Metro Manila

Metro Manila

Overview
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region (NCR) , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 region
Regions of the Philippines
In the Philippines, regions are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. Currently, the archipelagic republic of the Philippines is divided into 17 regions...

 encompassing the City of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and its surrounding areas in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. It is composed of 16 cities namely City of Manila, Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Pasig, Parañaque, Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

, San Juan
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

, Taguig, Valenzuela and the Municipality of Pateros
Pateros, Metro Manila
The Municipality of Pateros is a First-class municipality in Metro Manila, Philippines. This small town is famous for its duck-raising industry and especially for producing balut, a Filipino delicacy that is boiled duck egg...

.

The region is the political, economic, social, cultural, and educational center of the Philippines.
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Encyclopedia
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region (NCR) , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 region
Regions of the Philippines
In the Philippines, regions are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. Currently, the archipelagic republic of the Philippines is divided into 17 regions...

 encompassing the City of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and its surrounding areas in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. It is composed of 16 cities namely City of Manila, Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Pasig, Parañaque, Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

, San Juan
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

, Taguig, Valenzuela and the Municipality of Pateros
Pateros, Metro Manila
The Municipality of Pateros is a First-class municipality in Metro Manila, Philippines. This small town is famous for its duck-raising industry and especially for producing balut, a Filipino delicacy that is boiled duck egg...

.

The region is the political, economic, social, cultural, and educational center of the Philippines. As proclaimed by Presidential Decree No. 940, Metro Manila as a whole is the Philippines' seat of government but the City of Manila is the capital. The largest city in the metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 is Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

. While the largest business district is the Makati Central Business District.

Metro Manila is the most populous of the twelve defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population. The sum total population of provinces with a provincial density above 700 people per square kilometer (more than double the national average) in a contiguous zone with Metro Manila is 25.5 million people as of the 2007 census, one way to refer to the conurbation around Metro Manila is Greater Manila.

Metro Manila's gross regional product
Gross Regional Product
A metropolitan area's gross regional product, i.e. GMP or GRP, is one of several measures of the size of its economy. Similar to GDP, GRP is defined as the market value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan area in a given period of time.-See also:*List of European...

 is estimated as of July 2009 to be
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP. In 2008, it ranked as the 40th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest professional services firm measured by revenues and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms....

.

Etymology


For information on the etymology of "Manila" see History of Manila
History of Manila
According to the history of Manila, the city was first known as Gintu and was named by locals as Maynilad. Although proven a myth, it was still the most famous of how Manila got its name....

.

The term Metro Manila increasingly came into use after the creation of the metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 in 1975 and is the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 name for Metropolitan Manila. Metro Manila is often referred to as simply as Manila. It is abbreviated M.M..

History



Spanish Manila was founded on June 24, 1571 by three conquistadors: Martín de Goiti
Martin de Goiti
Martín de Goiti was a Spanish Basque conquistador and founder of the city of Manila in the Philippines. Martín de Goiti was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific, in 1565. He was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel...

, Juan de Salcedo
Juan de Salcedo
Juan de Salcedo was a Spanish conquistador. He was born in Mexico in 1549 and he was the grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi and brother of Felipe de Salcedo. Salcedo was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the Philippines in 1565...

 and Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi , also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo , was a Spanish conquistador who established one of the first European settlements in the East Indies and the Pacific Islands in 1565. He is the first Governor-General in the Philippines...

. In 1867, the Spanish Government of the Philippines established the municipalities and territories south of the District of Morong
Morong
Morong is surname of Thomas Morong 1827-1894, who is a botanist.Morong is name of village near to umalsat of Yasin Valley in the exterem north of Pakistan.Morong may refer to the following places in the Philippines:...

 in Nueva Ecija, north of the Province of Tondo
Tondo, Manila
Tondo is a district of Manila, Philippines. The locale has existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish, referred to as "Tundun" in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. One of the most densely populated areas of land in the world, Tondo is located in the northwest portion of the city and is primarily...

 and Imperial Manila
Imperial Manila
Imperial Manila is a pejorative epithet used by certain sectors of Filipino society to express the idea that all the affairs of the Philippines—whether in politics, business, economy, or culture—are decided by what is happening in the capital region Metro Manila without considering the rest of the...

, and isolated these from their mother province of Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is Palayan City...

. The government created the Province of Manila
Manila (province)
Manila, also formerly known as Tondo, was a historical province in the Philippines, encompassing the former Kingdom of Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila. In 1898, it included the City of Manila and 23 other municipalities. It was incorporated into the Province of Rizal in 1901.-Cities and...

 composed of the Province of Tondo to the south and the isolated territories of Nueva Ecija to the north. The parts of Tondo were Navotas, Malabon, and Caloocan; the parts of Nueva Ecija were Mariquina, Balintawak, Caloocan, Pasig, San Felipe Neri (presently called Mandaluyong), Las Piñas, what had been known as Parañaque, and Muntinlupa. The capital of the Province was Intramuros
Intramuros
Intramuros is the oldest district in the present day city of Manila, the capital of the Republic of the Philippines. Nicknamed the "Walled City", Intramuros is the historic fortified city of Manila, the seat ot the government during the Spanish Colonial Period. Its name in Latin, intramuros,...

, then itself called and considered to be Manila, a walled city located along the banks of the Pasig River and on the shore of Manila Bay.

During the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
The Philippine Revolution , called the "Tagalog War" by the Spanish, was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities which resulted in the secession of the Philippine Islands from the Spanish Empire.The Philippine Revolution began in August...

 the Province of Manila was the 8th and last Province to revolt against Spain paving the establishment of the Federated Philippine Republics (composed of Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is Palayan City...

, Pampanga
Pampanga
Pampanga is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, Pampanga. Pampanga is bordered by the provinces of Bataan and Zambales to the west, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija to the north, and Bulacan to the southeast...

, Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

, Tarlac
Tarlac
Tarlac is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Luzon Island. Its capital is Tarlac City. Tarlac borders Pampanga to the south, Nueva Ecija to the east, Pangasinan to the north, and Zambales to the west...

, Laguna, Batangas
Batangas
Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the...

, Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

 and Manila). The Province of Manila remained in existence until 1901, when its territory was subdivided by the Americans.

In 1901, the Philippine Assembly created the City of Manila composed of the municipalities of Ermita
Ermita, Manila
Ermita is a district of Manila, Philippines located halfway between Intramuros and Malate.-History:Ermita was founded in the late 16th century...

, Intramuros
Intramuros
Intramuros is the oldest district in the present day city of Manila, the capital of the Republic of the Philippines. Nicknamed the "Walled City", Intramuros is the historic fortified city of Manila, the seat ot the government during the Spanish Colonial Period. Its name in Latin, intramuros,...

 or the Imperial City of Manila, Tondo
Tondo, Manila
Tondo is a district of Manila, Philippines. The locale has existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish, referred to as "Tundun" in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. One of the most densely populated areas of land in the world, Tondo is located in the northwest portion of the city and is primarily...

, Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, Manila
Santa Cruz is located on the right bank of the Pasig River, on the northern portion of the City of Manila, near the mouth of the river, in between the districts of Tondo and Quiapo...

, Sta. Ana
Santa Ana, Manila
Santa Ana is a district of the City of Manila in the Philippines, located at the southeast banks of the Pasig River, bounded on the northeast by Mandaluyong City, Makati City to the east, southwest is the Manila district of Paco, and to the west, Pandacan....

, San Nicolas
San Nicolas, Manila
San Nicolas is located in the Western side of North Manila, at the edge of the Pasig River surrounded by the districts of Binondo and Tondo. A lost jewel in Philippine Heritage this district has kept its 19th century houses, which symbolizes the wealthy lives of the people who use to live there....

, San Miguel
San Miguel, Manila
San Miguel district is a primarily middle-class residential area of Manila. Malacañang Palace, the official residence of the President of Republic of the Philippines, is located in San Miguel district. Just outside Malacañang Palace's gates lies Mendiola Street, the avenue where most mass protest...

, Paco
Paco, Manila
Paco, is a district of Manila, Philippines. It is located south of Pasig River, and San Miguel, west of Santa Ana, southwest of Pandacan, north of Malate, northwest of San Andres, and east of Ermita. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 64,184 people in 13,438 households...

, Port Area, Pandacan
Pandacan, Manila
Pandacan is a district of the City of Manila in the Philippines, located south of the banks of the Pasig River and belongs under the 6th congressional district of Manila, divided into thirty eight barangays that includes Zone 90 to Zone 95 and barangays 833 to 872.-Profile:Based on a year 2000...

, Sampaloc
Sampaloc, Manila
Sampaloc is a district of Manila which is primarily a residential and educational center. Part of the Malacañang Palace is located in Sampaloc. The University of Santo Tomas, University of the East Manila are part of the University Belt to name a few, the famous Dangwa flower market at Dimasalang...

, Quiapo
Quiapo, Manila
Quiapo is a district and city square of Manila. Referred as the "Old Downtown", Quiapo in known for where cheap buys or goods are being sold at rock-bottom prices and was the home of the Quiapo Church, where the feast for the Black Nazarene is held, with over millions of people attending...

, Binondo
Binondo, Manila
Binondo is an enclave in Manila primarily populated by ethnic Chinese living in the Philippines. Chinatown, Manila is the oldest Chinatown in the world, established in 1594. Historically, this was where the Spanish permitted converted sangleys, their indigenous Filipino wives, and their mixed-race...

, Malate
Malate, Manila
Malate is an old district of the city of Manila in Metro Manila, the Philippines. The district is located at the southern end of the city of Manila, bordered by Pasay City to the south, by Manila Bay to the west, by the district of Ermita to the north and by the districts of Paco and San Andres to...

, San Andres
San Andres, Manila
San Andrés is a district located in the south east of the City of Manila in the Philippines, and includes what used to be the pre-World War II district of Singalong as well as parts of the Malate, and Paco districts. San Andrés shares its northeastern border with Santa Ana, and Paco, while to its...

, and Sta. Mesa
Santa Mesa, Manila
Santa Mesa is one of the 16 geographical districts of the city of Manila, which is primarily a residential, commercial and educational center. Santa Mesa is bounded by several districts and cities...

. The municipalities of Caloocan, Marikina, Pasig, Parañaque, Malabon, Navotas, San Juan, Makati, Mandaluyong (San Felipe Neri), Las Piñas, Muntinlupa and Taguig-Pateros were incorporated into a new province named Rizal, the capital of which was Pasig.

In 1941 with the onset of World War II, President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

 created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure, merging the city and municipal governments of Manila, Quezon City, San Juan del Monte, Caloocan, etc. and appointed Jorge Vargas
Jorge Vargas
Jorge Vargas may refer to:*Jorge B. Vargas , Filipino lawyer and youth advocate*Jorge Vargas González, Chilean politician, mayor of Pichilemu 1997-2007*Jorge Alberto Vargas, Ecuadorian football player*Jorge Francisco Vargas, Chilean footballer...

 as mayor. Existing mayors of the included cities and municipalities served as vice-mayors for their areas. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezon's principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority that would be recognized under international military law. There were doubts if the Japanese Imperial Army poised to occupy Manila would recognize the authorities of members of the Quezon cabinet. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. As an administrative concept, however, the City of Greater Manila served as a model for Metro Manila and the position of Metro Manila governor established during the Marcos administration.

In 1975, the Metropolitan Manila Commission was created to administer the emerging metropolis when President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 issued Presidential Decree No. 824. Marcos appointed his wife Imelda Marcos
Imelda Marcos
Imelda R. Marcos is a Filipino politician and widow of 10th Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Upon the ascension of her husband to political power, she held various positions to the government until 1986...

 as governor of Metro Manila.

In 1986, after a major government reorganization, President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

 issued Executive Order No. 392 and changed the structure of the Metropolitan Manila Commission and renamed it to the Metropolitan Manila Authority. Metro Manila mayors chose from among themselves the chair of the agency.

In 1995, through Republic Act 7924, Metro Manila Authority was reorganized and became the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority , is an agency of the Republic of the Philippines created embracing the cities of Manila, Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay, Mandaluyong, Makati, Pasig, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Las Piñas, Parañaque, Valenzuela, Malabon, Taguig, Navotas and San Juan and the...

. The chair of the agency is appointed by the President and should not have a concurrent elected position such as mayor.

Geography


Metro Manila is situated on an isthmus
Isthmus
An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas usually with waterforms on either side.Canals are often built through isthmuses where they may be particularly advantageous to create a shortcut for marine transportation...

 bounded by Manila Bay
Manila Bay
Manila Bay is a natural harbor which serves the Port of Manila , in the Philippines.The bay is considered to be one of the best natural harbors in Southeast Asia and one of the finest in the world...

 to the west and Laguna de Bay
Laguna de Bay
Laguna de Bay is the largest lake in the Philippines and the third largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia after Tonle Sap in Cambodia and Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is on the island of Luzon between the provinces of Laguna to the south and Rizal to the north...

 to the south-east and divided by the Pasig River
Pasig River
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for , it is lined by Metro Manila on each side...

 which links the two bodies of water. The city lies on a wide flood plain that is one of the biggest in the country. The area is bounded by Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

 to the north, Rizal to the east, Laguna to the south and Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

 to the southwest.

Metro Manila is located at 14°40' N 121°3 E. The swampy isthmus on which the western metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 partly lies has an average elevation of 10 meters. The eastern area lies on a ridge gradually rising towards the foothills of the Sierra Madre and overlooks the Marikina River
Marikina River
The San Mateo - Marikina River is a main river system in Eastern Metro Manila, Philippines. A river stretching from Rodriguez, Rizal, to Pasig City that connects to Pasig River as major tributary near Napindan Area in Pasig City.San Mateo - Marikina River used to be an important transport route...

 valley, which is part swamp.

Metro Manila's primary waterway is the Pasig River
Pasig River
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for , it is lined by Metro Manila on each side...

, which bisects the isthmus. It originates in Laguna de Bay, marking the borders between Makati and Mandaluyong, as well as between Pasig and Taguig, then passing through Manila before draining into Manila Bay
Manila Bay
Manila Bay is a natural harbor which serves the Port of Manila , in the Philippines.The bay is considered to be one of the best natural harbors in Southeast Asia and one of the finest in the world...

. The river is severely polluted from municipal waste.

Climate


Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 system, Metro Manila is split between a tropical wet and dry climate
Tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and '"As."...

 and a tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climate, occasionally also known as a tropical wet climate or tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate in climate classification, is a relatively rare type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am."Tropical monsoon climates have monthly...

. Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, which features less rainfall than Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

, has a tropical wet and dry climate while Quezon City features a tropical monsoon climate. Together with the rest of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, Metro Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the equator
Equator
An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and containing the sphere's center of mass....

 means that the temperature range is very small, rarely going lower than 20C or higher than 38C. However, humidity levels are usually very high which makes it feel much warmer. It has a distinct, albeit relatively short dry season
Dry season
The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year...

 from January through April, and a relatively lengthy wet season
Wet season
The the wet season, or rainy season, is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region occurs. The term green season is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the...

 from May through December.



Government



The City of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 proper is the national capital of the Philippines. The wider Metro Manila area is the seat of government. The executive and judicial branches of government are based in Manila as represented by Malacañan Palace, the official office and residence of the President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

, and the buildings of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Supreme Court of the Philippines
The Supreme Court of the Philippines is the Philippines' highest judicial court, as well as the court of last resort. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice...

 respectively. However, the upper house of the legislature, the Senate of the Philippines
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

, is based in Pasay, and the lower house, the House of Representatives of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

, in Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

.

Metro Manila is the smallest of the country's administrative regions
Regions of the Philippines
In the Philippines, regions are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. Currently, the archipelagic republic of the Philippines is divided into 17 regions...

, but the most populous and the most densely populated, having a population of 11,553,427 (2007 census) in an area of approximately 638.55 square kilometres (246.5 sq mi). It is also the only region without any provinces
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

, instead being subdivided into 17 local government units: 16 cities and one municipality.
Local government unit Population
(2007 census)
Area
(km²)
Pop. density
(per km²)
Annual pop.
growth rate
Per capita
GDP
Cityhood
Caloocan 1,381,610 53.33 25,907 3.06 $9,426 1962
Las Piñas 532,330 41.54 12,815 1.65 $8,678 1997
Makati 567,349 27.36 20,736 3.41 $29,259 1995
Malabon 363,681 15.76 23,076 0.98 $4,334 2001
Mandaluyong 305,576 11.26 27,138 1.29 $20,258 1994
Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

1,660,714 38.55 43,079 0.68 $13,731 1571
Marikina 424,610 33.97 12,500 1.14 $10,346 1996
Muntinlupa 452,943 46.70 9,699 2.48 $13,789 1995
Navotas 245,344 10.77 22,780 0.87 $5,296 2007
Parañaque 552,660 47.69 11,589 2.88 $10,146 1998
Pasay 403,064 19.00 21,214 1.77 $6,876 1947
Pasig 627,445 31.00 20,240 3.04 $12,032 1995
Pateros
Pateros, Metro Manila
The Municipality of Pateros is a First-class municipality in Metro Manila, Philippines. This small town is famous for its duck-raising industry and especially for producing balut, a Filipino delicacy that is boiled duck egg...

61,940 2.10 29,495 1.05 $3,324 Not a city
Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

2,679,450 161.12 16,630 2.92 $11,213 1939
San Juan
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

125,338 5.94 21,101 0.87 $16,893 2007
Taguig 613,343 47.88 12,810 3.82 $12,342 2004
Valenzuela 568,928 44.58 12,762 2.21 $7,531 1998
Total 11,566,3251 638.55 18,113 2.12 $10,223

Includes barangays disputed between Makati and Taguig cities.

In terms of local governance, Metro Manila cannot properly be considered a single political entity. The cities and municipality comprising it are considered the highest level of local government with each having their own set of separately elected officials. While the cities and municipality are independent from each other politically, several basic public services, such as traffic and flood control, are handled collectively by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority , is an agency of the Republic of the Philippines created embracing the cities of Manila, Quezon City, Caloocan, Pasay, Mandaluyong, Makati, Pasig, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Las Piñas, Parañaque, Valenzuela, Malabon, Taguig, Navotas and San Juan and the...

 (MMDA). The MMDA is headquartered in Makati and is headed by the MMDA Chairman, an appointee of the President of the Philippines, who holds cabinet rank. The mayors of the cities and municipality belong to the Metro Manila Mayor's League that serves as the board of the MMDA.

For mainly fiscal and statistical purposes Metro Manila or the National Capital Region (NCR) has also been divided into four districts grouped according to geographical basis in reference to the Pasig River
Pasig River
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for , it is lined by Metro Manila on each side...

. These districts were created in 1976 but have no local government and no congressional representation.

The cities and municipalities within the NCR are grouped into the four districts as follows:
# Alternate Name City/Cities
1 The Capital District Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

2 Eastern Manila District Mandaluyong, Marikina, Pasig, Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

, and San Juan
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

3 CAMANAVA District Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, and Valenzuela
4 Southern Manila District Las Piñas, Makati, Muntinlupa, Parañaque, Pasay, Pateros
Pateros, Metro Manila
The Municipality of Pateros is a First-class municipality in Metro Manila, Philippines. This small town is famous for its duck-raising industry and especially for producing balut, a Filipino delicacy that is boiled duck egg...

, and Taguig


Representation to the two houses of the Congress of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate , and the House of Representatives although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter.The Senate is composed of 24 senators half...

 is as follows:
  • For the Senate
    Senate of the Philippines
    The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

    , polling is done at-large, nationwide.
  • For the House of Representatives
    House of Representatives of the Philippines
    The House of Representatives of the Philippines is the lower chamber of the...

    , each city has at least one representative; Pateros' representation is included with the first Sangguniang Panlungsod
    Sangguniang Panlungsod
    The Sangguniang Panlungsod is the local legislative branch of city governments in the Philippines. The term is coined from the Tagalog words "sanggunian" and "lungsod" which means "city council". It passes ordinances and resolutions for the administration of the city. Its powers are defined by the...

     district of Taguig.


Metro Manila is also a judicial region; as such, all regional trial court judges can be stationed anywhere within the region.

Business districts


Metro Manila is the financial, commercial and industrial center of the Philippines. It accounts for 33% of the Philippines' GDP. It has a third of the country's bank offices but over two thirds of its deposits. Makati is the financial and economic hub of the metropolitan area and the country. Its central business district
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city. In North America this part of a city is commonly referred to as "downtown" or "city center"...

 (CBD) hosts many of the Philippines' largest corporations including the Ayala Group of Companies
Ayala Corporation
Ayala Corporation is a holding company for the diversified interests of the Ayala Group. Founded in the Philippines by the Spanish and German Ayala, Roxas, and Zobel families during colonial rule, it is the country's oldest and largest conglomerate...

 and the nation's major banks as well as the main Philippine offices of many multinational corporations.
The fifty tallest skyscrapers in the Philippines (inc. two structures) are located in Metro Manila like the PBCom Tower
PBCOM Tower
The Philippine Bank of Communications Tower, more commonly known as PBCom Tower, is an office skyscraper that currently holds the title, since 2000, of the tallest building in the Philippines. It has a total ground to architectural top height of , with 52 storeys including an 8-level radio tower...

 and G.T. International Tower
G.T. International Tower
G.T. International Tower is an office skyscraper located in Makati City, Philippines. The "G.T." in the name stands for George Ty, the building's owner and chairman of the Metrobank Group. Standing at 217 meters , it is currently the second-tallest building in the Philippines...

. The skyscrapers of Metro Manila are, for the most part, clustered in many locations although three areas are distinct for having the largest clusters in the metropolis. The first and biggest is the Makati Business District, followed by the Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center is Metro Manila's second most important Philippine financial district-cum-central business district after the Makati Financial and Central Business District in Makati City. With an area of at least 100 hectares, the district is located at the boundaries of Pasig City, Mandaluyong...

 Business District in Pasig. The newest to rise is the Bonifacio Global City Business District in Taguig.

The Makati area is built around the former Nielsen Air Base, an American installation during World War II, and its runways now form the district's main roads, which cross each other at the Makati Triangle, home of one of the two trading venues of the nation's stock exchange. Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center is Metro Manila's second most important Philippine financial district-cum-central business district after the Makati Financial and Central Business District in Makati City. With an area of at least 100 hectares, the district is located at the boundaries of Pasig City, Mandaluyong...

 is the second most important business district in Metro Manila. Situated in Mandaluyong and Pasig, it is home to the headquarters of several major Philippine companies such as San Miguel Corporation
San Miguel Corporation
Established in 1890 as a brewery, San Miguel Corporation is Southeast Asia's largest publicly listed food, beverage and packaging company with over 17,000 employees in over 100 major facilities throughout the Asia-Pacific....

 and Meralco
Meralco
The Manila Electric Company , also known as MERALCO or Meralco, is the Philippines' largest distributor of electrical power.The word MERALCO, is an acronym for Manila Electric Railroad And Light COmpany, which was the company's original name from 1903 to 1919.MERALCO is the Metro Manila's only...

, and hosts many shopping malls and hotels. It also hosts the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
The Asian Development Bank is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 to facilitate economic development of countries in Asia...

's headquarters and the Philippine Stock Exchange's trading floor at Tektite Towers.


New developments seeking to become vibrant business centers of their own are Bonifacio Global City
Fort Bonifacio
Fort Bonifacio is a highly urbanized district in Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines. The district is named after the main Philippine Army camp in Metro Manila, Fort Andres Bonifacio, which in turn was named after the famous Philippine revolutionary hero Andres Bonifacio...

 in Taguig; Eastwood City in Quezon City; the Manila Bay City Reclamation Area in the cities of Pasay, Parañaque and Las Piñas; and Alabang Estates, Madrigal Business Park, and Filinvest Corporate City in Muntinlupa. Triangle Park in Quezon City is the latest addition to the list. The traditional business center of Chinese-Filipino businessmen and the country's CBD prior to the development of the Makati CBD was the Binondo District in the City of Manila. Escolta was the central street of commerce during the time of the Spaniards up until the development of the Makati CBD when Ayala Avenue superseded it.

Shopping centers


In the early 1980s there were not that many shopping malls in Metro Manila, but ever since Henry Sy
Henry Sy
Henry Sy is a Chinese Filipino businessman and the founder of SM Group and chairman of SM Prime Holdings, the largest retailer and shopping mall operator in the Philippines. He earned his Associate of Arts degree in Commercial Studies at Far Eastern University in 1950...

 a Chinese-Filipino businessman started putting up his "megamalls" through his SM Group of Companies, Metro Manilans have taken eagerly to them. Three of these monuments to shopping are among the largest in the world. The largest mall in the country is currently the renovated SM City North EDSA
SM City North EDSA
SM City North EDSA is the largest mall in the Philippines, and the world’s third biggest in terms of leasable area . It is operated by SM Prime Holdings, a local holding company in the Philippines, the biggest retail and mall operator in Southeast Asia...

 in Quezon City. It is expected to become the nexus for three metropolitan rail lines once the terminal station next to it is fully completed. Previously the SM Mall of Asia
SM Mall of Asia
SM Mall of Asia is a shopping mall owned and developed by SM Prime Holdings, the largest mall developer and owner in the Philippines. SM Mall of Asia is the 2nd largest mall in the Philippines after SM City North EDSA, 3rd largest shopping mall in Asia and the 4th largest shopping mall in the world...

 in Pasay was the country's largest mall, and before it the SM Megamall
SM Megamall
SM Megamall is a huge shopping mall located in the Ortigas business district of Metro Manila, Philippines. It is the 3rd SM Supermall developed and operated by SM Prime Holdings, the largest mall operator in the Philippines owned by Henry Sy Sr. The mall has two buildings interconnected with a bridge...

 in Ortigas Center in Mandaluyong held the distinction from 1991 to 2006. Various other SM malls dot the metropolis. Ortigas Center, located along intersection of the boundaries of Mandaluyong, Pasig, and Quezon City, is the site of many other shopping centers including Robinsons Galleria
Robinsons Galleria
Robinsons Galleria is a large shopping mall located at EDSA corner Ortigas Avenue, Quezon City just near SM Megamall. It is Robinsons' flagship mall. The mall is owned by John Gokongwei, founder of JG Summit Holdings and Robinsons Land Corp. It was built in 1990 with a total gross floor area of...

, Shangri-La Plaza, and The Podium
The Podium
The Podium is an upscale shopping mall located along ADB Avenue in the Ortigas Center, a major business and commercial district in Pasig City, Philippines...

.

Recently opened in Pasig is a new development called Frontera Verde, which currently hosts Tiendesitas, a tiangge-style shopping center; SM Supercenter Pasig; and SilverCity AutoMall, the first mall in the Philippines that is dedicated to the automotive market. In the Makati central business district, Ayala Center
Ayala Center
The Ayala Center is a commercial complex operated by Ayala Land Incorporated located in the central business district of Makati in Metro Manila, Philippines.-About the Center:...

 comprises other commercial developments, including Glorietta and the upscale Greenbelt shopping arcades. Also in Makati in Guadalupe is the Rockwell Center.

Bonifacio High Street and Serendra are in Bonifacio Global City. In the City of Manila proper, the largest malls include SM City Manila
SM City Manila
SM City Manila is the first SM Supermall in the city of Manila. It is located at Natividad Almeda-Lopez corner A. Villegas and San Marcelino Streets, Ermita, Manila just beside the Manila City Hall...

, Robinsons Place Manila
Robinsons Place Manila
Robinsons Place Manila is a shopping mall located behind the Philippine General Hospital and the campus of the University of the Philippines Manila in the City of Manila. It was the second and by-far, the largest Robinsons Mall ever built by John Gokongwei. It began operations in 1995 and was...

, and the older Harrison Plaza. Cubao is Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

's central commercial area and has five malls including the Gateway Mall
Gateway Mall (Araneta Center)
Gateway Mall is a shopping mall complex located at Araneta Center, Cubao, Quezon City. Also underway at Araneta Center is a mall expansion and construction of the Gateway Tower. Gateway Mall has won some awards in terms of its mall design and tenant mix which made the mall to become the 2006-2007...

 at the Araneta Center
Araneta Center
The Araneta Center is a 35-hectare commercial area in Quezon City, Philippines. Araneta Center Inc. , controlled by the Araneta family, is the owner, developer and manager of Araneta Center, which brings in an estimated 1 million visitors daily...

. There is also Eastwood City, located along Libis; SM City Fairview
SM City Fairview
SM City Fairview is a large shopping mall in the Philippines owned and operated by SM Prime Holdings. It is located along Quirino Highway, Regalado Ave, Novaliches, Quezon City, Metro Manila. It is the second SM Supermall in Quezon City...

, in Novaliches; and TriNoma
TriNoma
TriNoma is a large shopping mall in Quezon City, Philippines, owned by property development firm Ayala Land Inc...

, Ayala Land
Ayala Land
Ayala Land, Inc. is the real estate arm of Ayala Corporation, one of the Philippines' oldest and largest conglomerates. From an internal division of Ayala Corporation, it was spun off and incorporated in 1988. It was publicly listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange in 1991...

's newest mall, in front of SM City North EDSA.

Muntinlupa hosts the Festival Supermall
Festival Supermall
Festival Supermall or Festival Mall is a large shopping mall owned and operated by Filinvest Development Corporation located at the sprawling and vibrant Filinvest Corporate City in Alabang Muntinlupa City, and is acknowledged as the first theme mall in the Philippines...

, Alabang Town Center
Alabang Town Center
Alabang Town Center is a shopping mall owned by Ayala Malls in Alabang, Muntinlupa, southern Metro Manila in the Philippines. It caters to the retail needs of citizens living in the South, particularly those from Las Pinas, Paranaque, and Muntinlupa...

, and Metropolis Star Mall, all in Alabang, as well as SM Supercenter Muntinlupa. Before the advent of the air-conditioned shopping centers, Metro Manila had the palengke, the Filipino-style open-air wet market
Wet market
A wet market is generally an open food market. Some of the common names include "Cultural Markets", "traditional markets", "Gaai Si", "Gaai See".-Terminology:...

 and there are still many of them. One of these is the Central Market, in Sta. Cruz district of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

. Another known for its bargains is the market in Divisoria, in Manila. Cloverleaf Market in Balintawak, Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

 supplies much of Metro Manila's fruit and vegetable products.

Navotas Port Market supplies most of Metro Manila's fish products. Other smaller markets include the Cubao Farmers Market, EDSA Central, Nepa-Q Mart, Novaliches Talipapa, and those found in Muñoz, Balingasa, Galas, Santa Mesa, Baclaran, Pasay Libertad, and Pasay Cartimar, the latter also being one of the finest pet markets. Midway between a mall and a market are the tiangges, or airconditioned markets selling goods such as clothes, shoes, accessories, computer parts, mobile phones, CDs, VCDs, MP3s, iPod
IPod
iPod is a line of portable media players created and marketed by Apple Inc. The product line-up currently consists of the hard drive-based iPod Classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the compact iPod Nano, and the ultra-compact iPod Shuffle...

s, and DVDs.

Examples are Greenhills Shopping Center
Greenhills Shopping Center
Greenhills Shopping Center is a shopping centre in the city of San Juan in the Philippines. It has over 2,000 stores, and espouses an 'indoor-outdoor' theme, with the Shopping Center having the appearance of several distinct buildings that are all interconnected through pathways and bridges. It...

 in San Juan and St. Francis Square in Mandaluyong. Upscale malls in Metro Manila are Robinsons Place Manila
Robinsons Place Manila
Robinsons Place Manila is a shopping mall located behind the Philippine General Hospital and the campus of the University of the Philippines Manila in the City of Manila. It was the second and by-far, the largest Robinsons Mall ever built by John Gokongwei. It began operations in 1995 and was...

 in Manila, Gateway Mall
Gateway Mall
Gateway Mall may refer to:United States*Gateway District, an open-air mall in Salt Lake City, Utah*Gateway Fashion Mall, an enclosed mall in Bismark, North Dakota*Gateway Mall , an enclosed mall*Gateway Mall...

, TriNoMa
TriNoma
TriNoma is a large shopping mall in Quezon City, Philippines, owned by property development firm Ayala Land Inc...

 Mall, Eastwood
Eastwood
-Places:in Australia*Eastwood, New South Wales**Eastwood railway station*Eastwood, South Australiain Canada*Eastwood, Ontario*Eastwood, Edmonton, Alberta, a neighborhoodin the Philippines*Eastwood Cityin the UK*Eastwood, Essex, England...

 Mall, and Robinsons Place Galleria in Quezon City, Glorietta
Glorietta
Glorietta is a large shopping mall in the Ayala Center in Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines. The mall is owned by the Zobel de Ayala family and its holding company, Ayala Corporation...

, Powerplant
PowerPlant
PowerPlant is an object-oriented GUI toolkit, application framework and set of class libraries for Mac OS, created by Metrowerks. The framework was fairly popular at the height of the Classic Mac OS era, and was primarily used with CodeWarrior...

 Mall and SM Makati in Makati City, Bonifacio High Street in Taguig City, The Podium
The Podium
The Podium is an upscale shopping mall located along ADB Avenue in the Ortigas Center, a major business and commercial district in Pasig City, Philippines...

 in Pasig City, Shangri-La Plaza and SM Megamall
SM Megamall
SM Megamall is a huge shopping mall located in the Ortigas business district of Metro Manila, Philippines. It is the 3rd SM Supermall developed and operated by SM Prime Holdings, the largest mall operator in the Philippines owned by Henry Sy Sr. The mall has two buildings interconnected with a bridge...

 in Mandaluyong City, Greenbelt and SM Mall of Asia
SM Mall of Asia
SM Mall of Asia is a shopping mall owned and developed by SM Prime Holdings, the largest mall developer and owner in the Philippines. SM Mall of Asia is the 2nd largest mall in the Philippines after SM City North EDSA, 3rd largest shopping mall in Asia and the 4th largest shopping mall in the world...

 and Newport City Mall in Pasay.

Wealth extremes


Metro Manila is a place of economic extremes. Many high-income citizens are concentrated in gated communities in places such as Forbes Park
Forbes Park
Forbes Park may refer to:* Forbes Park, Makati City, Philippines* Forbes Park, Fort Garland, Colorado, United States* Forbes Park, Chelsea, Massachusetts, United States...

, Legazpi Village, and Dasmariñas Village
Dasmariñas Village
Dasmariñas Village or simply Dasma, is a private subdivision and gated community in Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines. It occupies 187.21 hectares and is bounded by Epifanio de los Santos Avenue to the north, McKinley Road to the northeast, Pili Avenue/Forbes Park South to the east, Maricaban...

 in Makati, Ayala Alabang in Muntinlupa (all three initially developed in part by the influential Zobel de Ayala family), Valle Verde in Pasig, La Vista in Quezon City, Greenhills in San Juan or in high-rise developments in or around central business districts, such as Rockwell Center
Rockwell Center
The Rockwell Center is an upscale mixed-use 15.5-hectare project in Poblacion, Makati City, Philippines. It is a project of the Rockwell Land Corporation , which is owned by the influential Lopez family.-Location and vicinity:...

 in Makati, Eastwood City
Eastwood City
Eastwood City is a commercial and residential development located in the Libis area of Quezon City in the Philippines. It is developed by Megaworld Corporation. It currently hosts 12 luxury residential condominium towers, with several more being developed....

 in Libis, Quezon City and Fort Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, or along Roxas Boulevard
Roxas Boulevard
Roxas Boulevard is a boulevard in Metro Manila, and an eight-lane arterial road that connects the center of Manila with Pasay City, Parañaque City. It is one of the major arteries in the city's metropolitan network, designated as Radial Road 1...

 overlooking Manila Bay
Manila Bay
Manila Bay is a natural harbor which serves the Port of Manila , in the Philippines.The bay is considered to be one of the best natural harbors in Southeast Asia and one of the finest in the world...

.

In sharp contrast to these residences are the slums and illegal settlements scattered across the metropolitan area, often found on vacant government land or in districts such as Tondo
Tondo, Manila
Tondo is a district of Manila, Philippines. The locale has existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish, referred to as "Tundun" in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. One of the most densely populated areas of land in the world, Tondo is located in the northwest portion of the city and is primarily...

. Illegal settlements have been concentrated on land adjacent to the tracks of PNR
Philippine National Railways
The Philippine National Railways , or PNR, is a state-owned railway company in the Philippines, operating a single line of track on Luzon. As of 2010, it operates one commuter rail service in Metro Manila and a second in the Bicol Region. PNR restored its intercity service to the Bicol region in 2011...

 lines; but with efforts to rehabilitate the railway system, steps have been taken to clear these areas and relocate the squatters to other areas.

Landmarks and recreational areas


Located in the western portion of Metro Manila in the heart of Manila proper, Rizal Park
Rizal Park
Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park or colloquially Luneta, is a historical urban park located in the heart of the city of Manila, Philippines, adjacent to the old walled city of Manila, now Intramuros. Since the Spanish Colonial Era, the park has been a favorite spot for unwinding, socializing,...

, also known as the Luneta, is an iconic public promenade. Rizal Park features the Rizal Monument
Rizal Monument
The Rizal Monument is a memorial monument in Rizal Park in Manila, Philippines built to commemorate the Filipino nationalist, José Rizal. The mausoleum consists of a standing bronze sculpture of the martyr, with an obelisk as his backdrop, set on a pedestal upon which his remains are interred...

, a statue honoring José Rizal; a gigantic relief map of the Philippines; scenic Chinese and Japanese gardens; and several government offices, such as the Department of Tourism. On the seaside front of Rizal Park are numerous seafood restaurants specializing in Filipino and Asian cuisine. The National Museum of the Filipino People is also found here. It is a complex of two Greco-Roman buildings which house various relics and natural treasures in its galleries. The museum also boasts a large collection of artwork and masterpieces crafted by Filipinos. Part of the museum complex is the first planetarium in Southeast Asia. A newer attraction is the Manila Ocean Park
Manila Ocean Park
The Manila Ocean Park is an oceanarium in Manila, Philippines. It is owned by China Oceanis Philippines Inc., a subsidiary of China Oceanis Inc., a Singaporean-registered firm that has operated four oceanariums in China. It is located behind the Quirino Grandstand at Rizal Park. It opened on March...

, an oceanarium which opened in March 2008. Located nearby is the Quirino Grandstand, which apart from political campaign gatherings is also a popular staging ground for rallies such as those for various charismatic religious groups.

Near Rizal Park is the 400-year-old former imperial city known as Intramuros
Intramuros
Intramuros is the oldest district in the present day city of Manila, the capital of the Republic of the Philippines. Nicknamed the "Walled City", Intramuros is the historic fortified city of Manila, the seat ot the government during the Spanish Colonial Period. Its name in Latin, intramuros,...

. Intramuros, is a walled domain which was once the seat of government during the Spanish Colonial Era and American Period. Among its attractions are Fort Santiago
Fort Santiago
Fort Santiago is a defense fortress built for Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi. The fort is part of the structures of the walled city of Intramuros, in Manila, Philippines. José Rizal, the Philippines' national hero, was imprisoned in the fort before his execution in 1896...

, a timeworn Spanish military fortress; Casa Manila
Casa Manila
Casa Manila is a museum in Intramuros depicting colonial lifestyle during Spanish colonisation of the Philippines.It was constructed by Imelda Marcos during the 1980s and modeled on Spanish colonial architecture....

, a Spanish colonial villa which is converted into a house gallery; Manila Cathedral
Manila Cathedral
Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception is also known as Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Immaculate Conception or Basilica Minore dela Inmaculada Concepcion or Basilica Minore dela Nuestra Señora de Inmaculada Concepcion A Roman Catholic church having a higher status of "Minor Basilica" with...

, the official seat of the Archbishop of Manila; San Agustin Church
San Agustin Church, Manila
San Agustin Church is a Roman Catholic church under the auspices of The Order of St. Augustine, located inside the historic walled city of Intramuros in Manila. Completed by 1607, it is the oldest church still standing in the Philippines...

, erected in 1587, the oldest existing church in the Philippines; Intramuros Golf Club, a golf course outside the walls; and the Clam Shell Tent, an exhibition center of the Department of Tourism. Horse-carriages and tourist buses are also some of the attractions. The rest also includes a walk above the walls surrounding Intramuros, government offices, universities and colonial houses.

Fort Bonifacio
Fort Bonifacio
Fort Bonifacio is a highly urbanized district in Taguig City, Metro Manila, Philippines. The district is named after the main Philippine Army camp in Metro Manila, Fort Andres Bonifacio, which in turn was named after the famous Philippine revolutionary hero Andres Bonifacio...

 is the location of military detachments, cemeteries, corporate headquarters, and world-class dining and shopping facilities. Other local recreation areas include the Nayong Pilipino (Philippine Village) in Parañaque, Quezon Memorial Circle and Ninoy Aquino Wildlife Center, both in Diliman district of Quezon City, the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex and Bay City, both in Pasay. Meanwhile, the Paco Park, Arroceros Botanical Garden, Manila Zoo, Plaza Rajah Sulayman, Plaza Miranda, new Rizal Avenue Bargain Walkway, the all-steel Gothic San Sebastian Church
San Sebastian Church
The Basilica Minore de San Sebastián, better known as San Sebastián Church, is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Manila, the Philippines. It is the seat of the Parish of San Sebastian and the National Shrine of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel....

, the bars and night clubs of Ermita and Malate districts and the Roxas Boulevard Bay Walk which offers a fine view of the Manila Bay
Manila Bay
Manila Bay is a natural harbor which serves the Port of Manila , in the Philippines.The bay is considered to be one of the best natural harbors in Southeast Asia and one of the finest in the world...

 sunset and hip dining are in Manila.

Roadways



The metropolis has an extensive system of highways connecting the various cities and municipalities estimated to measure 5092 kilometers long. Of this total 1087 kilometers are national roads; 2366 kilometers are city, municipal, or barangay roads; 1639 kilometers are subdivision roads; and 37 kilometers are privately run toll expressways.

The major roads include ten radial roads, which branch out from central Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and five circumferential roads which form a series of concentric semi-circular arcs around downtown Manila. Most of these roads are very important transportation arteries. One is the C-4 (Circumferential Road 4), also called Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or more popularly as EDSA. It is the major thoroughfare in Metro Manila connecting five cities in Metro Manila, namely Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, and Caloocan. The MRT-3 line of Manila's metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 network runs down the middle of EDSA between the road's opposite running lanes. A major alternative to EDSA
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue , formerly known as Highway 54, is the main circumferential road and highway of Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is an important commuting artery between the northern and southern parts of the metropolitan area...

 is Circumferential Road 5
Circumferential Road 5
Circumferential Road 5, also known as C-5 is a beltway which stretches from Parañaque City to Valenzuela City in Metro Manila, the Philippines...

 (C-5). Some other important roads are R-1 (Radial Road 1) better known as Roxas Boulevard
Roxas Boulevard
Roxas Boulevard is a boulevard in Metro Manila, and an eight-lane arterial road that connects the center of Manila with Pasay City, Parañaque City. It is one of the major arteries in the city's metropolitan network, designated as Radial Road 1...

 and the Manila-Cavite Expressway
Manila-Cavite Expressway
The Manila-Cavite Expressway or Aguinaldo Boulevard is a tollway/expressway in the Philippines. It is considered part of the Radial Road 1 of Metro Manila...

 (Coastal Road) connecting to Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

 province in the southwest; R-3 or the South Luzon Expressway
South Luzon Expressway
The South Luzon Expressway ', which is formerly called the South Superhighway ', and officially known as Radial Road 3 or R-3, is a network of three expressways that connects Metro Manila to the provinces of the CALABARZON region in the Philippines...

 (SLEX) connecting to Laguna province
Laguna province
Laguna is a province of the Philippines found in the CALABARZON region in Luzon. Its capital is Santa Cruz and the province is located southeast of Metro Manila, south of the province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangas and east of Cavite. Laguna almost completely surrounds Laguna de Bay,...

 in the southeast; R-6 (Aurora Boulevard and Marcos Highway) connecting to Rizal
Rizal
Rizal is a province located in the CALABARZON , just 16 kilometers east of Manila. The province was named after the country's national hero, José Rizal. Rizal Governor Casimiro A. Ynares III on June 17, 2008 announced the transfer of the Capitol from Pasig. Its P 270-million capitol building,...

 province in the east; and R-8 or the North Luzon Expressway
North Luzon Expressway
The North Luzon Expressway , and which is formerly called the North Diversion Road, and officially known as Radial Road 8 is a 4 to 8-lane limited-access toll expressway that connects Metro Manila to the provinces of the Central Luzon region in the Philippines...

 (NLEX) connecting to Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

 province in the north. One of its newest roads, the Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard
Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard
Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard is a modern eight-lane road parallel to Roxas Boulevard running from CCP Complex, Pasay City to Marina Subdivision, Parañaque City, both in Metro Manila. It was named after former President Diosdado Macapagal. It is located in the reclamation areas...

, running on the reclamation area
Land reclamation
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, is the process to create new land from sea or riverbeds. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or landfill.- Habitation :...

 parallel to R-1, is one of the destinations of Metro Manila's elite.

Metro Manila is notorious for its traffic jams with trips averaging at speeds as low as 6–8 kilometers per hour. A trip that should take 20 minutes will last an hour or more especially during rush hour. Consequently, the Metro Manila Development Authority (see section below) has constructed many projects to decongest traffic.

Such projects of the MMDA for motorists are the construction of flyover
Overpass
An overpass is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway...

s (elevated roads), interchanges, loading bays for Public Utility Vehicles (PUVs), emergency bays, and U-turn slots over various intersections and thoroughfares, and the completion of the comprehensive railway system (see below). It has also been engaged in road widening with the support of the Department of Public Works and Highways. MMDA has also utilized projects for the pedestrians such as the installation of footbridges, waiting sheds, and men's urinals to various roads in the metropolis. The agency has also implemented various schemes for motorists such as the Uniform Vehicular Volume Reduction Scheme (UVVRS), more popularly known as "color coding", where vehicles whose plate numbers end in different digits are banned from traveling on different days, the Yellow Lane scheme, where yellow-plated PUBs (Public Utility Buses) will only use the two outermost lanes in EDSA, and the Organized Bus Route (OBR) for Metro Manila.

Railways



, there are two different rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 systems in Metro Manila: the Manila Light Rail Transit System
Manila Light Rail Transit System
The Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as the LRT, is a metropolitan rail system serving the Metro Manila area in the Philippines. Although referred to as a light rail system because it originally used light rail vehicles, it has many characteristics of a rapid transit system, such...

, or the LRT, and the Manila Metro Rail Transit System
Manila Metro Rail Transit System
The Metro Rail Transit is Metro Manila's third rapid transit line. It forms part of the Strong Republic Transit System, which includes the Manila Light Rail Transit System. The line operates under the name Metrostar Express and is colored blue on rail maps.The line is located along the Epifanio de...

, or the MRT. The Yellow Line
Manila LRT Yellow Line
The Manila LRT Yellow Line is the first metro line of the Manila Light Rail Transit System. Presently, the line contains twenty-two stations and runs over twenty point seven kilometers of fully elevated track...

 (LRT-1) and the Purple Line
Manila LRT Purple Line
The Manila LRT Purple Line is the second line of the Manila Light Rail Transit System. The line contains eleven stations and runs over 13.8 kilometers of mostly elevated track, with the exception of Katipunan station, which is underground...

 (LRT-2) form the LRT network, while the Blue Line
Manila Metro Rail Transit System
The Metro Rail Transit is Metro Manila's third rapid transit line. It forms part of the Strong Republic Transit System, which includes the Manila Light Rail Transit System. The line operates under the name Metrostar Express and is colored blue on rail maps.The line is located along the Epifanio de...

 (MRT-3) forms the MRT network, with 29 stations on the LRT and 13 stations on the MRT . Four more lines are proposed and would connect Metro Manila to the provinces of Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

, Cavite
Cavite
Cavite is a province of the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the CALABARZON region in Luzon, just 30 kilometers south of Manila. Cavite is surrounded by Laguna to the east, Metro Manila to the northeast, and Batangas to the south...

, Laguna
Laguna province
Laguna is a province of the Philippines found in the CALABARZON region in Luzon. Its capital is Santa Cruz and the province is located southeast of Metro Manila, south of the province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangas and east of Cavite. Laguna almost completely surrounds Laguna de Bay,...

 and Rizal
Rizal
Rizal is a province located in the CALABARZON , just 16 kilometers east of Manila. The province was named after the country's national hero, José Rizal. Rizal Governor Casimiro A. Ynares III on June 17, 2008 announced the transfer of the Capitol from Pasig. Its P 270-million capitol building,...

 upon their completion.

Philippine National Railways
Philippine National Railways
The Philippine National Railways , or PNR, is a state-owned railway company in the Philippines, operating a single line of track on Luzon. As of 2010, it operates one commuter rail service in Metro Manila and a second in the Bicol Region. PNR restored its intercity service to the Bicol region in 2011...

 also operates two main-line railway lines within Metro Manila, all part of the once-flourishing Luzon railway system. The northern line, known as Northrail and connecting Manila to Caloocan, is currently closed. Line extensions are proposed to Valenzuela and further on to Bulacan and Pampanga
Pampanga
Pampanga is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, Pampanga. Pampanga is bordered by the provinces of Bataan and Zambales to the west, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija to the north, and Bulacan to the southeast...

. The trans-Metro Manila portion of the still-open southern line, known as Southrail, commences at Tutuban station in Tondo, Manila
Tondo, Manila
Tondo is a district of Manila, Philippines. The locale has existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish, referred to as "Tundun" in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. One of the most densely populated areas of land in the world, Tondo is located in the northwest portion of the city and is primarily...

, passes through the cities of Manila, Makati, Taguig, Parañaque and Las Piñas, and ends in Barangay Buli, Muntinlupa, before entering the province of Laguna.

Airports



Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA , also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area...

 (NAIA), which straddles the boundary between Parañaque and Pasay, is the country's busiest airport. It consists of a domestic terminal and three international terminals; it has two main runways. It is the hub of Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

 which has its main hangar located near the Villamor Air Base
Villamor Airbase
Villamor Air Base is home of the Philippine Air Force. It is chiefly used as an air base for PAF transport and helicopter flights. It is also the military base that the Philippine president uses when departing for foreign or domestic trips abroad, though foreign departures are mostly done at the...

. The future international gateway for the metropolitan area and the country is currently being built at Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
Diosdado Macapagal International Airport , also called Clark International Airport , is the main airport serving the immediate vicinity of the Clark Freeport Zone and the general area of Angeles City in the Philippines...

 in Angeles City
Angeles City
The City of Angeles , located within the province of Pampanga in the Philippines, is locally classified as a first-class, highly-urbanized city. Its name is derived from El Pueblo de los Ángeles in honor of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles de los Custodios , and the name of its founder, Don...

, Pampanga
Pampanga
Pampanga is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is the City of San Fernando, Pampanga. Pampanga is bordered by the provinces of Bataan and Zambales to the west, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija to the north, and Bulacan to the southeast...

. It is planned on becoming one of the world's biggest in terms of terminal size and land area. A fast train will be built to connect the new airport to Metro Manila.

Water transportation


The Manila Seaport Terminal
Port of Manila
The Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, and is the premier international shipping gateway to the country. It is located in the vicinity of Manila Bay.-Port Area:...

 in the Port Area, Manila is the shipping gateway to the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. The Pasig River Ferry Service
Pasig River Ferry Service
The Pasig River Ferry Service, was the only water-based transportation that cruised the Pasig River from Barangay Pinagbuhatan in Pasig City to Intramuros, Manila. The system is owned and operated by a private company, SCC Nautical Transport Services Incorporated...

 travels the Pasig River
Pasig River
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Stretching for , it is lined by Metro Manila on each side...

 from Intramuros, Manila to Barangay
Barangay
A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward...

 Kalawaan Sur in Pasig.

Demographics


Metro Manila has a registered population of 11,553,427 people. However, as of 2011, the greater urban area of Manila has a population at around 21,295,000. According to the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 of 2000, there were 9,932,560 people and 2,132,989 households residing in Metro Manila. With a population density of 15,617/km², it is by far the most densely populated region of the Philippines. For the period 1995 to 2000, the annual population growth rate was 1.06 percent, lower than that of the 1990 to 1995 period (3.30 percent).


The indigenous people of the area now known as Metro Manila were the Tagalog
Tagalog people
The Tagalog people are an ethnic group in the Philippines. The name Tagalog comes from either the native term tagá-ilog, meaning 'people living along the river', or another native term, tagá-alog, meaning 'people living along the ford', a ford being a shallow part of a river or stream where people,...

. Other native ethnic groups of the Philippines also inhabit the metropolis as a result of migration. The include the Visayans, Bicolanos
Bicolano people
The Bicolanos are the fifth-largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.-Area:Bicolanos live in the southeastern peninsula of Luzon, now containing the provinces of Albay, Camarines Sur, Camarines Norte, Catanduanes, Masbate, and Sorsogon. Many Bicolanos also live near in the province of...

, Kapampangan
Kapampangan people
The Kapampangans or Capampan͠gans are the sixth largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group, numbering about 2,890,000. The original Kapampangans may have descended from Austronesian-speaking immigrants to Luzon during the Iron Age.The province of Pampanga is traditional homeland of the Kapampangans...

, Ilocanos
Ilocano people
The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group. Aside from being referred to as Ilocanos, from "i"-from, and "looc"-bay, they also refer to themselves as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase "sao mi ditoy", meaning 'our language here.' The word "Ilocano" came from...

, Pangasinan
Pangasinan people
The Pangasinan are the eighth largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group. They are the residents or indigenous peoples of the Province of Pangasinan, one of the provinces of the Republic of the Philippines, located on the west central area in the island of Luzon along Lingayen Gulf...

, and Moro groups (mostly Maranao
Maranao
Maranao is the term used for the people of Lanao, a predominantly Muslim region in the Philippines island of Mindanao. They are famous for their artwork, sophisticated weaving, wood and metal craft, and their epic literature...

 and Maguindanao
Maguindanao
Maguindanao is a province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao . Its capital is Shariff Aguak. It borders Lanao del Sur to the north, Cotabato to the east, and Sultan Kudarat to the south....

). Tribal groups such as the Igorot
Igorot
Cordillerans are the people of the Cordillera region, in the Philippines island of Luzon. The word, Igorot is a misnomer term invented by the Spaniards in mockery against the Nortnern Luzon tribes. The word ‘Igorot’ also as coined and applied by the Spaniards means a savage, head-hunting and...

 and the Bajau
Bajau
The Bajau or Bajaw , also spelled Bajao, Badjau, Badjaw, or Badjao, are an indigenous ethnic group of Maritime Southeast Asia...

 have also settled. There are also numerous peoples of Chinese
Chinese Filipino
A Chinese Filipino derived from two words: "Tsino" and "Pinoy" ) is a Philippine national of Chinese ethnicity but born/raised in the Philippines....

, Japanese
Japanese Filipino
Japanese settlement in the Philippines refers to the branch of the Japanese diaspora having historical contact with and having established themselves in what is now the Philippines...

, and Indian descent. Resident Spaniards, Americans, and Koreans
Koreans in the Philippines
Koreans in the Philippines, largely consisting of expatriates from South Korea, form the largest Korean diaspora community in Southeast Asia and the eighth-largest in the world, after Korean Australians and before Koreans in Kazakhstan; as of 2009, statistics of South Korea's Ministry of Foreign...

 are also present in large numbers. Metro Manila is classified as a social urban conglomerate, meaning, it is one of the most ethnically diverse
Cultural pluralism
Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture. Cultural pluralism is often confused with Multiculturalism...

 cities in the world.

The most common language spoken in households is Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

 (94.34%). English
Philippine English
Philippine English is the variety of English used in the Philippines by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos. English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog.English is used in education,...

 is widely used and understood, and is the main language of the middle and upper class
Upper class
In social science, the "upper class" is the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. Members of an upper class may have great power over the allocation of resources and governmental policy in their area.- Historical meaning :...

es and in business. Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

 is taught in certain Chinese schools. Other languages of the Philippines
Languages of the Philippines
In the Philippines, there are between 120 and 175 languages, depending on the method of classification. Four languages no longer have any known speakers. Almost all the Philippine languages belong to the Austronesian language family...

 are also spoken, mostly between family members, relatives, or neighbors belonging to the same ethnic group. Among these languages, the most spoken include Visayan languages
Visayan languages
The Visayan languages of the Philippines, along with Tagalog and Bikol, are part of the Central Philippine languages...

, Bikol languages
Bikol languages
The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken particularly on the Bicol Peninsula on the island of Luzon and parts of Catanduanes and Burias Island, Masbate Province...

, and Kapampangan
Kapampangan language
The Pampangan language, or Kapampangan , is one of the major languages of the Philippines. It is the language spoken in the province of Pampanga, the southern half of the province of Tarlac and the northern portion of the province of Bataan. Kapampangan is also understood in some barangays of...

. The large majority of the population of Metro Manila is Roman Catholic (90%). Other religions represented are Protestant and Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to:* the Eastern Orthodox Church and its various geographical subdivisions...

 (3%), Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 (5%), and others (Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 and Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

) (2%).

Education


As of 2008 there are 511 elementary schools and 220 secondary schools in the National Capital Region. There are around 81 higher educational institutions. Literacy rate is around 92.4%.

As the educational center of the country, many students from the provinces head to Metro Manila to study. Areas of high number of educational institutions include the so-called "University Belt
University Belt
The University Belt is the unofficial name of a de facto sub-district in Manila, Philippines. It refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city....

" and Taft Avenue in Manila, Katipunan Avenue and Fairview in Quezon City, and Santa Mesa straddling the Manila, Quezon City and Mandaluyong borders. Metro Manila is also home to many private schools run by religious orders. These include the Ateneo de Manila University
Ateneo de Manila University
The Ateneo de Manila University is a private teaching and research university run by the Society of Jesus in the Philippines. It began in 1859 when the City of Manila handed control of the Escuela Municipal de Manila in Intramuros, Manila, to the Jesuits...

 by the Jesuits, University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines , is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by archbishop of Manila Miguel de Benavides, it has the oldest extant university charter in the...

 and Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Letran College, or simply Letran is a private Roman Catholic institution of learning located in Intramuros, Manila, in the Philippines. The college was founded in 1620. Colegio de San Juan de Letran has the distinction of being the oldest college in the...

 by the Dominicans, De La Salle University
De La Salle University
De La Salle University is a private Lasallian university in Malate, Manila, Philippines. It was founded in 1911 by De La Salle Brothers as the De La Salle College in Paco, Manila with Blimond Pierre serving as its first director...

 by the Lasallian Brothers, Adamson University
Adamson University
Adamson University is a private university Catholic university in Manila, Philippines, founded on June 30, 1932 by Greek immigrant George Lucas Adamson as the Adamson School of Industrial Chemistry...

 by the Vincentians, and San Beda College
San Beda College
San Beda College or Dalubhasaan ng San Beda in Filipino is a Private Benedictine college run by the Benedictine monks in the Philippines. It is located on Mendiola Street in San Miguel, Manila...

 by the Benedictine
Benedictine
Benedictine refers to the spirituality and consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century for the cenobitic communities he founded in central Italy. The most notable of these is Monte Cassino, the first monastery founded by Benedict...

 order, among others.

Government-funded/run schools like the Diliman and Manila campuses of the University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
The ' is the national university of the Philippines. Founded in 1908 through Act No...

, the main campus of the Philippine Science High School and Manila Science High School
Manila Science High School
Manila Science High School is the Pilot Science High School in the Philippines. It is located on Taft Avenue at the corner of Padre Faura Street in Ermita, Manila, and was established on October 1, 1963.- History :...

 are located here as well. In the University Belt area in Manila, is a nonsectarian, private university in the Philippines. Created by the merger of Far Eastern College and the Institute of Accounts, Business and Finance, FEU became a university in 1934 under the guidance of first president Nicanor Reyes, Sr.. It soon became the leading proprietary, for-profit university in the Philippines. FEU's campus is noted for a number of historical buildings preserved from the first half of the 20th century.

Health


Manila is home to the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

's Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the main office of the Department of Health
Department of Health (Philippines)
The Philippines’ Department of Health is the principal health agency in the Philippines. It is the executive department of the Philippine Government responsible for ensuring access to basic public health services to all Filipinos through the provision of quality health care and the regulation of...

, and several hospitals and medical centers. Major hospitals such as the Makati Medical Center in Makati City, Asian Hospital and Medical Center
Asian Hospital and Medical Center
The Asian Hospital and Medical Center, established on March 15, 2002 with Jorge Garcia, MD, an alumnus of the Faculty of Medicine & Surgery of the University of Santo Tomas, as its founding chairman, is the first private tertiary hospital built in the southern part of Metro Manila...

 in Muntinlupa, St. Luke's Medical Center
St. Luke's medical center
St. Luke's Medical Center is a Tertiary referral hospital located in Quezon City and Taguig City, Philippines. It has a bed capacity of 660. It is the first in the Philippines and second in Asia to be accredited by the USA-based Joint Commission International , one of the leading international...

 in Quezon City and The Medical City
The Medical City
The Medical City Philippines is a tertiary health care organization with a medical staff of 1,100 physicians and 2,200 support personnel, serving 40,000 in-patients and 400,000 out-patients annually.Joint Commission International Accreditation...

 in Pasig City have world-class facilities. Some of these have geared themselves toward medical tourism
Medical tourism
Medical tourism is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of travelling across international borders to obtain health care...

.

Police and security



The Philippine National Police
Philippine National Police
The Philippine National Police is the national police force of the Republic of the Philippines. It is both a national and a local police force in that it does provides all law enforcement services throughout the Philippines...

 (PNP) is responsible for law enforcement in the country. Police structure in the Philippines is centralized and its command center is in Camp Rafael Crame
Camp Crame
Camp Crame is the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police and is located in along Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, Quezon City...

 in Santolan, Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

. Metro Manila is divided into 5 police districts under National Capital Region Police Office namely Central (Quezon City), Western (City of Manila), Eastern (Mandaluyong, Pasig, Marikina, San Juan
San Juan, Metro Manila
The City of San Juan or simply San Juan is a city in Metro Manila in the Philippines. Before the creation of Metro Manila, it was part of Rizal Province. Currently the smallest city in the region and the country in terms of area, San Juan is one of the smallest among the cities and municipalities...

), Northern (Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela) and Southern (Makati, Muntinlupa, Las Piñas, Parañaque, Taguig and Pateros
Pateros, Metro Manila
The Municipality of Pateros is a First-class municipality in Metro Manila, Philippines. This small town is famous for its duck-raising industry and especially for producing balut, a Filipino delicacy that is boiled duck egg...

). The NCRPO Headquarters is located in Camp Bagong Diwa in Taguig.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines' command headquarters is in Camp Emilio Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo is the military headquarters of the Philippine Army and the Armed Forces of the Philippines and is located in Quezon City in the Philippines. It is along Epifanio de los Santos Ave. , in front of Camp Crame, the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police...

 in Murphy, Quezon City. The National Capital Region Command is in Metro Manila and was created by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

 to defend the metropolis from insurgents and terrorist groups. Philippine Army
Philippine Army
The Philippine Army is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines . Its official name in Tagalog is Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas. On July 23, 2010, President Benigno Aquino III appointed Maj. Gen...

 headquarters is in Fort Andres Bonifacio
Fort Andres Bonifacio
Fort Andres Bonifacio is the national headquarters of the Philippine Army and is located in Taguig City. It is located near the national headquarters of the Philippine Air Force . The camp is named after Andres Bonifacio, the revolutionary leader of the Katipunan during the revolutionary period of...

 in Taguig. Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force
The Philippine Air Force is the air force of the Republic of the Philippines, and one of the three main services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Its official name in Filipino is Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas....

 headquarters is in Jesus Villamor Air Base
Villamor Airbase
Villamor Air Base is home of the Philippine Air Force. It is chiefly used as an air base for PAF transport and helicopter flights. It is also the military base that the Philippine president uses when departing for foreign or domestic trips abroad, though foreign departures are mostly done at the...

 in Pasay. Philippine Navy
Philippine Navy
The Philippine Navy is the naval arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines . Its official name in Filipino is Hukbong Dagat ng Pilipinas, literally, "Sea Force of the Philippines"....

 headquarters is along Roxas Boulevard in Manila.

Electricity


Metro Manila's electricity is generated by the state-owned National Power Corporation (Napocor) and other independent power producers across the island of Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. It is transmitted by the privately-owned National Grid Corporation of The Philippines (NGCP) through high tension wires. It is distributed by the Manila Electric Company (Meralco), the only company allowed to distribute electricity to the metropolis.

Water



Metro Manila's tap water is sourced from the Angat Dam in Norzagaray, Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

. It is stored in the Novaliches Reservoir and filtered in the La Mesa Dam, both in northeast Quezon City. Metro Manila's water distribution and sewerage system used to be managed by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage System (MWSS), a state-owned company. In 1997, MWSS awarded concessionaire licenses to two private corporations.
Metro Manila was sliced into two distribution areas.
  • Maynilad Water Services Inc (MWSI). It is currently majority-owned by DM Consunji Holdings, Inc (DMCI) and Metro Pacific Investments Corporation (MPIC). It operates in western Quezon City, southern Caloocan, Manila (excluding downtown), Valenzuela, Malabon, Navotas, Pasay, Parañaque, Las Piñas, and western Muntinlupa. MWSS is currently bidding out its shares in MWSI and expects to conclude the bidding before the end of the year.
  • Manila Water Company, Inc. (MWC)
    Manila Water
    The Manila Water Company, Inc. is a public utility company in the Philippines. Manila Water, as it is more commonly known, is the East Concessionaire of MWSS during its privatization on August 1, 1997, with its counterpart Maynilad Water Services, Inc. as the West Concessionaire...

    . It is majority-owned by the Ayala Corporation
    Ayala Corporation
    Ayala Corporation is a holding company for the diversified interests of the Ayala Group. Founded in the Philippines by the Spanish and German Ayala, Roxas, and Zobel families during colonial rule, it is the country's oldest and largest conglomerate...

    , which also controls Globe Telecom
    Globe Telecom
    Globe Telecom , commonly known as Globe, is a telecommunications company in the Philippines. Globe provides mobile, fixed line, and broadband Internet services.- History :In 1928, Congress passed Act No...

    . MWC operates the East Concession Zone, which comprises Makati, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Pasig, Pateros, San Juan, Taguig, eastern Quezon City, and the southeast portions of Manila.

Communications


For a long time since its founding in 1925, the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) was the Philippines' only phone carrier. With the passage of the National Telecommunications Act of 1995, the Philippine National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) granted licenses to new and independent companies to install new phones across the Philippines. The NTC granted 3 new licenses for Metro Manila.
  • BayanTel
    Bayan Telecommunications
    Bayan Telecommunications, Inc. is a telecommunications company serving areas in Metro Manila, Bicol and local exchange service areas in the Visayas and Mindanao regions combined cover a population of over 25 million, nearly 33% of the population of the Philippines.Its operating units in the...

    / Benpres
    - Northern Metro Manila (Quezon City, northern Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela, Marikina, northeastern Manila, and the Ortigas Center in Pasig)
  • Globelines/ Innove
    Globe Telecom
    Globe Telecom , commonly known as Globe, is a telecommunications company in the Philippines. Globe provides mobile, fixed line, and broadband Internet services.- History :In 1928, Congress passed Act No...

    - Southern Metro Manila (Makati, Mandaluyong, Muntinlupa, Pasay, Las Piñas, Parañaque, Taguig, Pateros, San Juan, and Pasig excluding the Ortigas Center)
  • Eastern Telecom - Western Metro Manila (Southern Caloocan and Manila, excluding the northeast part)
  • Digitel
    Digital Telecommunications Philippines
    Digital Telecommunications Phils., Inc. , commonly known as Digitel, is the second-largest fixed-line and the third-largest mobile telecommunications company in the Philippines...


Garbage


Metro Manila produces 4,000 tons of garbage each day. Paper wastes account for nearly 14% of the daily total. Efforts to reduce pollution is one of the metropolis' major public management concerns especially with the closure of some garbage dump sites in Greater Manila.

See also