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Mesoderm

Mesoderm

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In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ cell
Germ cell
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually. In many animals, the germ cells originate near the gut of an embryo and migrate to the developing gonads. There, they undergo cell division of two types, mitosis and meiosis, followed by...

layers in the very early embryo
Embryo
An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination...

. The other two layers are the ectoderm
Ectoderm
The "ectoderm" is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the mesoderm and endoderm , with the ectoderm as the most exterior layer...

(outside layer) and endoderm
Endoderm
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the ectoderm and mesoderm , with the endoderm as the intermost layer...

(inside layer), with the mesoderm as the middle layer between them.

The mesoderm forms mesenchyme
Mesenchyme
Mesenchyme, or mesenchymal connective tissue, is a type of undifferentiated loose connective tissue that is derived mostly from mesoderm, although some are derived from other germ layers; e.g. some mesenchyme is derived from neural crest cells and thus originates from the ectoderm...

 (connective tissue), mesothelium
Mesothelium
The mesothelium is a membrane that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura , peritoneum and pericardium . Mesothelial tissue also surrounds the male internal reproductive organs and covers the internal reproductive organs of women...

, non-epithelial blood corpuscles and coelomocytes. Mesothelium lines coelom
Coelom
The coelom is a fluid-filled cavity formed within the mesoderm. Coeloms developed in triploblasts but were subsequently lost in several lineages. Loss of coelom is correlated with reduction in body size...

s; forms the muscles, septa (cross-wise partitions) and mesenteries (length-wise partitions); and forms part of the gonad
Gonad
The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. The gonads in males are the testes and the gonads in females are the ovaries. The product, gametes, are haploid germ cells. For example, spermatozoon and egg cells are gametes...

s (the rest being the gamete
Gamete
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that reproduce sexually...

s).

The mesoderm differentiates from the rest of the embryo through intercellular signaling, after which the mesoderm is polarized by an organizing center.

See also

  • Chordamesoderm
    Chordamesoderm
    Chordamesoderm, also known as axial mesoderm, is a type of mesoderm that lies along the central axis, under the neural tube.* will give rise to notochord* starts as the notochordal process, whose formation finishes at day 20....

     (also known as axial mesoderm) which later on gives rise to notochord
    Notochord
    The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. It is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm and defines the primitive axis of the embryo. In some chordates, it persists throughout life as the main axial support of the body, while in most vertebrates it becomes...

     in all chordates
  • Embryogenesis
    Embryogenesis
    Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops, until it develops into a fetus.Embryogenesis starts with the fertilization of the ovum by sperm. The fertilized ovum is referred to as a zygote...

  • Gastrulation
    Gastrulation
    Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar structure known as the gastrula. These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.Gastrulation takes place after cleavage...

  • Histogenesis
    Histogenesis
    Histogenesis is the formation of different tissues from undifferentiated cells. These cells are constituents of three primary germ layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm...

  • Intermediate mesoderm
    Intermediate mesoderm
    Intermediate mesenchyme or intermediate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate.It develops into the part of the urogenital system * forms of urogenital system...

  • Lateral plate mesoderm
    Lateral plate mesoderm
    Lateral plate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is found at the periphery of the embryo.-Division into layers:It will split into two layers, the somatic layer/mesoderm and the splanchnic layer/mesoderm...

  • Mesenchyme
    Mesenchyme
    Mesenchyme, or mesenchymal connective tissue, is a type of undifferentiated loose connective tissue that is derived mostly from mesoderm, although some are derived from other germ layers; e.g. some mesenchyme is derived from neural crest cells and thus originates from the ectoderm...

  • Mesothelium
    Mesothelium
    The mesothelium is a membrane that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura , peritoneum and pericardium . Mesothelial tissue also surrounds the male internal reproductive organs and covers the internal reproductive organs of women...

  • Organogenesis
    Organogenesis
    In animal development, organogenesis is the process by which the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm develop into the internal organs of the organism. Internal organs initiate development in humans within the 3rd to 8th weeks in utero...

  • Paraxial mesoderm
    Paraxial mesoderm
    Paraxial mesoderm is the area of mesoderm that forms just lateral to the neural tube on both sides.It differentiates rostrally into somatomeres and caudally into somites.It gives rise to the somitomeres/somites and mesoderm of the branchial arches....

  • Somite
    Somite
    A somite is a division of the body of an animal. In vertebrates this is mainly discernible in the embryo stage; in arthropods it is a characteristic of a hypothetical ancestor.- In vertebrates :...

    s
  • Triploblastic