Medical physics

Medical physics

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Medical physics'
Start a new discussion about 'Medical physics'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Medical physics is the application of physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

 to medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

. It generally concerns physics as applied to medical imaging
Medical imaging
Medical imaging is the technique and process used to create images of the human body for clinical purposes or medical science...

 and radiotherapy, although a medical physicist may also work in many other areas of healthcare. A medical physics department may be based in either a hospital
Hospital
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

 or a university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 and its work is likely to include research
Research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

, development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

, and clinical healthcare.

Of the large body of medical physicists in academia and clinics, roughly 85% practice or specialize in various forms of therapy, 10% in diagnostic imaging, and 5% in nuclear medicine
Nuclear medicine
In nuclear medicine procedures, elemental radionuclides are combined with other elements to form chemical compounds, or else combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds, to form radiopharmaceuticals. These radiopharmaceuticals, once administered to the patient, can localize to specific organs...

. Areas of specialty in medical physics however are widely varied in scope and breadth.

Medical imaging


  • Diagnostic radiology, including X-ray
    X-ray
    X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz and energies in the range 120 eV to 120 keV. They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays and longer than gamma...

    s, fluoroscopy
    Fluoroscopy
    Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used by physicians to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. In its simplest form, a fluoroscope consists of an X-ray source and fluorescent screen between which a patient is placed...

    , mammography
    Mammography
    Mammography is the process of using low-energy-X-rays to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool....

    , dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
    Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry is a means of measuring bone mineral density . Two X-ray beams with differing energy levels are aimed at the patient's bones. When soft tissue absorption is subtracted out, the BMD can be determined from the absorption of each beam by bone...

    , angiography and computed tomography
    Computed tomography
    X-ray computed tomography or Computer tomography , is a medical imaging method employing tomography created by computer processing...

  • Ultrasound
    Ultrasound
    Ultrasound is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is thus not separated from "normal" sound based on differences in physical properties, only the fact that humans cannot hear it. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is...

    , including intravascular ultrasound
    Intravascular ultrasound
    Intravascular ultrasound is a medical imaging methodology using a specially designed catheter with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to the distal end of the catheter. The proximal end of the catheter is attached to computerized ultrasound equipment...

  • Non-ionizing radiation
    Non-ionizing radiation
    Non-ionizing radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule...

     (Lasers, Ultraviolet
    Ultraviolet
    Ultraviolet light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3 eV to 124 eV...

     etc.)
  • Nuclear medicine
    Nuclear medicine
    In nuclear medicine procedures, elemental radionuclides are combined with other elements to form chemical compounds, or else combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds, to form radiopharmaceuticals. These radiopharmaceuticals, once administered to the patient, can localize to specific organs...

    , including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography
    Positron emission tomography
    Positron emission tomography is nuclear medicine imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image or picture of functional processes in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide , which is introduced into the body on a...

     (PET)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
    Magnetic resonance imaging
    Magnetic resonance imaging , nuclear magnetic resonance imaging , or magnetic resonance tomography is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures...

     (MRI), including functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI is a type of specialized MRI scan used to measure the hemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. It is one of the most recently developed forms of neuroimaging...

     (fMRI) and other methods for functional neuroimaging
    Functional neuroimaging
    Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions...

     of the brain
    Neuroimaging
    Neuroimaging includes the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the brain...

    .
    • For example, nuclear magnetic resonance
      Nuclear magnetic resonance
      Nuclear magnetic resonance is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation...

       (often referred to as magnetic resonance imaging
      Magnetic resonance imaging
      Magnetic resonance imaging , nuclear magnetic resonance imaging , or magnetic resonance tomography is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures...

       to avoid the common concerns about radiation
      Radiation
      In physics, radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. There are two distinct types of radiation; ionizing and non-ionizing...

      ), uses the phenomenon of nuclear resonance
      Resonance
      In physics, resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at a greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others. These are known as the system's resonant frequencies...

       to image the human body.
  • Magnetoencephalography
    Magnetoencephalography
    Magnetoencephalography is a technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using arrays of SQUIDs...

  • Electrical impedance tomography
    Electrical impedance tomography
    Electrical impedance tomography is a medical imaging technique in which an image of the conductivity or permittivity of part of the body is inferred from surface electrical measurements. Typically, conducting electrodes are attached to the skin of the subject and small alternating currents are...

  • Diffuse optical imaging
  • Optical coherence tomography
    Optical coherence tomography
    Optical coherence tomography is an optical signal acquisition and processing method. It captures micrometer-resolution, three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media . Optical coherence tomography is an interferometric technique, typically employing near-infrared light...


Treatment of disease

  • Defibrillation
    Defibrillation
    Defibrillation is a common treatment for life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator...

  • Treatment of disease
  • High intensity focussed ultrasound
    Ultrasound
    Ultrasound is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is thus not separated from "normal" sound based on differences in physical properties, only the fact that humans cannot hear it. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is...

    , including lithotripsy
    Lithotriptor
    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is a non-invasive treatment of kidney stones and biliary calculi using an acoustic pulse....

  • Interventional radiology
    Interventional radiology
    Interventional radiology is a specialty of radiology, in which image-guided procedures are used to diagnose and treat a multitude of diseases across all body systems...

  • Non-ionising radiation Lasers, Ultraviolet
    Ultraviolet
    Ultraviolet light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3 eV to 124 eV...

     etc. including photodynamic therapy
    Photodynamic therapy
    Photodynamic therapy is used clinically to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including malignant cancers, and is recognised as a treatment strategy which is both minimally invasive and minimally toxic...

     and Lasik
    LASIK
    LASIK or Lasik , commonly referred to simply as laser eye surgery, is a type of refractive surgery for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism...

  • Nuclear medicine
    Nuclear medicine
    In nuclear medicine procedures, elemental radionuclides are combined with other elements to form chemical compounds, or else combined with existing pharmaceutical compounds, to form radiopharmaceuticals. These radiopharmaceuticals, once administered to the patient, can localize to specific organs...

    , including unsealed source radiotherapy
    Unsealed source radiotherapy
    Unsealed source radiotherapy relates to the use of soluble forms of radioactive substances which are administered to the body by injection or ingestion. Such substances are typically used for their biological properties, which are similar to their non-radioactive parent substance.A review of the...

  • Photomedicine
    Photomedicine
    Photomedicine is an interdisciplinary branch of medicine that involves the study and application of light with respect to health and disease. Photomedicine may be related to the practice of various fields of medicine including dermatology, surgery, interventional radiology, optical diagnostics,...

    , the use of light to treat and diagnose disease
  • Radiotherapy
    • TomoTherapy
      TomoTherapy
      Tomotherapy is a type of radiation therapy in which the radiation is delivered slice-by-slice...

    • Gamma knife
    • Cyberknife
      Cyberknife
      The CyberKnife is a frameless robotic radiosurgery system used for treating benign tumors, malignant tumors and other medical conditions. The system was invented by John R. Adler, a Stanford University Professor of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, and Peter and Russell Schonberg of Schonberg...

    • Proton therapy
      Proton therapy
      Proton therapy is a type of particle therapy which uses a beam of protons to irradiate diseased tissue, most often in the treatment of cancer. The chief advantage of proton therapy is the ability to more precisely localize the radiation dosage when compared with other types of external beam...

    • Brachytherapy
      Brachytherapy
      Brachytherapy , also known as internal radiotherapy, sealed source radiotherapy, curietherapy or endocurietherapy, is a form of radiotherapy where a radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment...

    • Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
      Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
      Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental form of radiotherapy that uses a neutron beam that interacts with boron injected into a patient...

  • Sealed source radiotherapy
  • Terahertz radiation
    Terahertz radiation
    In physics, terahertz radiation refers to electromagnetic waves propagating at frequencies in the terahertz range. It is synonymously termed submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, terahertz light, T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux, THz...


Physiological measurement techniques



Used to monitor and measure various physiological parameters. Many physiological measurement techniques are non-invasive and can be used in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, other invasive methods.
  • Electrocardiography
  • electric current
    Electric current
    Electric current is a flow of electric charge through a medium.This charge is typically carried by moving electrons in a conductor such as wire...

  • Electromyography
    Electromyography
    Electromyography is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph, to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electrical potential generated by muscle...

  • Electroencephalography
    Electroencephalography
    Electroencephalography is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain...

  • Electronystagmography
    Electronystagmography
    Electronystagmography is a diagnostic test to record involuntary movements of the eye caused by a condition known as nystagmus. It can also be used to diagnose the cause of vertigo, dizziness or balance dysfunction by testing the vestibular system....

  • Endoscopy
    Endoscopy
    Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope , an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ...

  • Medical ultrasonography
    Medical ultrasonography
    Diagnostic sonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible pathology or lesions...

  • Non-ionising radiation (Lasers, Ultraviolet
    Ultraviolet
    Ultraviolet light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3 eV to 124 eV...

     etc.)
  • Near infrared spectroscopy
    Near infrared spectroscopy
    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum...

  • Pulse oximetry
    Pulse oximetry
    Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method allowing the monitoring of the oxygenation of a patient's hemoglobin.A sensor is placed on a thin part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or earlobe, or in the case of an infant, across a foot....

  • Blood gas monitor
  • Blood pressure
    Blood pressure
    Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies...

     measurement

Radiation protection

  • Background radiation
    Background radiation
    Background radiation is the ionizing radiation constantly present in the natural environment of the Earth, which is emitted by natural and artificial sources.-Overview:Both Natural and human-made background radiation varies by location....

  • Radiation protection
  • Dosimetry
    Dosimetry
    Radiation dosimetry is the measurement and calculation of the absorbed dose in matter and tissue resulting from the exposure to indirect and direct ionizing radiation...

  • Health Physics
    Health physics
    Health physics is a field of science concerned with radiation physics and radiation biology with the goal of providing technical information and proper techniques regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation...

  • Radiological Protection of Patients
    Radiological protection of patients
    Patients are exposed to ionizing radiations when they undergo diagnostic examinations using x rays or radiopharmaceuticals, therapy of cancer or benign lesions using radiations emitted by radioisotopes or those by radiation generators; and in interventional procedures using fluoroscopy. There is a...


Medical computing and mathematics


  • Medical informatics
  • Telemedicine
    Telemedicine
    Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technologies in order to provide clinical health care at a distance. It helps eliminate distance barriers and can improve access to medical services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities...

  • Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS)
  • DICOM
  • Tomographic reconstruction
    Tomographic reconstruction
    The mathematical basis for tomographic imaging was laid down by Johann Radon. It is applied in computed tomography to obtain cross-sectional images of patients...

    , an ill-posed inverse problem
    Inverse problem
    An inverse problem is a general framework that is used to convert observed measurements into information about a physical object or system that we are interested in...


In North America


In North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

, medical physics training is offered at the bachelor's, master's, doctorate, post-doctorate and/or residency levels. Several universities offer these degrees in Canada and the United States.

As of October 2010, twenty-seven universities in North America have medical physics graduate programs that are accredited by The Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP). The same organization has accredited forty-three medical physics clinical residency programs.

Professional certification is obtained from the American Board of Radiology
American Board of Radiology
Established in 1934, the American Board of Radiology is a nonprofit physician-led organization. It oversees the certification and ongoing professional development of specialists in Diagnostic Radiology, Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics....

, the American Board of Medical Physics, the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine, and the Canadian College of Physicists in Medicine. As of 2012, enrollment in a CAMPEP-accredited residency or graduate program is required to start the ABR certification process. Starting in 2014, completion of a CAMPEP-accredited residency will be required to advance to part 2 of the ABR certification process.

In the United Kingdom


The person concerned must first gain a first or upper second-class honours degree in a physical or engineering science subject before they can start the Part I medical physics training within the National Health Service
National Health Service
The National Health Service is the shared name of three of the four publicly funded healthcare systems in the United Kingdom. They provide a comprehensive range of health services, the vast majority of which are free at the point of use to residents of the United Kingdom...

.

Trainees can complete Part I training in fifteen months provided they hold an MSc from an IPEM accredited center in the United Kingdom or the Republic of Ireland (National University of Ireland, Galway
National University of Ireland, Galway
The National University of Ireland, Galway is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland...

). For these candidates, the Part I training consists of pure clinical experience.
Trainees applying for Part I trainee holding only a degree in a engineering or physical science subject must undertake a combined study and clinical training programme. This programme consists of two years of clinical placement, during which the trainee will study for an MSc in Medical Physics which is approved by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine
Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine
The Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine is the United Kingdom's professional body and learned society for physicists and engineers within the field of medicine...

 (IPEM). The MSc will be either at University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

, Swansea
Swansea University
Swansea University is a university located in Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. Swansea University was chartered as University College of Swansea in 1920, as the fourth college of the University of Wales. In 1996, it changed its name to the University of Wales Swansea following structural changes...

, Sheffield
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a research university based in the city of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It is one of the original 'red brick' universities and is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities...

, Surrey
University of Surrey
The University of Surrey is a university located within the county town of Guildford, Surrey in the South East of England. It received its charter on 9 September 1966, and was previously situated near Battersea Park in south-west London. The institution was known as Battersea College of Technology...

, Birmingham
University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a British Redbrick university located in the city of Birmingham, England. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Birmingham Medical School and Mason Science College . Birmingham was the first Redbrick university to gain a charter and thus...

, Leeds
University of Leeds
The University of Leeds is a British Redbrick university located in the city of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England...

, Manchester
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university located in Manchester, United Kingdom. It is a "red brick" university and a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities and the N8 Group...

, Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen
The University of Aberdeen, an ancient university founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland, is a British university. It is the third oldest university in Scotland, and the fifth oldest in the United Kingdom and wider English-speaking world...

, Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

, King's
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, and...

 or Queen Mary's
Queen Mary, University of London
Queen Mary, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

. Open University
Open University
The Open University is a distance learning and research university founded by Royal Charter in the United Kingdom...

 also offers a Master of Science in Medical Physics, but the prospective student should first check that this degree will satisfy the accreditation requirements or that it is accepted before embarking on it. Successful completion of the Part I training programme leads to an IPEM Diploma. The trainee can then apply for a Part II position, which will consists of the IPEM's Part II training which takes a further two years and leads to Corporate Membership of the IPEM, and registration as a Clinical Scientist
Clinical scientist
This term is frequently used to denote :* A biomedical scientist or* A clinical laboratory scientist- See also :* Clinical pathologist* Clinical biologist* Medical laboratory...

 (if successful).

Note that some training centres offer a contract for the full four (three) years of the scheme, while some offer only part I training, with a requirement to reapply for part II.

As of October 2011, the scheme will be changing again as part of Modernising Scientific Careers
Modernising Scientific Careers
Modernising Scientific Careers , led by the Chief Scientific Officer, is UK-wide government initiative to address the training and education needs of the whole healthcare science workforce in the National Health Service...

.

Legislative and advisory bodies

  • ICRU: International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements
    International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements
    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements is a standardization body set up in 1925 by the International Congress of Radiology. Its objective is to develop internationally acceptable recommendations for quantities and units of radiation and radioactivity, as well as...

  • ICRP: International Commission on Radiological Protection
    International Commission on Radiological Protection
    The International Commission on Radiological Protection is an advisory body providing recommendations and guidance on radiation protection; It was founded in 1928 by the International Society of Radiology and was then called the ‘International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee’...

  • NCRP: National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements
    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements is a U.S. organization. It has a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, but this does not imply it has any sort of oversight or supervision from Congress; it is not a government entity.This text appears on the...

  • NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is an independent agency of the United States government that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 from the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and was first opened January 19, 1975...

  • FDA: Food and Drug Administration
    Food and Drug Administration
    The Food and Drug Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments...

  • IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
    International Atomic Energy Agency
    The International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957...


See also

  • Medical biophysics
    Medical biophysics
    Medical Biophysics refers to the domain of study that uses physics to describe or effect biological process for the purpose of medical application. Like many areas of study that have emerged in recent times, it relies heavily on broad interdisciplinary knowledge between the so-called traditional...

  • Medical biology
    Medical biology
    Medical biology is a field of biology that has practical applications in medicine, health care and laboratory diagnostics. It includes many biomedical disciplines and areas of specialty that typically contain the "bio-" prefix such as:...

  • Medical history
    Medical history
    The medical history or anamnesis of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information , with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing...

  • Medical chemistry
  • Biomedical engineering
    Biomedical engineering
    Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve...

  • Biomechanics
    Biomechanics
    Biomechanics is the application of mechanical principles to biological systems, such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells. Perhaps one of the best definitions was provided by Herbert Hatze in 1974: "Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of...

  • Functional electrical stimulation
    Functional electrical stimulation
    Functional electrical stimulation is a technique that uses electrical currents to activate nerves innervating extremities affected by paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury , head injury, stroke and other neurological disorders. FES is primarily used to restore function in people with...

  • Dialysis
    Dialysis
    In medicine, dialysis is a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood, and is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal failure...

  • Gait analysis
    Gait analysis
    Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion, more specific as a study of human motion, using the eye and the brain of observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics, and the activity of the muscles. Gait analysis is used to assess, plan, and...

  • Prosthetics
  • Cochlear implant
    Cochlear implant
    A cochlear implant is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing...

    s
  • Nanomedicine
    Nanomedicine
    Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related...

  • Important publications in medical physics

Further reading




External links