Influences Upon The Army Chaplain Field Manual, 1926-1952" http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/p4013coll2&CISOPTR=1627&CISOBOX=1&REC=2
  • Norman, James (2004) At the Heart of Education: School Chaplaincy and Pastoral Care. Dublin: Veritas Publications. ISBN 1-85390-752-9
  • O'Rahilly, Alfred The Padre of Trench Street (about Jesuit Father William Doyle), ISBN 1-905363-15-X
  • Purcell, William Woodbine Willie. An Anglican Incident. Being some account of the life and times of Geoffrey Anketell Studdert Kennedy, poet, prophet, seeker after truth, 1883-1929. London: 1962
  • Smyth, Brigadier The Rt Hon. Sir John, Bt, VC, MC In This Sign Conquer. The Story of the Army Chaplains. London: 1968
  • Snape, Michael The Royal Army Chaplains' Department, 1796-1953. Clergy under Fire. Boydell Press, 2007. ISBN 1-843-83346-8
  • Teonge, Henry The Diary of Henry Teonge
    Henry Teonge
    Henry Teonge was an English cleric and Royal Navy chaplain who kept informative diaries of voyages he made in 1675–76 and 1678–79.-Life:...

     Chaplain on Board HM’s Ships Assistance, Bristol and Royal Oak 1675-1679.
    Edited by Sir E. Denison Ross and Eileen Power. London: Routledge, [1927] 2005.
  • Thornton, Sybil "Buddhist Chaplains in the Field of Battle" in Buddhism in Practice, ed. Donald S. Lopez, Jr. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995)
  • Tuttle. Rev. Edmund B. Encounters with Indians: Experiences of a U.S. Army Chaplain in Wyoming Territory, 1867-1870, ISBN 978-1-84685-814-7
  • Wilkinson, Alan The Church of England and the First World War. SPCK, London: 1978, reprinted by SCM, London: 1996. ISBN 0-334-02669-5

External links