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Mikoyan MiG-35

Mikoyan MiG-35

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The Mikoyan MiG-35 ' onMouseout='HidePop("46709")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/NATO_reporting_name">NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

: Fulcrum-F) is a further development of the MiG-29M/M2
Mikoyan MiG-29M
The Mikoyan MiG-29M is a mature development of the MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29K/KUB technology. Formerly known as the "MiG-33", it was developed from the Mikoyan MiG-29 fighter jet during mid-1980s...

 and MiG-29K/KUB
Mikoyan MiG-29K
The Mikoyan MiG-29K is an all-weather carrier-based multirole fighter aircraft developed by the Mikoyan design bureau. The MiG-29K was developed in the late 1980s from MiG-29M....

 technology. It is classified as a 4++ generation jet fighter by Mikoyan
Mikoyan
Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG , or RSK MiG, is a Russian joint stock company. Formerly Mikoyan-and-Gurevich Design Bureau , then simply Mikoyan, it is a military aircraft design bureau, primarily designing fighter aircraft...

. The first prototype was a modification of the aircraft that previously served as MiG-29M2 model demonstrator. 10 prototypes have been built so far and are currently subject to extensive field trials. The MiG-35 is now classed as a medium-weight aircraft because its maximum take-off weight has increased by 30 percent which exceeds its previous criteria of classification.

MiG Corporation first officially presented the MiG-35 internationally during the Aero India
Aero India
Aero India is a biennial air show and aviation exhibition held in Bangalore, India at the Yelahanka Air Force Station. It is organized by Defence Exhibition Organisation, the Ministry of Defence and is held in association with the Defence Research and Development Organisation , the Indian Air Force...

 2007 air show. The MiG-35 was officially unveiled when the Russian Minister of Defence, Sergey Ivanov, visited Lukhovitsky Machine Building Plant "MAPO-MIG". The single seat version is designated MiG-35 and the two-seat version is MiG-35D. The fighter has vastly improved avionics and weapon systems, notably the new AESA radar and the uniquely designed Optical Locator System (OLS), relieves the aircraft from relying on ground-controlled interception
Ground-controlled interception
Ground-controlled interception an air defense tactic whereby one or more radar stations are linked to a command communications centre which guides interceptor aircraft to an airborne target. This tactic was pioneered during World War II by the Royal Air Force with the Luftwaffe to follow closely...

 (GCI) systems and enables it to conduct independent multi-role missions.

Development


There have been references in the late-1980s to a very different design also identified as "MiG-35". This design was a single engined combat aircraft for air-to-air and secondary air-to-ground roles. According to unidentified Indian sources the aircraft was evaluated by Indian pilots in the Soviet Union and was probably suggested as an alternative for the Indian LCA being developed at that time.

The MiG-35/MiG-35D exhibits the latest advancements on MiG-29K/KUB and MiG-29M/M2 fighters in combat efficiency enhancement, universality and operational characteristics improvement. The main features of the new design are the fifth-generation information-sighting systems, compatibility with Russian and foreign origin weapons application and an integrated variety of defensive systems to increase combat survivability. The new overall design overtakes the design concepts of the baseline model and enables the new aircraft to conduct full-scale multi-role missions as their western counterparts.

New avionics are intended to help the MiG-35 to gain air superiority as well as to perform all-weather precision ground strikes, aerial reconnaissance with opto-electronic and radar equipment and to conduct complex joint missions. The new aircraft has greater weapons load on nine pylons, increased fuel capacity, better anti-corrosion protection, significantly reduced radar signature and a quadruple-redundant fly-by-wire control system.

Responding to earlier customer criticism, the new design is substantially more reliable than the previous variants. The airframe lifetime and its service life have been extended and it is fitted with new engines with longer mean time between overhauls (MTBO), resulting in a decrease in flight-hour cost of almost 2.5 times compared to those of the old variants. The new engines are now smokeless and include a FADEC
FADEC
Full Authority Digital Engine Control is a system consisting of a digital computer, called an electronic engine controller or engine control unit , and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance...

 type electronic control system for better performance. All aspect vector nozzles which had been demonstrated on MiG-29OVT are also optional.

Other technological improvements were also introduced to enhance the aircraft's ability to conduct independent operations. For example, an airborne oxygen generation plant was added. RAC MiG and the Italian company Elettronica signed a Memorandum of Understanding
Memorandum of understanding
A memorandum of understanding is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in...

 to provide the MIG-35 with a new multifunction self-protection jammer
Radar jamming and deception
Radar jamming and deception is the intentional emission of radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of a radar by saturating its receiver with noise or false information...

.

The RAC MiG engineers also developed a set of training simulators to help pilots master the sophisticated controls of the new aircraft. The simulators offer interactive computer-based training systems and offer full-mission motion simulation.
The first demonstrator, a dual-seat aircraft, was built on an existing MiG-29M2 airframe, which previously served as a demonstrator for modifications designated MiG-29MRCA and MiG-29M2.

Unveiling at Aero India


Russia unveiled the MiG-35 at the Aero India
Aero India
Aero India is a biennial air show and aviation exhibition held in Bangalore, India at the Yelahanka Air Force Station. It is organized by Defence Exhibition Organisation, the Ministry of Defence and is held in association with the Defence Research and Development Organisation , the Indian Air Force...

 2007 airshow
Airshow
An air show is an event at which aviators display their flying skills and the capabilities of their aircraft to spectators in aerobatics. Air shows without aerobatic displays, having only aircraft displayed parked on the ground, are called "static air shows"....

 in Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

, amid Moscow's keenness to sell these planes to India. It was reported that the MiG-35 made its way from Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 to Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

 in less than three hours, assisted by in-flight refueling
Aerial refueling
Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling , air-to-air refueling or tanking, is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight....

 on the way and flying at supersonic
Supersonic
Supersonic speed is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound . For objects traveling in dry air of a temperature of 20 °C this speed is approximately 343 m/s, 1,125 ft/s, 768 mph or 1,235 km/h. Speeds greater than five times the speed of sound are often...

 speeds.

The MiG-35 was a contender with the Eurofighter Typhoon
Eurofighter Typhoon
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole combat aircraft, designed and built by a consortium of three companies: EADS, Alenia Aeronautica and BAE Systems; working through a holding company, Eurofighter GmbH, which was formed in 1986...

, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
The Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is a twin-engine carrier-based multirole fighter aircraft. The F/A-18E single-seat variant and F/A-18F tandem-seat variant are larger and more advanced derivatives of the F/A-18C and D Hornet. The Super Hornet has an internal 20 mm gun and can carry air-to-air...

, Dassault Rafale
Dassault Rafale
The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine delta-wing multi-role jet fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Introduced in 2000, the Rafale is being produced both for land-based use with the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations with the French Navy...

, JAS 39 Gripen
JAS 39 Gripen
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is a lightweight single-engine multirole fighter manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. It was designed to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen in the Swedish Air Force...

 and F-16 Falcon
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

 in the Indian MRCA competition
Indian MRCA Competition
The Indian Air Force Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Competition, also known as the MRCA tender, is an ongoing competition to supply 126 multi-role combat aircraft to the Indian Air Force . The Defence Ministry has allocated for the purchase of these aircraft, making it India's single largest...

 for 126 multirole combat aircraft
Multirole combat aircraft
A multirole combat aircraft is an aircraft designed to act in at least two different roles in combat. The primary role is usually a fighter—hence, it is as often called a multirole fighter—while the secondary role is usually air-to-surface attack. More roles are added, such as air reconnaissance,...

 to be procured by the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict...

. The MiG-35 was ousted from the contest in April 2011.
Aero India
Aero India
Aero India is a biennial air show and aviation exhibition held in Bangalore, India at the Yelahanka Air Force Station. It is organized by Defence Exhibition Organisation, the Ministry of Defence and is held in association with the Defence Research and Development Organisation , the Indian Air Force...

 2007 was the first time that the final version of the MiG-35 fighter was displayed in an international air show. Until then, only the prototype of the MiG-35 had been shown to the public at air shows in Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and the UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 in 2005.

It was again demonstrated at Aero India
Aero India
Aero India is a biennial air show and aviation exhibition held in Bangalore, India at the Yelahanka Air Force Station. It is organized by Defence Exhibition Organisation, the Ministry of Defence and is held in association with the Defence Research and Development Organisation , the Indian Air Force...

 2009 held at Yelahanka Airbase near Bangalore where it was flown by an Indian Air Force pilot.

By April 2010, pictures and additional info surfaced of two new MiG-35 demonstrators, single-seat MiG-35 bort "961", and two-seat MiG-35D "967". According to Russian media, they have first flown at the beginning of Autumn 2009, and subsequently they took part in MMRCA trials in India starting October 2009. Both have a very high commonality with the previous MiG-29K/KUB airframes, with the immediate visible difference being the braking parachute installed in the place of the hook present on the naval aircraft. Subsequently MiG-35D "967" appears to have been equipped with a similar AESA radar as fitted to the older MiG-35 demonstrator bort "154", identifiable by the dark-grey short nose radome.

Design


The most important changes are the Phazotron Zhuk-AE active electronically scanned array
Active Electronically Scanned Array
An Active Electronically Scanned Array , also known as active phased array radar is a type of phased array radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous small solid-state transmit/receive modules . AESAs aim their "beam" by broadcasting radio energy that interfere...

 (AESA) radar, the RD-33MK engines and the newly designed Optical Locator System (OLS). Other obvious changes in the cockpit are the reduction in analog electronics.

Powerplant


The RD-33MK "Morskaya Osa" ' onMouseout='HidePop("8828")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Chironex_fleckeri">Chironex fleckeri
Chironex fleckeri
Chironex fleckeri, commonly known as sea wasp, is a species of Box jellyfish found in coastal waters from northern Australia and New Guinea north to the Philippines and Vietnam. It has been described as "the most lethal jellyfish in the world", with at least 63 known deaths from 1884 to...

) was installed by the new modification. It is the latest version of the RD-33 and was intended to power the MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB. It has 7% more power compared to the baseline model due to the use of modern materials in the cooled blades, providing a higher thrust of 9,000 kgf. In response to earlier criticism, the new engines are smokeless and include systems that reduce infrared and optical visibility. The engines may be fitted with vectored-thrust nozzles
Thrust vectoring
Thrust vectoring, also thrust vector control or TVC, is the ability of an aircraft, rocket or other vehicle to manipulate the direction of the thrust from its engine or motor in order to control the attitude or angular velocity of the vehicle....

, which would result an increase in combat efficiency by 12% to 15%.

With the vectored thrust nozzles, the engines are designated RD-33OVT and will allow the MiG-35 to be the first production twin-engine aircraft with vectoring nozzles that can move in two directions or planes. Other current thrust-vectoring aircraft, such as the Su-30MKI and the F-22
F-22 Raptor
The Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine fifth-generation supermaneuverable fighter aircraft that uses stealth technology. It was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities that include ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals...

, have nozzles that each vector in one direction/plane.

Cockpit


Analogue electronics are minimized, being replaced by 3 equal-size colour liquid-crystal (LCD) multi-function display
Multi-function display
A Multi-function display is a small screen in an aircraft surrounded by multiple buttons that can be used to display information to the pilot in numerous configurable ways. Often an MFD will be used in concert with a Primary Flight Display. MFDs are part of the digital era of modern planes or...

s (MFDs) and an additional display for the OLS (the MiG-35D rear cockpit has four LCDs).

Sensors


New modifications include the newly rolled-out Phazotron Zhuk-AE active electronically scanned array
Active Electronically Scanned Array
An Active Electronically Scanned Array , also known as active phased array radar is a type of phased array radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous small solid-state transmit/receive modules . AESAs aim their "beam" by broadcasting radio energy that interfere...

 (AESA) radar and an optronic complex consisting of the newly designed OLS to replace the previous IRST sensor, an additional OLS under the right air intake, and a pair of laser emission detectors on each wing tip.

The Phazotron Zhuk-AE AESA radar offers a wider range of operating frequencies, providing more resistance to electronic countermeasures
Electronic countermeasures
An electronic countermeasure is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting information to an enemy...

 (ECM), more detection range, more air and ground targets detected, tracked and able to be engaged simultaneously. The radar is thought to have detection range of 160 km (86 nmi) for air targets and 300 km (160 nmi) for ships.

The OLS, a new development from space technologies, incorporates a helmet-mounted target designation system providing targeting solutions for both ground and air targets in the forward and aft hemispheres of the aircraft. The most vital difference from the previous IRST sensor is that the new device provides not only a better operation range but also offers manually switchable display options of IR view, TV mode or a mix of both that significantly improves man-machine coordination. The OLS on the nose serves as the IRST while the OLS under the right air intake serves as the ground strike designator.

In air combat, the optronic suite allows:
  • Detection of non-afterburning targets at 45 km range and more;
  • Identification of those targets at 8 to 10 km range; and
  • Estimates of aerial target range at up to 15 km.


For ground targets, the suite allows:
  • A tank-effective detection range up to 15 km, and aircraft carrier detection at 60 to 80 km;
  • Identification of the tank type on the 8 to 10 km range, and of an aircraft carrier at 40 to 60 km; and
  • Estimates of ground target range of up to 20 km.


The defensive system equipment consists of radar reconnaissance, electronic countermeasures, and optical systems — notably the laser emission detector on each wingtip — which are able to detect and evaluate the approaching danger and operate decoy dispensers to counteract the approaching threat in the radar and infrared ranges.

Open architecture


The final configuration of the MiG-35's onboard equipment has been left open intentionally using the MIL-STD-1553
MIL-STD-1553
MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard published by the United States Department of Defense that defines the mechanical, electrical, and functional characteristics of a serial data bus. It was originally designed for use with military avionics, but has also become commonly used in spacecraft on-board...

 bus. The main advantage of an open architecture configuration for its avionics is that future customers will have options to choose from components and systems made by Russian, United States, French and Israeli sources. The Ramenskoe Design Company will act as systems integrator.

Specifications

The MiG-35 is currently in development. Information listed below is preliminary and may change.


See also


External links