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Michelle Kwan

Michelle Kwan

Overview
Michelle Wingshan Kwan is an American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 figure skater
Figure skating
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...

. She is a two-time (1998 & 2002) Olympic medalist, a five-time (1996, 1998, 2000, 2001 & 2003) World champion
World Figure Skating Championships
The World Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which elite figure skaters compete for the title of World Champion...

 (a record bettered only by Sonja Henie
Sonja Henie
Sonja Henie was a Norwegian figure skater and film star. She was a three-time Olympic Champion in Ladies Singles, a ten-time World Champion and a six-time European Champion . Henie won more Olympic and World titles than any other ladies figure skater...

 among ladies skaters) and a nine-time (1996, 1998–2005) U.S. champion
United States Figure Skating Championships
The United States Figure Skating Championships is figure skating competition held annually to crown the national champions of the United States. The competition is sanctioned by U.S. Figure Skating. In the U.S. skating community, the event is often referred to informally as "Nationals".Skaters...

 (the all-time record, as tied with Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Yerxa Vinson-Owen was an American figure skater and coach. She competed in the disciplines of ladies singles and pair skating. As a single skater, she was a nine-time U.S. national champion and the 1932 Olympic bronze medalist. As a pair skater, she won six national titles, two with...

).

She competed at a high level for over a decade and is the most decorated figure skater in U.S. history. Known for her consistency and expressive artistry on ice, she is widely considered one of the greatest figure skaters of all time.

For well over a decade, Kwan maintained her status not only as America's most popular figure skater but as one of America's most popular female athletes, consistently making the top ten on many such polls and lists (often as the only figure skater) even years after she had stopped competing.
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Encyclopedia
Michelle Wingshan Kwan is an American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 figure skater
Figure skating
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...

. She is a two-time (1998 & 2002) Olympic medalist, a five-time (1996, 1998, 2000, 2001 & 2003) World champion
World Figure Skating Championships
The World Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which elite figure skaters compete for the title of World Champion...

 (a record bettered only by Sonja Henie
Sonja Henie
Sonja Henie was a Norwegian figure skater and film star. She was a three-time Olympic Champion in Ladies Singles, a ten-time World Champion and a six-time European Champion . Henie won more Olympic and World titles than any other ladies figure skater...

 among ladies skaters) and a nine-time (1996, 1998–2005) U.S. champion
United States Figure Skating Championships
The United States Figure Skating Championships is figure skating competition held annually to crown the national champions of the United States. The competition is sanctioned by U.S. Figure Skating. In the U.S. skating community, the event is often referred to informally as "Nationals".Skaters...

 (the all-time record, as tied with Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Yerxa Vinson-Owen was an American figure skater and coach. She competed in the disciplines of ladies singles and pair skating. As a single skater, she was a nine-time U.S. national champion and the 1932 Olympic bronze medalist. As a pair skater, she won six national titles, two with...

).

She competed at a high level for over a decade and is the most decorated figure skater in U.S. history. Known for her consistency and expressive artistry on ice, she is widely considered one of the greatest figure skaters of all time.

For well over a decade, Kwan maintained her status not only as America's most popular figure skater but as one of America's most popular female athletes, consistently making the top ten on many such polls and lists (often as the only figure skater) even years after she had stopped competing. During the decade of her reign Kwan enjoyed unprecedented popularity and amassed numerous multi-million dollar endorsement deals, starred in multiple TV specials and was the subject of extensive media coverage.

Personal life


Born in Torrance, California
Torrance, California
Torrance is a city incorporated in 1921 and located in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Torrance has of shore-front beaches on the Pacific Ocean, quieter and less well-known by tourists than others on the Santa Monica Bay, such as those of neighboring...

, Kwan is the third child of Danny Kwan and Estella Kwan, Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 immigrants from Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

. As a child, Kwan grew up speaking a mixture of Cantonese
Standard Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a language that originated in the vicinity of Canton in southern China, and is often regarded as the prestige dialect of Yue Chinese....

 and English at home. Kwan’s interest in figure skating began at the age of five when she followed her two older siblings (hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

 player Ron and figure skater Karen
Karen Kwan
Karen Wingyan Kwan Oppegard is best known as the older sister of figure skater Michelle Kwan. Karen is two years older than Michelle and was an elite figure skater herself....

) onto the ice. Karen and Michelle began serious training when Michelle was about eight years old. They practiced three to four hours a day, waking up at 3 am to skate before school and going back to the rink right after school to skate again. Paying for their increased skating-rink time led to financial hardship for Kwan’s working class
Working class
Working class is a term used in the social sciences and in ordinary conversation to describe those employed in lower tier jobs , often extending to those in unemployment or otherwise possessing below-average incomes...

 family. When Kwan was ten years old, her family could no longer afford a coach, but they were offered financial assistance by a fellow member of the Los Angeles Figure Skating Club that allowed them to train at the Ice Castle International Training Center in Lake Arrowhead
Lake Arrowhead, California
Lake Arrowhead is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in the San Bernardino Mountains of San Bernardino County, California, within the San Bernardino National Forest, adjacent to Lake Arrowhead Reservoir...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

.

Kwan attended Soleado Elementary School in Palos Verdes
Palos Verdes
Palos Verdes is a name often used to refer to a group of coastal cities in the Palos Verdes Hills on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, within southwestern Los Angeles County in the U.S...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, but left public school to be homeschooled in 1994, when she was in the 8th grade. After graduation from Rim of the World High School
Rim of the World High School
Rim of the World High School is a secondary school located in Lake Arrowhead, California, at the top of the mountain overlooking the San Bernardino Valley. It is part of the Rim of the World Unified School District and is the only comprehensive 9-12 high school in the system...

 in 1998, she attended UCLA
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university located in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, USA. It was founded in 1919 as the "Southern Branch" of the University of California and is the second oldest of the ten campuses...

 for one year. In the fall of 2006, she transferred to the University of Denver
University of Denver
The University of Denver is currently ranked 82nd among all public and private "National Universities" by U.S. News & World Report in the 2012 rankings....

.
In June 2009, she graduated with a bachelor's degree in international studies and a minor in political science. In 2009, she began graduate studies in international relations at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University is the oldest school in the United States dedicated solely to graduate studies in international affairs. It is regarded as one of the world's foremost schools of international affairs. Every Fall, the school enrolls approximately 265...

 at Tufts University
Tufts University
Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, Massachusetts. It is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in Massachusetts and on the eastern border of France...

 and graduated in 2011. On May 8, 2010, she was awarded an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Southern Vermont College.

Ambassadorship endeavors


On November 9, 2006, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice is an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, and was the second person to hold that office in the administration of President George W. Bush...

 named Michelle Kwan as a public diplomacy ambassador. In this non-salaried position, Kwan will represent American values especially to young people and sports enthusiasts and is expected to travel widely. Kwan made her first overseas trip in the capacity of public diplomacy ambassador with a visit to China from January 17–25, 2007.

Her diplomatic position as an envoy has continued in the Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 administration where she has worked with Vice President Joe Biden
Joe Biden
Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden, Jr. is the 47th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President Barack Obama...

 and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

Between 9–15 January 2011, she travelled to Singapore on behalf of the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.

On April 15, 2011, it was announced that Kwan would serve as an advisor to U.S.-China Women's Leadership Exchange and Dialogue (Women-LEAD).

Filmography


Kwan has guest starred as herself in "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass
Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass
"Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass" is the eighth episode of Season 16 of The Simpsons. It is a Super Bowl themed episode that was broadcast after Super Bowl XXXIX.-Plot:...

", an episode of The Simpsons
The Simpsons
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

, and in the Family Guy
Family Guy
Family Guy is an American animated television series created by Seth MacFarlane for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series centers on the Griffins, a dysfunctional family consisting of parents Peter and Lois; their children Meg, Chris, and Stewie; and their anthropomorphic pet dog Brian...

 episode "A Hero Sits Next Door
A Hero Sits Next Door
"A Hero Sits Next Door" is the fifth episode of season one of Family Guy, originally aired on Fox on May 2, 1999. The episode features the introduction of Joe Swanson, who would become a recurring character in the series. Peter Griffin must find a replacement player for an upcoming softball game...

". She has also made guest star appearances in the children's cartoon television series Arthur the PBS Series
Arthur (TV series)
Arthur is an American/Canadian animated educational television series for children, created by Cookie Jar Group and WGBH for the Public Broadcasting Service...

, and has also appeared in Sabrina, the Teenage Witch
Sabrina, the Teenage Witch (TV series)
Sabrina, the Teenage Witch is an American sitcom based on the Archie comic book series of the same name.The show stars Melissa Joan Hart as Sabrina Spellman, a teenager with magical powers, who lives with her aunts Hilda and Zelda , and their magical talking cat Salem...

. She provided the voice of a shopkeeper in Disney's direct-to-DVD sequel Mulan II
Mulan II
Mulan II is a 2004 American direct-to-video Disney animated feature directed by Darrell Rooney and Lynne Southerl and is a sequel to the 1998 animated film Mulan. The entire cast from the first film returned, except for Eddie Murphy , Miriam Margolyes , Chris Sanders and Matthew Wilder...

, and she and fellow figure skater Brian Boitano
Brian Boitano
Brian Anthony Boitano is an American figure skater from Sunnyvale, California. He is the 1988 Olympic champion, the 1986 and 1988 World Champion, and the 1985-1988 U.S. National Champion. He turned professional following the 1988 season...

 appeared as announcers in the film Ice Princess
Ice Princess
Ice Princess is a 2005 American figure-skating film directed by Tim Fywell, Starring Michelle Trachtenberg, Joan Cusack, Kim Cattrall, Hayden Panettiere, Trevor Blumas, and Kirsten Olson...

. She has performed in numerous figure skating programs, and has cameo appearances in various other television series. In 1999, she appeared in the Michelle Kwan Figure Skating
Michelle Kwan Figure Skating
Michelle Kwan Figure Skating is a computer game released in 1999, starring American skater Michelle Kwan.The player can create the skater, dress her, choose music and create a routine to it, and then compete in different skating competitions...

 computer game.

Other activities


Kwan wrote an inspirational book for children titled, The Winning Attitude: What it Takes to be a Champion. She also wrote an autobiography, Heart of a Champion, at 17.

In 2005, Michelle Kwan's family opened the EastWest Ice Palace in Artesia, California
Artesia, California
Artesia is a city in southeast Los Angeles County, California. Artesia was incorporated on May 29, 1959 and is one of Los Angeles County's Gateway Cities. The city has a 2010 census population of 16,522...

. The ice rink houses many of her skating medals and memorabilia.

Kwan has had numerous endorsement contracts and has appeared in television commercials for sponsors including Campbell's Soup, VISA, Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines in more than 200 countries. It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke...

, and Kraft
Kraft Foods
Kraft Foods Inc. is an American confectionery, food and beverage conglomerate. It markets many brands in more than 170 countries. 12 of its brands annually earn more than $1 billion worldwide: Cadbury, Jacobs, Kraft, LU, Maxwell House, Milka, Nabisco, Oscar Mayer, Philadelphia, Trident, Tang...

.
The Chevrolet/Michelle Kwan R.E.W.A.R.D.S. Scholarship program was established by the Chevrolet Motor Division of General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 in cooperation with Kwan. In February 2006, Kwan was named a "celebrity representative" for The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company is the largest media conglomerate in the world in terms of revenue. Founded on October 16, 1923, by Walt and Roy Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, Walt Disney Productions established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into...

.

Summary


Kwan has won five World Championships
World Figure Skating Championships
The World Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which elite figure skaters compete for the title of World Champion...

 (1996, 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2003), the most by anyone in the ladies' division since Carol Heiss
Carol Heiss
Carol Elizabeth Heiss Jenkins is an American figure skater. She is the 1960 Olympic Champion in Ladies Singles, 1956 Olympic silver medalist and five-time World Champion .-Biography:...

 (1956–1960), with whom she is tied for the most wins by an American. She has won nine United States Figure Skating Championships
United States Figure Skating Championships
The United States Figure Skating Championships is figure skating competition held annually to crown the national champions of the United States. The competition is sanctioned by U.S. Figure Skating. In the U.S. skating community, the event is often referred to informally as "Nationals".Skaters...

 (1996, 1998–2005), tying the record for most set by Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Yerxa Vinson-Owen was an American figure skater and coach. She competed in the disciplines of ladies singles and pair skating. As a single skater, she was a nine-time U.S. national champion and the 1932 Olympic bronze medalist. As a pair skater, she won six national titles, two with...

 (1928–1933, 1935–1937). Kwan's eight consecutive U.S. Championship titles (1998–2005) and 12 consecutive U.S. Championship medals (1994–2005) are both U.S. records. She is the only woman in figure skating history to reclaim the World title three times (1998, 2000, 2003). She also won a silver medal at the 1998 Nagano Olympics
1998 Winter Olympics
The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan. Seventy-two nations and 2,176 participans contested in seven sports and 72 events at 15 venues. The games saw the introduction of Women's ice...

 and a bronze medal in the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event that was celebrated in February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Approximately 2,400 athletes from 77 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout...

. Among her many accolades, Kwan is a recipient of the prestigious James E. Sullivan Award
James E. Sullivan Award
The James E. Sullivan Award, presented by the American Amateur Athletic Union , is awarded annually in April to "the outstanding amateur athlete in the United States". Often referred to as the Oscar of sports awards, it was first presented in 1930. The award is named for the AAU's founder and past...

, which is given to America's best amateur athlete; she was the first figure skater to win the award since Dick Button
Dick Button
Richard Totten "Dick" Button is an American former figure skater and a well-known long-time skating television analyst. He is a two-time Olympic Champion and five-time World Champion...

 won it in 1949. Kwan has received a combined total of 57 6.0s (perfect scores) from her National and World competitions throughout the years. At the U.S. Championships alone, she holds the record for most 6.0s. Because figure skating is no longer scored on a 6.0 scale, Kwan's records will stand indefinitely.

Early competition


In 1991, Michelle and her sister Karen
Karen Kwan
Karen Wingyan Kwan Oppegard is best known as the older sister of figure skater Michelle Kwan. Karen is two years older than Michelle and was an elite figure skater herself....

 began training with Frank Carroll
Frank Carroll
Francis M. "Frank" Carroll is an American figure skating coach and former competitive skater. He has coached three skaters to win the World Figure Skating Championships: Linda Fratianne, Michelle Kwan, and Evan Lysacek...

. After one year of coaching by Carroll, 11-year old Michelle placed 9th at the junior level at the United States Figure Skating Championships. At the age of 12 in 1992, Kwan passed the gold test to become a senior-level figure skater despite the disapproval of her coach. In 1993, Kwan finished sixth at her first senior U.S. championships. The next season, she won the 1994 World Junior Championships
World Junior Figure Skating Championships
The World Junior Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which younger figure skaters compete for the title of World Junior Champion...

.

In 1994, Kwan finished second to Tonya Harding
Tonya Harding
Tonya Maxine Harding is an American figure skating champion. In 1991 she won the U.S. Figure Skating Championships and placed second in the World Championships. She was the second woman, and the first American woman, to complete a triple axel jump in competition...

 at the U.S. Championships, which ordinarily would have earned her a spot on the U.S. team to the 1994 Olympic Games in Lillehammer
Lillehammer
is a town and municipality in Oppland county, Norway, globally known for hosting the 1994 Winter Olympics. It is part of the traditional region of Gudbrandsdal. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Lillehammer. As of May 2011, the population of the town of Lillehammer was...

, Norway. That place, however, was instead given to 1993 national champion Nancy Kerrigan
Nancy Kerrigan
Nancy Ann Kerrigan is a two-time American Olympic figure skating medalist and 1993 U.S. champion.-Early life and skating career:...

, who had been sidelined by an assault and battery (eventually connected to Harding's ex-husband Jeff Gillooly) after a practice session at those championships. The 13-year-old Kwan went to Norway as an alternate but did not compete. Kerrigan and Harding both dropped out of eligible competition before the 1994 World Championships. Because of this (and teammate Nicole Bobek not making out of the qualifying round), Kwan had the sole responsibility to ensure two spots for the U.S. at the 1994 World Championships
1994 World Figure Skating Championships
The World Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which elite figure skaters compete for the title of World Champion. This event is considered the most prestigious of the ISU Championships...

 by placing in the top ten. Kwan had an unusual mistake in the short program and placed eleventh in that portion, but came back strong to finish eighth overall.

At the 1995 U.S. Championships, Nicole Bobek
Nicole Bobek
Nicole Bobek is an American figure skater. She is the 1995 U.S. Champion and World bronze medalist.-Biography:An only child, Bobek was raised by her Czech mother, Jana, and her friend Joyce Barron...

 won the gold medal, while Kwan again placed second after struggling with her lutz jump
Lutz jump
The Lutz is a figure skating jump, named after Alois Lutz, an Austrian skater who performed it in 1913. It is a toepick-assisted jump with an entrance from a back outside edge and landing on the back outside edge of the opposite foot.- Lutz technique:...

 in both the short program and free skate. At the 1995 World Championships
1995 World Figure Skating Championships
The 1995 World Figure Skating Championships were the World Figure Skating Championships of the 1994-1995 season. Elite senior-level figure skaters from ISU Member Nations competed for the title of World Champion...

, she placed fifth in the short program portion of the competition with a clean performance. She landed 7 triple jumps in her free skating performance and placed third in that portion of the competition. She finished fourth overall.

Artistic development and 1998 Olympics


Following 1995, Kwan developed a more mature style. Her new, more artistically expressive programs were "Romanza" (short program) and "Salome
Salome (opera)
Salome is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by the composer, based on Hedwig Lachmann’s German translation of the French play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Strauss dedicated the opera to his friend Sir Edgar Speyer....

" (free skate). She also improved her speed and her jump technique, and performed more difficult choreography. In 1996, Kwan won both the U.S. Championships and the World Championships. In the latter event, she edged out defending champion Chen Lu
Chen Lu
Chen Lu is a Chinese figure skater. She is the 1994 and 1998 Olympic bronze medalist and the 1995 World Champion. Chen won the first ever Olympic medal in figure skating for China.- Amateur career :...

 in a very close competition in which both competitors garnered two perfect 6.0s for Presentation in the free skate.

In the 1996–97 season, Kwan skated to "Dream of Desdemona" (short program) and "Taj Mahal" (free skate). It was during this year that Kwan debuted a change-of-edge spiral
Spiral (figure skating)
A spiral is an element in figure skating where the skater glides on one foot while raising the free leg above hip level. It is akin to the arabesque in ballet....

, which is still considered her signature move. However, in this season, Kwan struggled with her jumps
Figure skating jump
Figure skating jumps are a major element of competitive figure skating. Different jumps are identified by the take-off edge and the number of revolutions completed. There are six kinds of jumps currently counted as jump elements in ISU regulations.-Technique:...

 because of a growth spurt and problems with new skating boots which she wore for an endorsement contract with the manufacturer. She fell twice and stumbled once in her free skate at 1997 U.S. Nationals, losing the title to Tara Lipinski
Tara Lipinski
Tara Kristen Lipinski is an American figure skater. At the age of 15, she won the Ladies' Singles Olympic gold medal in figure skating at the 1998 Winter Olympics. Lipinski remains the youngest individual gold medalist in the history of the Olympic Winter Games. She is also the 1997 World...

. She also lost the Champion Series Final to Lipinski a month later. At the World Championships, Kwan made a mistake on her Triple Lutz
Lutz jump
The Lutz is a figure skating jump, named after Alois Lutz, an Austrian skater who performed it in 1913. It is a toepick-assisted jump with an entrance from a back outside edge and landing on the back outside edge of the opposite foot.- Lutz technique:...

 combination and placed 4th in the Short Program portion of the competition behind Lipinski, France's Vanessa Gusmeroli
Vanessa Gusmeroli
Vanessa Gusmeroli is a retired French figure skater and waterskier. She was a three-time French National Figure Skating Champion and won the bronze medal at the 1997 World Figure Skating Championships.-Biography:Vanessa Gusmeroli began skating at age seven, and competed in both skating and water...

, and Russia's Maria Butyrskaya
Maria Butyrskaya
Maria Viktorovna Butyrskaya is a Russian figure skater. She is the 1999 World champion, becoming the oldest woman to win that title and the first Russian woman to become a World champion. She is a three-time European champion and in 2002, at age 29, became the oldest woman to win that title. She...

. During the Free Skate, Kwan skated a six triple, mistake-free performance to win that part of the competition, but placed second to Lipinski overall.

Kwan started out the 1997–1998 Olympic season by winning Skate America
Skate America
Skate America is an international, senior-level figure skating competition held as part of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating series. It is organized by the United States Figure Skating Association. The location changes yearly...

 (where she defeated Tara Lipinski
Tara Lipinski
Tara Kristen Lipinski is an American figure skater. At the age of 15, she won the Ladies' Singles Olympic gold medal in figure skating at the 1998 Winter Olympics. Lipinski remains the youngest individual gold medalist in the history of the Olympic Winter Games. She is also the 1997 World...

) and then Skate Canada
Skate Canada International
The Skate Canada International is an international, senior-level invitation-only figure skating competition organized by Skate Canada. It is the second competition of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating. The location changes yearly. Medals are awarded in four disciplines: Ladies' singles, Men's...

. However, she suffered a stress fracture on her foot and was forced to withdraw from her third Champions Series Final. Kwan regained her U.S. title from Lipinski at the 1998 National Championships, in spite of competing with a toe injury. Many people consider her performances of her Rachmaninoff
Sergei Rachmaninoff
Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. Rachmaninoff is widely considered one of the finest pianists of his day and, as a composer, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian classical music...

 short program and free skate set to William Alwyn
William Alwyn
William Alwyn, CBE, born William Alwyn Smith was an English composer, conductor, and music teacher.-Life and music:...

's "Lyra Angelica" at the 1998 U.S. Championships to be the high point of her career from both a technical and artistic standpoint. The performance earned her eight perfect 6.0s and left one judge in tears.

Kwan and Lipinski were the co-favorites to win the 1998 Olympic Games in Nagano, Japan. Kwan placed first in the Short Program portion of the competition, winning eight first place votes out of nine judges. In the Free Skate, Kwan skated a 7-triple performance but placed behind Lipinski, who also did 7 triples including a triple loop/triple loop combination and a triple toe-loop/half-loop/Triple Salchow. Kwan ended up winning the silver medal, with the gold medal being won by Lipinski and the bronze medal by Chen Lu
Chen Lu
Chen Lu is a Chinese figure skater. She is the 1994 and 1998 Olympic bronze medalist and the 1995 World Champion. Chen won the first ever Olympic medal in figure skating for China.- Amateur career :...

.

Lipinski and Chen both retired from competitive skating shortly after the Olympics, while Kwan went on to win the 1998 World Championships in Minneapolis.

From 1998 to 2002 Olympics



Kwan continued to compete as an eligible skater in the 1998–99 season, although she bypassed the fall Grand Prix season and instead chose to skate in a series of made-for-television pro-am events. Her "regular" competitive programs that season were "Fate of Carmen" (short program) and "Lamento D'Ariane" (free skate). Kwan won her third national title at the 1999 U.S. Championships, competing against a weak field. At the 1999 World Championships, Kwan did not skate her best, and placed second behind Russian competitor Maria Butyrskaya
Maria Butyrskaya
Maria Viktorovna Butyrskaya is a Russian figure skater. She is the 1999 World champion, becoming the oldest woman to win that title and the first Russian woman to become a World champion. She is a three-time European champion and in 2002, at age 29, became the oldest woman to win that title. She...

.

Kwan's win at the 2000 U.S. Nationals was controversial to some. She was criticized for planning an easier jump in her short program than her competitors (a triple toe loop
Toe loop jump
The toe loop is one of the simplest jumps in figure skating. It is usually the second jump learned after the salchow. It is a toe pick-assisted jump that takes off and lands on the same backward outside edge. - Toe loop technique :...

 rather than a triple flip
Flip jump
The flip jump is a figure skating jump which takes off a backward inside edge with a toe pick assist, and lands on the backward outside edge of the opposite foot.-Flip technique:...

), and then she fell on this element in the competition. The judges nevertheless placed her third in that segment behind younger challengers Sasha Cohen
Sasha Cohen
Alexandra Pauline "Sasha" Cohen is a U.S. figure skater. She is the 2006 Olympic silver medalist, a three-time World Championship medalist, the 2003 Grand Prix Final Champion, and the 2006 U.S. Champion.-Personal life:...

 and Sarah Hughes
Sarah Hughes
Sarah Elizabeth Hughes is an American figure skater. She is the 2002 Olympic gold medalist and 2001 World bronze medalist in ladies singles.-Personal life:...

; however, the placement still kept her in contention for the title. Ultimately, she won the free skate with the best performance of the night, capturing 8 of the 9 first-place ordinals. At the 2000 World Championships, Kwan was again in third place after the short program, behind Maria Butyrskaya
Maria Butyrskaya
Maria Viktorovna Butyrskaya is a Russian figure skater. She is the 1999 World champion, becoming the oldest woman to win that title and the first Russian woman to become a World champion. She is a three-time European champion and in 2002, at age 29, became the oldest woman to win that title. She...

 and Irina Slutskaya. In her free skate, Kwan landed seven triple jumps, including a triple toe loop/triple toe loop combination, and won that segment of the competition. Butyrskaya lost her commanding lead by finishing third behind Slutskaya in the free skate, allowing Kwan to win the overall title as well.

In 2001, Kwan again won the U.S. Championships, receiving first-place ordinals from all 9 judges in both the short program and free skate. At the 2001 World Championships, Kwan was second behind Slutskaya in the short program. Kwan won the title with her "Song of the Black Swan" free skate, executing 7 triples, including a triple toe loop/triple toe loop combination.

In the fall of 2001, Kwan and Carroll decided to end their coaching relationship. In interviews, Kwan said she needed to "take responsibility" for her skating. Coachless, Kwan arrived at the 2002 U.S. Championships in Los Angeles amid the media's scrutiny over her separation with Carroll and her season's inconsistencies. Kwan won the competition with a revived "Rachmaninoff" short program and a new "Scheherazade
Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakov)
Sheherazade , Op. 35, is a symphonic suite composed by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov in 1888. Based on One Thousand and One Nights, sometimes known as The Arabian Nights, this orchestral work combines two features common to Russian music and of Rimsky-Korsakov in particular: dazzling, colourful...

" program for her free skate, securing a place on the 2002 Olympic team
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event that was celebrated in February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Approximately 2,400 athletes from 77 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout...

. Joining her on the team were Sasha Cohen
Sasha Cohen
Alexandra Pauline "Sasha" Cohen is a U.S. figure skater. She is the 2006 Olympic silver medalist, a three-time World Championship medalist, the 2003 Grand Prix Final Champion, and the 2006 U.S. Champion.-Personal life:...

 (second) and Sarah Hughes
Sarah Hughes
Sarah Elizabeth Hughes is an American figure skater. She is the 2002 Olympic gold medalist and 2001 World bronze medalist in ladies singles.-Personal life:...

 (third). The 21-year-old Kwan and Russia's Irina Slutskaya were favorites to win the gold. Kwan led after the short program, followed by Slutskaya, Cohen, and Hughes. In the free skate, Kwan two-footed her combination and fell on her triple flip
Flip jump
The flip jump is a figure skating jump which takes off a backward inside edge with a toe pick assist, and lands on the backward outside edge of the opposite foot.-Flip technique:...

, while Sarah Hughes
Sarah Hughes
Sarah Elizabeth Hughes is an American figure skater. She is the 2002 Olympic gold medalist and 2001 World bronze medalist in ladies singles.-Personal life:...

 skated a clean program. This left Kwan with the bronze medal behind Hughes and Slutskaya. Kwan's final event of the season was the 2002 Worlds
2002 World Figure Skating Championships
The World Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which elite figure skaters compete for the title of World Champion. This event is considered the most prestigious of the ISU Championships. The 2002 Worlds were held in...

, where she won the silver medal behind Slutskaya.

2002–2006



Following the 2002 season, Kwan continued to compete on the Olympic-eligible circuit, although in a more limited way.
During the fall seasons of 2002 to 2004, Kwan competed in only one Grand Prix
ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating
The ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating is a series of international invitational competitions organized by the International Skating Union. Elite figure skaters compete in the disciplines of ladies' singles, men's singles, pair skating, and ice dancing...

 event, Skate America
Skate America
Skate America is an international, senior-level figure skating competition held as part of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating series. It is organized by the United States Figure Skating Association. The location changes yearly...

 in the fall of 2002, which she entered as a last-minute replacement. She won the event and qualified for the Grand Prix Final
Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final
The Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final is an international, senior-level figure skating competition. It is the culmination of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating series. Skaters compete in men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, and ice dancing....

 but chose not to compete in it. Kwan chose to not compete in Grand Prix events in the 2003 and 2004 seasons where the new judging system
ISU Judging System
The ISU Judging System , is the scoring system on the event and on the level of competition. At the senior international level, single and pairs short programs contain eight technical elements. The actual eight elements are detailed for single skaters in ISU rule 310...

 was being used.

Coached by Scott Williams
Scott Williams (figure skater)
Scott Williams is a former American figure skater. Williams was the 1982 World Junior Champion and a three-time medalist at the U.S. National Championships from 1985 to 1987...

, Kwan won all phases of every competition she entered in the 2002–2003 competitive season with her programs: Peter Gabriel's "The Feeling Begins" from The Last Temptation of Christ
The Last Temptation of Christ
The Last Temptation of Christ is a novel written by Nikos Kazantzakis, first published in 1953. It was first published in English in 1960. It follows the life of Jesus Christ from his perspective...

 (short program) and "Concierto de Aranjuez
Concierto de Aranjuez
The Concierto de Aranjuez is a composition for classical guitar and orchestra by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo. Written in 1939, it is probably Rodrigo's best-known work, and its success established his reputation as one of the most significant Spanish composers of the twentieth century. ...

" (free skate). She won the U.S. Championships again and regained her World title.

In 2003, she hired noted technician Rafael Arutunian
Rafael Arutunian
Rafael Vladimirovich Arutunian is an Armenian figure skating coach. He is a former Soviet national competitor.Among his current and former students are Jeffrey Buttle, Mao Asada, Mai Asada, Michelle Kwan, Sasha Cohen, Alexander Abt, Sergei Voronov, Alexander Shubin, Ivan Dinev, and fellow Armenian...

 as her coach, with whom she attempted to increase the technical difficulty of her programs. In the 2003–2004 competitive season, she skated again to "The Feeling Begins" for her short program, and Puccini's "Tosca
Tosca
Tosca is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. It premiered at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome on 14 January 1900...

" for her long program.

Again, Kwan won the U.S. Championships (where the old 6.0 system was still being used), earning 7 more 6.0s for presentation in the Free Skate. At the 2004 World Championships, after a difficult qualifying round, Kwan was penalized in her short program for going two seconds over time which caused her to placed 4th going into the Long Program behind American Sasha Cohen
Sasha Cohen
Alexandra Pauline "Sasha" Cohen is a U.S. figure skater. She is the 2006 Olympic silver medalist, a three-time World Championship medalist, the 2003 Grand Prix Final Champion, and the 2006 U.S. Champion.-Personal life:...

, Japan's Shizuka Arakawa
Shizuka Arakawa
is a Japanese figure skater.She is the 2006 Olympic Champion in Ladies Singles and the 2004 World Champion. Arakawa is the first Japanese skater to win an Olympic gold medal in figure skating and the second Japanese skater to win any Olympic medal in figure skating, after Midori Ito, who won silver...

, and Miki Ando
Miki Ando
is a Japanese figure skater. She is the 2007 and 2011 World Champion, 2011 Four Continents Champion, 2004 World Junior Champion, and a three-time Japanese National Champion....

. Just as she was about to start her free skate, there was a disruption caused by a spectator entering the ice surface and being removed by security staff. In the end, Kwan skated an inspired, if conservative, 5 triple performance and received the last 6.0 marks given at the World Championships. She placed second in the Free Skating portion (she was one judge away from winning the long program) and placed third overall at the championships behind Arakawa (who performed 7 triples including two triple-triple combinations) and Cohen.

For the 2004–2005 competitive season, Kwan skated her long program to "Boléro
Boléro
Boléro is a one-movement orchestral piece by Maurice Ravel . Originally composed as a ballet commissioned by Russian ballerina Ida Rubinstein, the piece, which premiered in 1928, is Ravel's most famous musical composition....

", choreographed by British ice dancer Christopher Dean
Christopher Dean
Christopher Colin Dean, OBE is a famous British ice dancer who won a gold medal at the 1984 Winter Olympics with his skating partner Jayne Torvill...

 who had famously skated to the music with Jayne Torvill
Jayne Torvill
Jayne Torvill, OBE is a British ice dancer. With Christopher Dean, she won a gold medal at the 1984 Winter Olympics and a bronze medal at the 1994 Winter Olympics.-Early life:...

 two decades before, and debuted a new short program, "Adagio" from Aram Khachaturian
Aram Khachaturian
Aram Ilyich Khachaturian was a prominent Soviet composer. Khachaturian's works were often influenced by classical Russian music and Armenian folk music...

's ballet Spartacus
Spartacus (ballet)
Spartacus, or Spartak, is a ballet by Aram Khachaturian . The work follows the exploits of Spartacus, the leader of the slave uprising against the Romans known as the Third Servile War, although the ballet's storyline takes considerable liberties with the historical record. Khachaturian composed...

. At the U.S. Championships, she won her 9th title, tying the all-time record previously set by Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Vinson-Owen
Maribel Yerxa Vinson-Owen was an American figure skater and coach. She competed in the disciplines of ladies singles and pair skating. As a single skater, she was a nine-time U.S. national champion and the 1932 Olympic bronze medalist. As a pair skater, she won six national titles, two with...

. Interestingly, Vinson-Owen had coached Frank Carroll
Frank Carroll
Francis M. "Frank" Carroll is an American figure skating coach and former competitive skater. He has coached three skaters to win the World Figure Skating Championships: Linda Fratianne, Michelle Kwan, and Evan Lysacek...

, who in turn coached Kwan. At the 2005 World Championship, Kwan competed for the first time under the new judging system. She had a rough qualifying round and placed third in the short program. In the Free Skate, Kwan fell on her triple salchow
Salchow jump
The Salchow is a figure skating jump with a takeoff from a back inside edge of one foot. The rotation in the air is made in the direction of the curve of the take-off edge. The landing is made on the back outside edge of the foot opposite the one used for take-off. One or more rotations may be...

 and two-footed a triple lutz
Lutz jump
The Lutz is a figure skating jump, named after Alois Lutz, an Austrian skater who performed it in 1913. It is a toepick-assisted jump with an entrance from a back outside edge and landing on the back outside edge of the opposite foot.- Lutz technique:...

. Although she finished third in both the short and long program portion of the competition, Kwan was edged by Carolina Kostner
Carolina Kostner
Carolina Kostner is an Italian figure skater. She is a three-time World medalist , a three-time European champion , a three-time Grand Prix Final medalist , the 2003 World Junior bronze medalist, and a six-time Italian Champion.-Personal life:Carolina Kostner was born...

 for the bronze medal and finished fourth overall, missing third place by 0.37 points. It was the first time since 1995 that Kwan had failed to medal at any international competition, and would be her final competitive event.

2006 Olympics


Kwan looked at the 2005 Worlds as a learning experience in the ISU Judging System
ISU Judging System
The ISU Judging System , is the scoring system on the event and on the level of competition. At the senior international level, single and pairs short programs contain eight technical elements. The actual eight elements are detailed for single skaters in ISU rule 310...

. She continued to train and stated that she would attempt to qualify for the 2006 Olympic Games
2006 Winter Olympics
The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. This marked the second time Italy hosted the Olympic Winter Games, the first being the VII Olympic Winter...

 in Turin
Turin
Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

, Italy. However, following a hip injury, she was forced to withdraw from her three planned competitions in the fall of 2005. Kwan skated her new short program ("Totentanz") at a made-for-TV event in December, 2005, but her performance was well below her usual standard. On January 4, 2006, Kwan withdrew from the U.S. Figure Skating Championships with an abdominal injury incurred in December 2005. One week later, she filed a petition with the USFSA for a medical waiver to be placed on the 2006 Olympic figure skating team. On January 14, 2006, after the United States ladies' figure skating event, the USFSA's International Committee met and in a 20 to 3 vote approved Kwan's petition under the stipulation that she show her physical and competitive readiness to a five-member monitoring panel by January 27.

Kwan performed her long and short programs for the panel on the stipulated day, and her spot on the Olympic team was established, as the panel felt she was fit to compete. However, on February 12, 2006, the United States Olympic Committee
United States Olympic Committee
The United States Olympic Committee is a non-profit organization that serves as the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States and coordinates the relationship between the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency and various...

 announced that Kwan had withdrawn from the Games after suffering a new groin injury in her first practice in Turin. Kwan remarked that she "respected the Olympics too much to compete." The Turin organizing committee accepted the USOC's application for Emily Hughes
Emily Hughes
Emily Anne Hughes is an American figure skater. She is the 2007 U.S. National silver medalist and was a member of the 2006 Olympic team. She is a younger sister of Sarah Hughes, the 2002 Olympic champion.-Personal life:...

 (who had finished third at the U.S. Championships) to compete as Kwan's replacement.

After her withdrawal from the Olympic team, Kwan turned down an offer to stay in Turin as a figure skating commentator for NBC Sports
NBC Sports
NBC Sports is the sports division of the NBC television network. Formerly "a service of NBC News," it broadcasts a diverse array of programs, including the Olympic Games, the NFL, the NHL, MLS, Notre Dame football, the PGA Tour, the Triple Crown, and the French Open, among others...

. During an interview with Bob Costas
Bob Costas
Robert Quinlan "Bob" Costas is an American sportscaster, on the air for the NBC network since the early 1980s.-Early life:...

 and Scott Hamilton
Scott Hamilton (figure skater)
Scott Scovell Hamilton is an American figure skater and Olympic gold medalist. He won four consecutive U.S. championships , four consecutive World Championships and a gold medal in the 1984 Olympics....

, Michelle Kwan said she was not retiring yet.

Kwan underwent elective arthroscopic surgery in August 2006 to repair a torn labrum
Acetabular labrum
The acetabular labrum is a ring of cartilage that surrounds the acetabulum ....

 in her right hip, an old injury which she traces back to 2002. According to Kwan, the surgery allowed her to skate pain-free for the first time in four years.

2006–present


Kwan did not compete during the 2006–2007 figure skating season.

Kwan told the Associated Press in October 2007 that she would decide in 2009 if she planned to compete in the 2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially the XXI Olympic Winter Games or the 21st Winter Olympics, were a major international multi-sport event held from February 12–28, 2010, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University...

, but she ultimately decided not to do so, focusing instead on graduate school. She has said "Representing the United States as an American Public Diplomacy Envoy the past three years has been very rewarding, and I want to do more." After graduating from the University of Denver
University of Denver
The University of Denver is currently ranked 82nd among all public and private "National Universities" by U.S. News & World Report in the 2012 rankings....

 in 2009, Kwan said "Furthering my education will bring me closer to that goal, and I don't want to wait any longer to continue the journey."

On February 17, 2010, Kwan told ABC News
ABC News
ABC News is the news gathering and broadcasting division of American broadcast television network ABC, a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company...

 in an interview that she is continuing her studies as a graduate student at the Tufts University Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. She is working toward her Master's Degree focused on U.S. Foreign Policy and Pacific-Asia as well as continuing her work as a Public Diplomacy Envoy. Kwan also said she will be commentating for Good Morning America at the 2010 Winter Olympics.

In August 2009, Kwan made her first on-ice appearance in several years, performing at the Ice All Stars
Ice All Stars
Ice All Stars is a figure skating show produced by IB sports and sponsored by Samsung Electronics. The show was headlined by former IB client Kim Yu-Na....

, a show headlined by South Korean world champion Kim Yu-Na in Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

. Kwan appeared in Kim's All That Skate shows in South Korea and Los Angeles. She was the guest star to open the skate rink in the Marina Bay Sands in Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 in December 2010, where she performed twice to "Winter Song", a programme she self-choreographed with her sister. She returned to Singapore a month later as a Public Diplomacy Envoy to meet local students and to promote ice skating in the tropical country.

Awards and accolades


Kwan is a recipient of the prestigious James E. Sullivan Award
James E. Sullivan Award
The James E. Sullivan Award, presented by the American Amateur Athletic Union , is awarded annually in April to "the outstanding amateur athlete in the United States". Often referred to as the Oscar of sports awards, it was first presented in 1930. The award is named for the AAU's founder and past...

 (2001), which is given to America's best amateur athlete; she was the first figure skater to win the award since Dick Button
Dick Button
Richard Totten "Dick" Button is an American former figure skater and a well-known long-time skating television analyst. He is a two-time Olympic Champion and five-time World Champion...

 won it in 1949. In 2003 she was named the United States Olympic Committee
United States Olympic Committee
The United States Olympic Committee is a non-profit organization that serves as the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States and coordinates the relationship between the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency and various...

 (USOC) "Sportswoman of the Year", and is the 5th figure skater in history to receive this honor. She has also been named USOC "Athlete of the Month" 14 times, which is more than any other athlete, male or female, as well as being named "Female Figure Skating Athlete of the Year" by the USOC multiple times. She is also the recipient of the USOC's "Citizenship Through Sports Alliance Award" (2004).

Kwan is one of the only two multiple winners of the "Readers' Choice Figure Skater of the Year" award given by Skating magazine (1994, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2001–2003). In 2003, the United States Figure Skating Association
United States Figure Skating Association
U.S. Figure Skating is the national governing body for the sport of figure skating on ice in the United States. It is recognized as such by the United States Olympic Committee "USOC" under the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act and is the United States member of the International Skating...

, which publishes Skating, announced that the award would be renamed the "Michelle Kwan Trophy." The USFSA stated that although Kwan may continue to skate competitively, she will no longer be eligible for this award. She also appeared on International Figure Skating Magazines "25 Most Influential Names in Figure Skating List" seven times, and was named the most influential skater for the 2002–03 season.

In 1999, she was given the Historymakers Award by the Los Angeles Chinese American Museum
Chinese American Museum
The Chinese American Museum is a museum located in Downtown Los Angeles as a part of the El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historic Monument. It is dedicated to the history and experience of Chinese Americans in the state of California, first such museum in Southern California...

.

In January 2009, she was appointed a member of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
The President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition , is an American government organization that aims to "promote, encourage and motivate Americans of all ages to become physically active and participate in sport"...

 by George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

. On May 3, 2009, Kwan was honored by the Los Angeles Chinese Historical Society of Southern California
Chinese Historical Society of Southern California
Chinese Historical Society of Southern California is located in Los Angeles Chinatown, at 415 Bernard Street. Its Chinatown Heritage & Visitors Center is open to the public...

 in "Celebrating Chinese Americans in Sports". In 2011, she was added to the board of the Special Olympics
Special Olympics
Special Olympics is the world's largest sports organization for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, providing year-round training and competitions to more than 3.1 million athletes in 175 countries....

.

Programs

Season Short Program Long Program Exhibition
2005–2006 Totentanz
Totentanz (Liszt)
Totentanz : Paraphrase on Dies irae , S.126, is the name of a symphonic piece for solo piano and orchestra by Franz Liszt, which is notable for being based on the Gregorian plainchant melody Dies Irae as well as for daring stylistic innovations...

 
by Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt ; ), was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher.Liszt became renowned in Europe during the nineteenth century for his virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age...

 
arranged by Maksim Mrvica
Maksim Mrvica
Maksim Mrvica is a Croatian pianist. He plays classical crossover music.- History :Mrvica was born in Šibenik, Croatia. He took up piano lessons from the age of nine from Marija Sekso and gave his first public performance in the same year. Just three years later he gave his first concert...

 
choreographed by Tatiana Tarasova
Tatiana Tarasova
Tatiana Anatolyevna Tarasova is a Russian figure skating coach and national figure skating team adviser. Tarasova has been coach to more world and Olympic champions than any other coach in skating history. As of 2003, her students have won a total of 41 gold medals at the European and World...

Prelude in C Sharp Minor Op. 18 
by Sergey Rachmaninoff 
choreographed by Tatiana Tarasova
Tatiana Tarasova
Tatiana Anatolyevna Tarasova is a Russian figure skating coach and national figure skating team adviser. Tarasova has been coach to more world and Olympic champions than any other coach in skating history. As of 2003, her students have won a total of 41 gold medals at the European and World...

A Song for You
A Song for You
"A Song for You" is a soulful love song written and originally recorded by rock singer-songwriter and pianist Leon Russell for his first solo album 'Leon Russell', which was released in 1970 on Shelter Records. A slow, pained plea for forgiveness and understanding from an estranged lover, the tune...

 
by Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
Natalie Maria Cole , is an American singer, songwriter and performer. The daughter of jazz legend Nat King Cole, Cole rode to musical success in the mid-1970s as an R&B artist with the hits "This Will Be ", "Inseparable" and "Our Love"...

2004–2005 Adagio
from Spartacus
Spartacus (ballet)
Spartacus, or Spartak, is a ballet by Aram Khachaturian . The work follows the exploits of Spartacus, the leader of the slave uprising against the Romans known as the Third Servile War, although the ballet's storyline takes considerable liberties with the historical record. Khachaturian composed...

 
by Aram Katchaturian 
choreographed by Nikolai Morozov
Nikolai Morozov
Nikolay Morozov may refer to:*Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov , Russian scientist and revolutionary*Nikolai Morozov , figure skater*Nikolai Petrovich Morozov , Russian football coach...

Boléro 
by Maurice Ravel
Maurice Ravel
Joseph-Maurice Ravel was a French composer known especially for his melodies, orchestral and instrumental textures and effects...

 
choreographed by Christopher Dean
Christopher Dean
Christopher Colin Dean, OBE is a famous British ice dancer who won a gold medal at the 1984 Winter Olympics with his skating partner Jayne Torvill...

You Raise Me Up
by Josh Groban
Josh Groban
Joshua Winslow "Josh" Groban is an American singer-songwriter, musician, actor, and record producer. His four solo albums have been certified at least multi-platinum, and in 2007, he was charted as the number-one best selling artist in the United States with over 21 million records in that country...

 
This Used To Be My Playground
This Used to Be My Playground
"This Used to Be My Playground" is a song performed by Madonna. It is the theme for the film A League of Their Own, which starred Madonna as well as Tom Hanks, Geena Davis and Rosie O'Donnell....

 
by Madonna
Madonna (entertainer)
Madonna is an American singer-songwriter, actress and entrepreneur. Born in Bay City, Michigan, she moved to New York City in 1977 to pursue a career in modern dance. After performing in the music groups Breakfast Club and Emmy, she released her debut album in 1983...

2003–2004 The Feeling Begins
from The Last Temptation of Christ
The Last Temptation of Christ
The Last Temptation of Christ is a novel written by Nikos Kazantzakis, first published in 1953. It was first published in English in 1960. It follows the life of Jesus Christ from his perspective...

 
by Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
Peter Brian Gabriel is an English singer, musician, and songwriter who rose to fame as the lead vocalist and flautist of the progressive rock group Genesis. After leaving Genesis, Gabriel went on to a successful solo career...

 
choreographed by Scott Williams
Scott Williams
Scott Williams is the name of:*Scott Williams , stencil artist*Scott Williams , American basketball player*Scott Williams , first head coach of the Illinois college football program...

, Michelle Kwan, Karen Kwan
Karen Kwan
Karen Wingyan Kwan Oppegard is best known as the older sister of figure skater Michelle Kwan. Karen is two years older than Michelle and was an elite figure skater herself....

 and Nikolai Morozov
Nikolai Morozov
Nikolay Morozov may refer to:*Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov , Russian scientist and revolutionary*Nikolai Morozov , figure skater*Nikolai Petrovich Morozov , Russian football coach...

Tosca
Tosca
Tosca is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. It premiered at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome on 14 January 1900...

 
by Giacomo Puccini
Giacomo Puccini
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly, and Turandot, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire...

 
choreographed by Nikolai Morozov
Nikolai Morozov
Nikolay Morozov may refer to:*Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov , Russian scientist and revolutionary*Nikolai Morozov , figure skater*Nikolai Petrovich Morozov , Russian football coach...

Fallin'
Fallin'
"Fallin" is a song recorded, written, and produced by American recording artist Alicia Keys for her debut album, Songs in A Minor. Released to radio and music video outlets in 2001, it is generally considered her signature song. "Fallin'" became Keys' first number-one single in the United States...

 
by Alicia Keys
Alicia Keys
Alicia Augello Cook , better known by her stage name Alicia Keys, is an American singer-songwriter, record producer, and occasional actress. She was raised by a single mother in the Hell's Kitchen area of Manhattan in New York City. At age seven, Keys began playing the piano...

2002–2003 The Feeling Begins
from The Last Temptation of Christ
The Last Temptation of Christ
The Last Temptation of Christ is a novel written by Nikos Kazantzakis, first published in 1953. It was first published in English in 1960. It follows the life of Jesus Christ from his perspective...

 
by Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
Peter Brian Gabriel is an English singer, musician, and songwriter who rose to fame as the lead vocalist and flautist of the progressive rock group Genesis. After leaving Genesis, Gabriel went on to a successful solo career...

 
choreographed by Scott Williams
Scott Williams
Scott Williams is the name of:*Scott Williams , stencil artist*Scott Williams , American basketball player*Scott Williams , first head coach of the Illinois college football program...

, Michelle Kwan, Karen Kwan
Karen Kwan
Karen Wingyan Kwan Oppegard is best known as the older sister of figure skater Michelle Kwan. Karen is two years older than Michelle and was an elite figure skater herself....

 and Nikolai Morozov
Nikolai Morozov
Nikolay Morozov may refer to:*Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov , Russian scientist and revolutionary*Nikolai Morozov , figure skater*Nikolai Petrovich Morozov , Russian football coach...

Concierto de Aranjuez
Concierto de Aranjuez
The Concierto de Aranjuez is a composition for classical guitar and orchestra by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo. Written in 1939, it is probably Rodrigo's best-known work, and its success established his reputation as one of the most significant Spanish composers of the twentieth century. ...

 
by Joaquín Rodrigo
Joaquín Rodrigo
Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre, 1st Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez , commonly known as Joaquín Rodrigo, was a composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. Despite being nearly blind from an early age, he achieved great success...

 
performed by Ikuko Kawai
Ikuko Kawai
, born January 19, 1968 in Takamatsu, is a classically trained Japanese violinist and composer.She has performed internationally, including invitational appearances with the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and renowned conductor Chung Myung-Whun...

 
choreographed by Scott Williams
Scott Williams
Scott Williams is the name of:*Scott Williams , stencil artist*Scott Williams , American basketball player*Scott Williams , first head coach of the Illinois college football program...

, Michelle Kwan, Karen Kwan
Karen Kwan
Karen Wingyan Kwan Oppegard is best known as the older sister of figure skater Michelle Kwan. Karen is two years older than Michelle and was an elite figure skater herself....

 and Nikolai Morozov
Nikolai Morozov
Nikolay Morozov may refer to:*Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov , Russian scientist and revolutionary*Nikolai Morozov , figure skater*Nikolai Petrovich Morozov , Russian football coach...

Fields of Gold
by Eva Cassidy
Eva Cassidy
Eva Marie Cassidy was an American vocalist known for her interpretations of jazz, blues, folk, gospel, country and pop classics. In 1992 she released her first album, The Other Side, a set of duets with go-go musician Chuck Brown, followed by a live solo album, Live at Blues Alley in 1996...

2001–2002 East of Eden
East of Eden
East of Eden is a novel by Nobel Prize winner John Steinbeck, published in September 1952.Often described as Steinbeck's most ambitious novel, East of Eden brings to life the intricate details of two families, the Trasks and the Hamiltons, and their interwoven stories. The novel was originally...

 
by Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge is a Haitian-born American television composer and orchestrator.-Biography:He was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, of a Puerto-Rican mother and an American father, the botanist an climatologist Leslie Holdridge...

 
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

 

Piano Concerto No. 3
Piano Concerto No. 3 (Rachmaninoff)
The Piano Concerto No. 3 in D minor, Op. 30, composed in 1909 by Sergei Rachmaninoff is famous for its technical and musical demands on the performer...

 
Piano Trio No. 2 
by Sergey Rachmaninov 
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

Scheherazade
Scheherazade
Scheherazade , sometimes Scheherazadea, Persian transliteration Shahrazad or Shahrzād is a legendary Persian queen and the storyteller of One Thousand and One Nights.-Narration :...

 
by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful or The Mighty Coterie, refers to a circle of composers who met in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in the years 1856–1870: Mily Balakirev , César...

 
performed by New York Philharmonic
New York Philharmonic
The New York Philharmonic is a symphony orchestra based in New York City in the United States. It is one of the American orchestras commonly referred to as the "Big Five"...

 
choreographed by Sarah Kawahara
Sarah Kawahara
Sarah Kawahara is a Canadian figure skater and choreographer. She won an Emmy Award in 1997 for Scott Hamilton Upside Down and was the first skater to win the Best Choreography Emmy. She won her second Emmy in 2002 for choreographing the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2002 Winter Olympics....

Fields of Gold
by Eva Cassidy
Eva Cassidy
Eva Marie Cassidy was an American vocalist known for her interpretations of jazz, blues, folk, gospel, country and pop classics. In 1992 she released her first album, The Other Side, a set of duets with go-go musician Chuck Brown, followed by a live solo album, Live at Blues Alley in 1996...

2000–2001 East of Eden
East of Eden
East of Eden is a novel by Nobel Prize winner John Steinbeck, published in September 1952.Often described as Steinbeck's most ambitious novel, East of Eden brings to life the intricate details of two families, the Trasks and the Hamiltons, and their interwoven stories. The novel was originally...

 
by Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge is a Haitian-born American television composer and orchestrator.-Biography:He was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, of a Puerto-Rican mother and an American father, the botanist an climatologist Leslie Holdridge...

 
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....


Rush
by Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE, is an English guitarist and singer-songwriter. Clapton is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist, and separately as a member of The Yardbirds and Cream. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most important and...

 
choreographed by Christopher Dean
Christopher Dean
Christopher Colin Dean, OBE is a famous British ice dancer who won a gold medal at the 1984 Winter Olympics with his skating partner Jayne Torvill...

Song of the Black Swan
by Heitor Villa-Lobos
Heitor Villa-Lobos
Heitor Villa-Lobos was a Brazilian composer, described as "the single most significant creative figure in 20th-century Brazilian art music". Villa-Lobos has become the best-known and most significant Latin American composer to date. He wrote numerous orchestral, chamber, instrumental and vocal works...

 
Dumky Trio
Piano Trio No. 4 (Dvorák)
The Piano Trio No. 4 in E Minor is a piece by Antonin Dvořák for piano, violin and cello...

 
by Antonín Dvořák
Antonín Dvorák
Antonín Leopold Dvořák was a Czech composer of late Romantic music, who employed the idioms of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia. Dvořák’s own style is sometimes called "romantic-classicist synthesis". His works include symphonic, choral and chamber music, concerti, operas and many...

 
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....


The Miraculous Mandarin
The Miraculous Mandarin
The Miraculous Mandarin or The Wonderful Mandarin Op. 19, Sz. 73 , is a one act pantomime ballet composed by Béla Bartók between 1918–1924, and based on the story by Melchior Lengyel. Premiered November 27, 1926 in Cologne, Germany, it caused a scandal and was subsequently banned...

 
by Béla Bartók
Béla Bartók
Béla Viktor János Bartók was a Hungarian composer and pianist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century and is regarded, along with Liszt, as Hungary's greatest composer...


choreographed by Peter Oppegard
Peter Oppegard
Peter Oppegard is an American retired pair skater and coach. With his partner Jill Watson, he won three U.S. championships and a bronze medal at the 1988 Winter Olympics....

Beautiful World
by Sumi Jo
This Time Around
by Linda Eder
Linda Eder
Linda Eder is an American singer and actress. She made her Broadway debut in the musical Jekyll & Hyde, for which she received 1997 Drama Desk and Outer Critics Circle Nominations, as well as the Theatre World Award for Best Actress in a Musical...

1999–2000 A Day In The Life
A Day in the Life
"A Day in the Life" is a song by The Beatles, the final track on the group's 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Credited to Lennon–McCartney, the song comprises distinct segments written independently by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, with orchestral additions...

 
by John Lennon
John Lennon
John Winston Lennon, MBE was an English musician and singer-songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles, one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music...

 
and Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE, Hon RAM, FRCM is an English musician, singer-songwriter and composer. Formerly of The Beatles and Wings , McCartney is listed in Guinness World Records as the "most successful musician and composer in popular music history", with 60 gold discs and sales of 100...

 
performed by Jeff Beck
Jeff Beck
Geoffrey Arnold "Jeff" Beck is an English rock guitarist. He is one of three noted guitarists to have played with The Yardbirds...

 
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

The Red Violin
The Red Violin
The Red Violin is a 1998 Canadian drama film directed by François Girard. It spans three centuries and five countries as it tells the story of a mysterious violin and its many owners...

 
by John Corigliano
John Corigliano
John Corigliano is an American composer of classical music and a teacher of music. He is a distinguished professor of music at Lehman College in the City University of New York.-Biography:...

 
performed by Joshua Bell
Joshua Bell
Joshua David Bell is an American Grammy Award-winning violinist.-Childhood:Bell was born in Bloomington, Indiana, United States, the son of a psychologist and a therapist. Bell's father is the late Alan P...

 
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

The World Is Not Enough
The World is Not Enough (song)
"The World Is Not Enough" is a 1999 orchestral rock song performed by alternative rock group Garbage, and was the theme single of the James Bond film of the same name. The song and accompanying soundtrack were released internationally by Radioactive Records as the feature film premiered in theaters...

 
by Garbage
Garbage (band)
Garbage are an alternative rock band formed in Madison, Wisconsin in 1994. The group consists of Scottish singer Shirley Manson and American musicians Duke Erikson , Steve Marker and Butch Vig . All four members are involved in songwriting and production...


Hands
Hands (Jewel Song)
"Hands" is the first single released from Jewel's second album, Spirit .A commercial single was never issued in the United States, and the singles that were issued internationally received the album version. The radio edit can be found only on promos for the single...

 
from Joy: A Holiday Collection
Joy: A Holiday Collection
Joy: A Holiday Collection is a Christmas album by singer/songwriter Jewel, released in 1999 . The radio-only single "Joy to the World" was released in November the same year...

 
by Jewel
Jewel (singer)
Jewel Kilcher , professionally known as Jewel, is an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, producer, actress and poet...

1998–1999 Carmen
Carmen
Carmen is a French opéra comique by Georges Bizet. The libretto is by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on the novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée, first published in 1845, itself possibly influenced by the narrative poem The Gypsies by Alexander Pushkin...

 Suite
by Rodion Shchedrin
Rodion Shchedrin
Rodion Konstantinovich Shchedrin is a Russian composer. He was one оf the leading Soviet composers, and was the chairman of the Union of Russian Composers from 1973 until 1990.-Life and Works:...


Carmen Fantasie 
by Franz Waxman
Franz Waxman
Franz Waxman was a German-American composer, known for his bravura Carmen Fantasie for violin and orchestra, based on musical themes from the Bizet opera Carmen, and for his musical scores for films....


Carmen (film)
Carmen (1983 film)
Carmen is a 1983 film adaptation of the novel Carmen by Prosper Mérimée, using music from the opera Carmen by Georges Bizet. It was directed and choreographed in the flamenco style by Carlos Saura...

 soundtrack
by Paco de Lucia
Paco de Lucía
Paco de Lucía, born Francisco Sánchez Gómez , is a Spanish virtuoso flamenco guitarist and composer. He is considered by many to be one of the finest guitarists in the world and the greatest guitarist of the flamenco genre...


choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

Ariane
Ariane (Massenet)
Ariane is an opera in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Catulle Mendès after Greek mythology . It was first performed at the Palais Garnier in Paris on October 31, 1906, with Lucienne Bréval in the title role.-History:...

 
Orchestral Suite No. 3
Orchestral Suite No. 6
by Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer best known for his operas. His compositions were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and he ranks as one of the greatest melodists of his era. Soon after his death, Massenet's style went out of fashion, and many of his operas...


Absalom's Death And Tango
by Leonid Desyatnikov
Leonid Desyatnikov
Leonid Arkadievich Desyatnikov is a Russian composer.Leonid Desyatnikov was born in 1955 in Kharkiv, Ukraine. He is a graduate of the Leningrad Conservatory, where he studied composition and instrumentation. Desyatnikov has penned four operas, several cantatas and numerous vocal and instrumental...

, performed by Gidon Kremer
Gidon Kremer
Gidon Kremer is a Latvian violinist and conductor. In 1980 he left the USSR and settled in Germany.-Biography:Kremer was born in Riga to parents of German-Jewish and Latvian-Swedish origins. He began playing the violin at the age of four, receiving instruction from his father and his grandfather,...

 
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

Kissing You
Kissing You (Des'ree song)
"Kissing You" is a song by British singer Des'ree. It was written by the singer with Timothy Atack for Baz Luhrmann's 1996 film Romeo + Juliet. The song was included on the film's soundtrack album and Des'ree's third studio album, Supernatural...

 
by Des'ree
Des'ree
Des'ree is an English pop/soul singer who was popular during the 1990s. She is well known for her hits: "Feel So High", "You Gotta Be", "Life", and "Kissing You"...

1997–1998 Piano Concerto No. 3
Piano Concerto No. 3 (Rachmaninoff)
The Piano Concerto No. 3 in D minor, Op. 30, composed in 1909 by Sergei Rachmaninoff is famous for its technical and musical demands on the performer...

 
Piano Trio No. 2 
by Sergey Rachmaninov
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

 
Lyra Angelica
by William Alwyn
William Alwyn
William Alwyn, CBE, born William Alwyn Smith was an English composer, conductor, and music teacher.-Life and music:...


Gymnopedie #3
by Erik Satie
Erik Satie
Éric Alfred Leslie Satie was a French composer and pianist. Satie was a colourful figure in the early 20th century Parisian avant-garde...


choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

On My Own
from Les Misérables
Les Misérables (musical)
Les Misérables , colloquially known as Les Mis or Les Miz , is a musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg, based on the novel of the same name by Victor Hugo....

 
performed by Kaho Shimada
Kaho Shimada
Kaho Shimada is a Japanese singer and musical theater actress. Born and raised in Tokyo, she attended Tokyo Municipal Jonan High School...

 

Dante's Prayer
by Loreena McKennitt
Loreena McKennitt
Loreena Isabel Irene McKennitt, CM, OM, is a Canadian singer, composer, harpist, accordionist and pianist who writes, records and performs world music with Celtic and Middle Eastern themes. McKennitt is known for her refined, clear soprano vocals...

1996–1997 Orchestral Suite No. 3
by Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer best known for his operas. His compositions were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and he ranks as one of the greatest melodists of his era. Soon after his death, Massenet's style went out of fashion, and many of his operas...


Final from Herodiade
by Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer best known for his operas. His compositions were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and he ranks as one of the greatest melodists of his era. Soon after his death, Massenet's style went out of fashion, and many of his operas...


The Red Poppy
The Red Poppy
The Red Poppy or sometimes The Red Flower is a ballet in three acts and an apotheosis; score written by Reinhold Glière and a scenario by Mikhail Kurilko. This ballet was created in 1927 as the first Soviet ballet with a modern revolutionary theme....

 
by Reinhold Gliere
Reinhold Glière
Reinhold Moritzevich Glière was a Russian and Soviet composer of German–Polish descent.- Biography :Glière was born in Kiev, Ukraine...


choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

Gyulistan Bayati Shiraz
by Fikret Amirov
Fikret Amirov
Fikret Mashadi Jamil oghlu Amirov |Ganja]] - February 20, 1984, Baku) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer of the Soviet period.Fikret Amirov grew up in an atmosphere of Azerbaijani folk music...


Lion of the Desert
from Lawrence of Arabia
Lawrence of Arabia (film)
Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 British film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. It was directed by David Lean and produced by Sam Spiegel through his British company, Horizon Pictures, with the screenplay by Robert Bolt and Michael Wilson. The film stars Peter O'Toole in the title role. It is widely...

 
by Maurice Jarre
Maurice Jarre
Maurice-Alexis Jarre was a French composer and conductor.Although he composed several concert works, he is best known for his film scores, and is particularly known for his collaborations with film director David Lean. Jarre composed the scores to all of Lean's films since Lawrence of Arabia...


choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

Winter
Winter (Tori Amos song)
"Winter" is a song by American singer-songwriter and musician Tori Amos. It was released as the fourth single from her debut studio album Little Earthquakes. It was released on March 9, 1992 by EastWest Records in the UK and Atlantic Records on November 24 in North America.-Background:The song also...

 
by Tori Amos
Tori Amos
Tori Amos is an American pianist, singer-songwriter and composer. She was at the forefront of a number of female singer-songwriters in the early 1990s and was noteworthy early in her career as one of the few alternative rock performers to use a piano as her primary instrument...

1995–1996 Romanza
by Salvador Bacarisse
Salvador Bacarisse
Salvador Bacarisse Chinoria was a Spanish composer.Bacarisse was born in Madrid and studied music at the Real Conservatorio de Música there, as a student of Manuel Fernández Alberdi and Conrado del Campo...


Fiesta Flamenca
by Monty Kelly
choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

Salome
Salome (opera)
Salome is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by the composer, based on Hedwig Lachmann’s German translation of the French play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Strauss dedicated the opera to his friend Sir Edgar Speyer....

 
by Miklós Rózsa
Miklós Rózsa
Miklós Rózsa was a Hungarian-born composer trained in Germany , and active in France , England , and the United States , with extensive sojourns in Italy from 1953...

 
Dance of the Seven Veils
Dance of the Seven Veils
In several notable works of Western culture, the Dance of the Seven Veils is one of the elaborations on the biblical tale of the execution of John the Baptist...

 
by Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till...


choreographed by Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol
Lori Nichol is a Canadian figure skating choreographer and coach. She was a performer for the John Curry Company from 1983–1986 and won the silver medal at the World Professional Championships in 1983....

East of Eden
by Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge is a Haitian-born American television composer and orchestrator.-Biography:He was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, of a Puerto-Rican mother and an American father, the botanist an climatologist Leslie Holdridge...


Just Around the Riverbend
from Pocahontas
Pocahontas (soundtrack)
Pocahontas: An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack is the soundtrack to Disney's 1995, thirty-third animated feature Pocahontas. It contains songs from the film written by Alan Menken and Stephen Schwartz, conducted by David Friedman, and performed by Judy Kuhn, Mel Gibson, Linda Hunt, Jim...

 
by Judy Kuhn
Judy Kuhn
-Life and career:Kuhn was born in New York City and grew up in Bethesda, Maryland. She attended Georgetown Day School in Washington, D.C.She entered Oberlin College in 1976. Although she was very interested in singing and theater, she began Oberlin in the College, not the Conservatory. After taking...

1994–1995 Yellow River Piano Concerto 
by Xian Xinghai
Xian Xinghai
Xian Xinghai was one of the earliest generation of Chinese composers influenced by western classical music and has influenced generations of Chinese musicians...

 
performed by Yin Chengzong
Yin Chengzong
Yin Chengzong is a Chinese pianist and composer.-Biography:Born on the "Piano Island" of Gulangyu Island in Xiamen, Fujian, in the People's Republic of China...

 
and Chu Wanghua
Rondo Capriccioso 
by Camille Saint-Saëns
Camille Saint-Saëns
Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns was a French Late-Romantic composer, organist, conductor, and pianist. He is known especially for The Carnival of the Animals, Danse macabre, Samson and Delilah, Piano Concerto No. 2, Cello Concerto No. 1, Havanaise, Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, and his Symphony...

Fantasia on Greensleeves
by Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams OM was an English composer of symphonies, chamber music, opera, choral music, and film scores. He was also a collector of English folk music and song: this activity both influenced his editorial approach to the English Hymnal, beginning in 1904, in which he included many...


East of Eden
East of Eden
East of Eden is a novel by Nobel Prize winner John Steinbeck, published in September 1952.Often described as Steinbeck's most ambitious novel, East of Eden brings to life the intricate details of two families, the Trasks and the Hamiltons, and their interwoven stories. The novel was originally...

 
by Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge is a Haitian-born American television composer and orchestrator.-Biography:He was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, of a Puerto-Rican mother and an American father, the botanist an climatologist Leslie Holdridge...

1993–1994 Song of India
from Sadko
Sadko (opera)
Sadko is an opera in seven scenes by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. The libretto was written by the composer, with assistance from Vladimir Belsky, Vladimir Stasov, and others. Rimsky-Korsakov was first inspired by the bylina of Sadko in 1867, when he completed a tone poem on the subject, his Op. 5...

 
by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful or The Mighty Coterie, refers to a circle of composers who met in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in the years 1856–1870: Mily Balakirev , César...

East of Eden
by Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge
Lee Holdridge is a Haitian-born American television composer and orchestrator.-Biography:He was born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, of a Puerto-Rican mother and an American father, the botanist an climatologist Leslie Holdridge...

1992-1993 Miss Saigon
Miss Saigon
Miss Saigon is a musical by Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by Boublil and Richard Maltby, Jr.. It is based on Giacomo Puccini's opera Madame Butterfly, and similarly tells the tragic tale of a doomed romance involving an Asian woman abandoned by her American lover...

 
by Claude-Michel Schönberg
Claude-Michel Schönberg
Claude-Michel Schönberg is a French record producer, actor, singer, songwriter, and musical theatre composer, best known for his collaborations with the lyricist Alain Boublil.These include the musicals:...

1991-1992 Concerto in F
Concerto in F (Gershwin)
Concerto in F is a composition by George Gershwin for solo piano and orchestra which is closer in form to a traditional concerto than the earlier jazz-influenced Rhapsody in Blue...

 
by George Gershwin
George Gershwin
George Gershwin was an American composer and pianist. Gershwin's compositions spanned both popular and classical genres, and his most popular melodies are widely known...


Competitive highlights



Major events for Olympic-eligible skaters include the U.S. Figure Skating Championships, World Figure Skating Championships
World Figure Skating Championships
The World Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which elite figure skaters compete for the title of World Champion...

, the Olympic Winter Games, and the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating
ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating
The ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating is a series of international invitational competitions organized by the International Skating Union. Elite figure skaters compete in the disciplines of ladies' singles, men's singles, pair skating, and ice dancing...

. Kwan's record in these events is listed by season in the tables below.
Event 1991–92 1992–93 1993–94 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06
Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a sporting event, which occurs every four years. The first celebration of the Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The original sports were alpine and cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping and speed skating...

 
Alt 2nd 3rd WD
World Championships
World Figure Skating Championships
The World Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which elite figure skaters compete for the title of World Champion...

 
8th 4th 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 1st 2nd 1st 3rd 4th
World Junior Championships
World Junior Figure Skating Championships
The World Junior Figure Skating Championships is an annual figure skating competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union in which younger figure skaters compete for the title of World Junior Champion...

 
1st
U.S. Championships
United States Figure Skating Championships
The United States Figure Skating Championships is figure skating competition held annually to crown the national champions of the United States. The competition is sanctioned by U.S. Figure Skating. In the U.S. skating community, the event is often referred to informally as "Nationals".Skaters...

 
9th J. 6th 2nd 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st
Grand Prix Final  1st 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd
Skate America
Skate America
Skate America is an international, senior-level figure skating competition held as part of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating series. It is organized by the United States Figure Skating Association. The location changes yearly...

 
7th 2nd 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st
Skate Canada
Skate Canada International
The Skate Canada International is an international, senior-level invitation-only figure skating competition organized by Skate Canada. It is the second competition of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating. The location changes yearly. Medals are awarded in four disciplines: Ladies' singles, Men's...

 
1st 1st 1st 2nd 3rd
Nations Cup
Bofrost Cup on Ice
The Bofrost Cup on Ice was a figure skating competition held in Germany between 1986 and 2004. It was part of the Grand Prix series until 2003, when it was replaced by Cup of China. Following being booted out of the Grand Prix series, a new form of competition was introduced to the Bofrost Cup...

 
1st
Trophée Lalique  3rd 1st
Goodwill Games
Goodwill Games
The Goodwill Games was an international sports competition, created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s...

 
2nd 1st 2nd
Gardena Spring Trophy
Gardena Spring Trophy
The Gardena Spring Trophy is an annual international figure skating competition. It is held every spring in Val Gardena in Italy. Since its inception in 1990, it has been a junior-level competition. In 2006, it added a novice level competition...

 
1st J.

  • J = Junior level, WD = withdrew, Alt = Alternate, did not compete

External links