Mashhad

Mashhad

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Mashhad is the second largest city in Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 and one of the holiest cities in the Shia Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 world. It is also the only major Iranian city with an Arabic name. It is located 850 kilometres (528.2 mi) east of Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, at the center of the Razavi Khorasan Province
Razavi Khorasan Province
Razavi Khorasan Province is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the centre and capital of the province.Other cities and townships are Ghouchan, Dargaz, Chenaran, Sarakhs, Fariman, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Torbat-e Jam, Taybad, Khaf, Roshtkhar, Kashmar, Bardaskan, Nishapur, Sabzevar,...

 close to the borders of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

. Its population was 2,427,316 at the 2006 population census. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
The Silk Road or Silk Route refers to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa...

 connecting with Merv
Merv
Merv , formerly Achaemenid Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana , was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan. Several cities have existed on this site, which is significant for the interchange of...

 in the East.

Now Mashhad is notably known as the resting place of the Imam Reza. A shrine was later built there to commemorate the Imam, which in turn gave rise to increasing demographic development.

Mashhad is also known as the city of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi was a highly revered Persian poet. He was the author of the Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran and related societies.The Shahnameh was originally composed by Ferdowsi for the princes of the Samanid dynasty, who were responsible for a revival of Persian cultural traditions after the...

, the Iranian poet of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
The Shahnameh or Shah-nama is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c.977 and 1010 AD and is the national epic of Iran and related societies...

, which is considered to be the national epic of Iran.

Geography and demographics


The city is located at 36.20º North latitude and 59.35º East longitude, in the valley of the Kashaf River near Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood
Mount Binalud
Mount Binālud is the highest peak in Razavi Khorasan province, Iran. It is also called Khorasan roof. This mountain is 26 km north of Nishapur and to the west of Mashhad.-Links:**...

 and Hezar-masjed. The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having cool winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (155.3 mi) from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

.

The city is the administrative centre of Mashhad County
Mashhad County
Mashhad County is a county in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Mashhad. At the 2006 census, its population was 2,848,637, in 746,652 families; excluding those portions, the population was 2,798,298 in 732,996 families...

 (or the shahrestan
Counties of Iran
The provinces of Iran further subdivided into counties called shahrestan , an area inside an ostan, and consists of a city centre, few bakhsh and many villages around them. There are usually a few cities and rural agglomerations in each county. Rural agglomerations are a collection of a number...

of Mashhad) as well as the somewhat smaller district (bakhsh
Bakhsh
A bakhsh is a type of administrative division of Iran. While sometimes translated as county, it is more accurately translated as district, as they are similar to a township in the United States or a district of England....

) of Mashhad. The city itself, excluding parts of the surrounding bakhsh and shahrestan, is divided into 13 smaller administrative units, with a total population of almost 2,5 million.

Mashhad consists mainly of people of Iranian descent(primarily Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

, Tajik, Hazara, Kurdish
Kurdish people
The Kurdish people, or Kurds , are an Iranian people native to the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a region known as Kurdistan, which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey...

 and Turkmen
Turkmen people
The Turkmen are a Turkic people located primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and northeastern Iran. They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Western Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages family together with Turkish, Azerbaijani, Qashqai,...

 ethnic groups). Among the non-Iranians, there are sizable population of Afghanistani
Afghanistani
Afghanistani refers to someone possessing the nationality of the country Afghanistan. It generally refers to the nation and people of the country Afghanistan...

, Iraqi
Iraqi people
The Iraqi people or Mesopotamian people are natives or inhabitants of the country of Iraq, known since antiquity as Mesopotamia , with a large diaspora throughout the Arab World, Europe, the Americas, and...

, Pakistani
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

,as well as small population of Kuwaiti
Kuwaiti
Kuwaiti may refer to:* Something of, from, or related to the country of Kuwait* A person from Kuwait, or of Kuwaiti descent. For information about the Kuwaiti people, see Demographics of Kuwait and Culture of Kuwait. For specific persons, see List of Kuwaitis.* Note that there is no language called...

, Bahraini
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

 and (Chechen
Chechen
Chechen may refer to:*Chechen people, an ethnic group of the Caucasus*Chechen language*Chechen-Aul, the village at which Peter the Great's forces were stopped in 1732 by Noxçi people, later better known as "Chechens"*Related to Chechnya...

 and Dagestani
Dagestan
The Republic of Dagestan is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region. Its capital and the largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea...

 from Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

). In the 19th century and early 20th century, Mashhad was home to a sizable population of Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani people
The Azerbaijanis are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as in the neighbourhood states, Georgia, Russia and formerly Armenia. Commonly referred to as Azeris or Azerbaijani Turks , they also live in a wider area from the Caucasus to...

, Armenian, Dagestani
Dagestan
The Republic of Dagestan is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region. Its capital and the largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea...

, Taleshi, Russian
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

, Bokharan
Emirate of Bukhara
The Emirate of Bukhara was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of...

, Khivan
Khanate of Khiva
The Khanate of Khiva was the name of a Uzbek state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Persian occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740–1746. It was the patrilineal descendants of Shayban , the fifth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan...

, Afghan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Herati, Mervi
Merv
Merv , formerly Achaemenid Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana , was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan. Several cities have existed on this site, which is significant for the interchange of...

, Kashmiri
Kashmiri people
The Kashmiri people are a Dardic linguistic group living in Kashmir Valley in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and parts of the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir who speak the Kashmiri language...

, and Indian
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

.

There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year.

History



At the beginning of the 9th century (3rd century AH) Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad situated 24 km away from Tus. There was a summer palace of "Hamid ibn Qahtabi", the governor of Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

. In 808 when Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Hārūn al-Rashīd was the fifth Arab Abbasid Caliph in Iraq. He was born in Rey, Iran, close to modern Tehran. His birth date remains a point of discussion, though, as various sources give the dates from 763 to 766)....

, Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

, was passing through there to settle down the insurrection of "Rafi ibn Leith" in Transoxania, he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Hamid ibn Qahtabi. Several years later in 818 Imam Ali al-Reza
Ali al-Rida
‘Alī ibn Mūsā al-Rizā was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams, according to Shia sect of Islam...

 was martyred by Al-Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
Abū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Māʾmūn ibn Harūn was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833...

 and was buried beside the grave of Harun.

After this event this place was called as Mashhad al-Rida (the place of martyrdom of Ali al-Rida
Ali al-Rida
‘Alī ibn Mūsā al-Rizā was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams, according to Shia sect of Islam...

). Shias started visiting there for pilgrimage
Ziarat
Ziarat is the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. It is located at 30°22'47N 67°43'38E with an altitude of 2543 metres and is a famous holiday resort of Balochistan and nearly every trip from Karachi to Quetta stops at Ziarat...

 of his grave. By the end of the 9th century a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and Bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times.

It was not considered a great city until Mongol raids in 1220 which caused the destruction of many large cities in the Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

 territories, leaving Mashhad relatively intact. Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad. When the famous world traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1333, he reported that it was a large town with abundant fruit trees, streams and mills. A great dome of elegant construction surmounts the noble mausoleum, the walls being decorated with colored tiles.

Later on, during the Shahrokh
Shahrokh
Shahrokh, Shahrukh, or Shah Rukh is the name of a mythological bird in Iranian literature. It is built of two parts: Shah meaning a king, and Rukh , who is the greatest bird on the earth as big as a cloud. In the One Thousand and One Nights stories, Rukh helps Sinbad escape from a dangerous island...

 era, it became one of the main cities of the Timurid dynasty
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

. In 1418 his wife Goharshad
Goharshad
Goharshād was a wife of Shāh Rukh, the emperor of the Timurid Dynasty of Herāt. She was the daughter of Giāth ud-Din Tarkhān, an important and influential noble during Tīmur's reign...

 funded the construction of an outstanding mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

 beside the shrine, which is known as Goharshad Mosque
Goharshad Mosque
Goharshad Mosque is a former free standing mosque in Mashhad of the Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran, which now serves as one of the prayer halls within the Imam Reza shrine complex....

. The mosque remains relatively intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century.

Shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

 Ismail I
Ismail I
Ismail I , known in Persian as Shāh Ismāʿil , was a Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid dynasty which survived until 1736. Isma'il started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, an extremist heterodox Twelver Shi'i militant religious order and unified all of Iran...

, founder of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

, conquered Mashhad after the death of Husayn Bayqarah
Husayn Bayqarah
Husayn Bayqarah was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 to 1506, with a brief interruption in 1470. His father was Mansur, a great-grandson of Timur...

 and the decline of the Timurid dynasty
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

. Mashhad was later captured by the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China...

 during the reign of Shah Abbas I, only to be retaken by the Shah Abbas in the year of 1597 after a long and severe struggle, defeating the Uzbeks in a great battle near Herat
Herat
Herāt is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan...

 as well as managing to drive them beyond the Oxus River.

Shah Abbas I wanted to encourage Iranians to go to Mashhad for pilgrimage, he himself is known to have walked from Isfahan to Mashhad. During the Safavid
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

 era Mashhad gained even more religious recognition, becoming the most important city of the Greater Khorasan as several Madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

 and other structures were built beside the shrine of the Imam Reza
Imam Reza shrine
Imām Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imām of Twelver Shi'ites. It is the largest mosque in the world by dimension and the second largest in capacity...

.

Besides its religious significance, Mashhad has played an important political role as well. It saw its greatest glory under Nadir Shah, ruler of Iran from 1736 to 1747 and also a great benefactor of the shrine of the Imam Reza, making the city his capital. It remained the capital of the Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
The Afsharids were members of an Iranian dynasty of Turkmen origin from Khorasan who ruled Persia in the 18th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. During Nader's reign,...

 until Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the then larger region of Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

 in 1796. In 1749 Ahmad Shah Durrani (The Duranni Pashtun Empire) took possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nadir Shah's grandson, Shah Rukh. Herat fell to Ahmad after almost a year of siege and bloody conflict, Afterwards Mashhad(in present-day Iran) was taken by the The Durrani Empire aswell.

In 1912, the sanctuary of the Imam Reza was bombed by the Russian forces, causing widespread and persisting resentment in the Shiite Muslim world.

1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion



In 1935 a backlash against the modernizing, anti-religious policies of Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir , , was the Shah of the Imperial State of Iran from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on September 16, 1941.In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar...

 erupted in the Mashed shrine. Responding to a cleric who denounced the Shah's heretical innovations, corruption and heavy consumer taxes, many bazaaris and villagers took refuge in the shrine, chanted slogans such as "The Shah is a new Yezid." For four full days local police and army refused to violate the shrine and the standoff was ended when
troops from Azerbaijan arrived and broke into the shrine, killing dozens and injuring hundreds, and marking a final rupture between Shi'ite clergy and the Shah.

1994 Imam Reza shrine bombing


On June 20, 1994, an explosion from a bomb occurred in a prayer hall of the shrine of the Imam Reza
Imam Reza shrine
Imām Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imām of Twelver Shi'ites. It is the largest mosque in the world by dimension and the second largest in capacity...

 The bomb that killed at least 25 people on June 20 in Mashhad exploded at Ashura
Day of Ashura
The Day of Ashura is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.It is commemorated by Shia Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10...

. Ramzi Yousef
Ramzi Yousef
Ramzi Yousef was one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and a co-conspirator in the Bojinka plot. In 1995, he was arrested at a guest house in Islamabad, by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and United States Diplomatic Security Service, then extradited to the...

, one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was found to be behind the plot. However, official state media blamed Mehdi Nahvi, a supposed member of the People's Mujahedin of Iran
People's Mujahedin of Iran
The People's Mujahedin of Iran is a terrorist militant organization that advocates the overthrow of the Islamic Republic of Iran....

 (MKO) in order to prevent sectarian violence.

Climate


Mashhad features a steppe climate (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk) with hot summers and cool winters. The city only sees about 250 mm of precipitation per year, some of which occasionally falls in the form of snow. Mashhad also has wetter and drier periods with the bulk of the annual precipitation falling between the months of December and May. Summers are typically hot and dry, with high temperatures sometimes exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). Winters are typically cool to cold and somewhat damper, with overnight lows routinely dropping below freezing. Mashhad enjoys on average just under 2900 hours of sunshine per year.

Religion



Today the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam.

The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to the Imam Reza shrine
Imam Reza shrine
Imām Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imām of Twelver Shi'ites. It is the largest mosque in the world by dimension and the second largest in capacity...

 (the eighth Shi'ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times. Thus, even as those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca receive the title of Haji, those who make the pilgrimage to Mashhad—and especially to the Imam Reza shrine – are known as Mashtee, a term employed also of its inhabitants. It is thought that over 20 million Muslims a year make the pilgrimage to Mashhad.

Culture


Long a center of secular as well as of religious learning, Mashhad has been a center for the arts and for the sciences. The Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, named after the great Iranian poet, is located here. The Madrassa of Ayatollah Al-Khoei, originally built in the seventeenth century and recently replaced with modern facilities, is the city's foremost traditional centre for religious learning. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in 1984, stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex. The prestige of traditional religious education at Mashhad attracts students, known as talaban, or "Molah" internationally.

Mashhad is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan-e Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries. The Astan-e Quds Razavi Museum, which is part of the Astan-e Quds Razavi Complex, is home to over 70,000 rare manuscripts from various historical eras. There are some six million historical documents in the foundation's central library.

In 1569 (977 H), 'Imad al-Din Mas'ud Shirazi, a physician at the Mashhad hospital, wrote the earliest Islamic treatise on syphilis, one influenced by European medical thought. Kashmar rug
Kashmar rug
Kashmar is a city in Razavi Khorasan Province of Iran and is located south of Mashad city.-See also:*Kashmar By www.NasimSoftco.com*Persian rug...

 is a type of Persian rug
Persian rug
The Persian carpet is an essential part of Persian art and culture. Carpet-weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to ancient Persia. In 2008, Iran’s exports of hand-woven carpets was $420 million or 30% of the world's market...

 indigenous to this region.

Main sites



Apart from Imam Reza shrine
Imam Reza shrine
Imām Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imām of Twelver Shi'ites. It is the largest mosque in the world by dimension and the second largest in capacity...

 there is a number of large parks, the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Nishapur
Nishapur
Nishapur or Nishabur , is a city in the Razavi Khorasan province in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad...

, the tomb of Nadir Shah and Kooh Sangi park and Mellat Park that have modern attractions for children such as the tallest Ferris wheel
Ferris wheel
A Ferris wheel is a nonbuilding structure consisting of a rotating upright wheel with passenger cars attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, the cars are kept upright, usually by gravity.Some of the largest and most modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on...

 or fanfar in Iran and Koohestan Park-e-Shadi Complex that includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad Airbase (formerly Imam Reza airbase), jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport.

Some points of interest lie outside the city: the tomb of Khajeh Morad, along the road to Tehran; the tomb
Tomb
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes...

 of Khajeh Rabi' located 6 kilometers north of the city where there are some inscriptions by the renowned Safavid calligrapher Reza Abbasi
Reza Abbasi
Riza Abbasi, Riza yi-Abbasi or Reza-e Abbasi, رضا عباسی in Persian, usually "Riza" or Reza Abbasi also Aqa Riza or Āqā Riżā Kāshānī was the leading Persian miniaturist of the Isfahan School during the later Safavid period, spending most of his career working for Shah Abbas I...

; and the tomb of Khajeh Abasalt, a distance of 20 kilometers from Mashhad along the road to Neishabur
Nishapur
Nishapur or Nishabur , is a city in the Razavi Khorasan province in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad...

. (The three were all disciples of Imam Reza).

Among the other sights are the tomb of the poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi was a highly revered Persian poet. He was the author of the Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran and related societies.The Shahnameh was originally composed by Ferdowsi for the princes of the Samanid dynasty, who were responsible for a revival of Persian cultural traditions after the...

 in Tus, 24 kilometers distance, and the summer resorts at Torghabeh
Torghabeh
Torqabeh is a city in and the capital of Torqabeh and Shandiz County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 13,158, in 3,668 families....

, Torogh, Akhlamad
Akhlamad
Akhlamad is a village in the province of Razavi Khorasan in northeastern Iran. It is located 60 km west of Mashhad, the capital of the province. Akhlamad is known for its waterfall which is a popular tourist excursion....

, Zoshk, and Shandiz
Shandiz
Shandiz is a city in and the capital of Shandiz District, in Torqabeh and Shandiz County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 6,402, in 1,706 families....

.

The Shah Public Bath, built during the Safavid era in 1648, is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum.

Panoramic view



Transportation



Airport


Mashhad is served by the Mashhad International Airport
Mashhad International Airport
Mashhad International Airport or Shahid Hashemi Nejad Airport is an airport in Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran.The airport is country's second busiest only to Tehran Mehrabad Airport and above the famous Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport. In 2009 airport handled 5,005,645 passengers...

 which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to neighboring, Arab countries.

Metro



The Mashhad Urban Railway Corporation (MURCO) is constructing a metro
Mashhad Light Rail
The Mashhad Light Rail system is an urban rail network in Mashhad, second rapid transit system in Iran. The project has been known by a number of terms, including "light rail", "urban rail", and "metro"...

 system for the city of Mashhad which includes four lines with 77 km length . The first phase (line) of the metro has been exploited in 21 Feb 2011 with 19 km length and 22 stations and will be connected to Mashhad International Airport
Mashhad International Airport
Mashhad International Airport or Shahid Hashemi Nejad Airport is an airport in Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran.The airport is country's second busiest only to Tehran Mehrabad Airport and above the famous Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport. In 2009 airport handled 5,005,645 passengers...

. The second line with 14 km length and 12 stations is under construction and is projected to be finished by 2014.

Rail


Mashhad is connected to three major rail lines: Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

-Mashhad, Mashhad-Bafgh (running south), and Mashhad-Sarakhs
Sarakhs
Sarakhs is a city in and capital of Sarakhs County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. Sarakhs was once a stopping point along the Silk Road, and in its 11th century heyday had many libraries and a famous school of architects. Much of the original city site is now just across the border at Saraghs...

 at the border with Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

. Some freight trains continue from Sarakhs towards Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

 and to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

, but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge
Rail gauge
Track gauge or rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the heads of the two load bearing rails that make up a single railway line. Sixty percent of the world's railways use a standard gauge of . Wider gauges are called broad gauge; smaller gauges, narrow gauge. Break-of-gauge refers...

. A rail line is being constructed off the Mashhad-Bafgh line to connect Mashhad to Herat
Herat
Herāt is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan...

 in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, but has not yet been completed and one is planned to connect to the Gorgan
Gorgan
Gorgan Some east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park. The city has a regional airport and several universities. Gorgan Airport was opened in September 2005.-Etymology:...

 railhead and the port of Bandar Torkaman
Bandar Torkaman
Bandar Torkaman is a city in and capital of Torkaman County, Golestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census its population was 45,045, in 9,755 families.Bandar Torkaman is a port on the Caspian Sea. It is approximately from Tehran...

 on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

 to the west. Passenger rail services are provided by the national company R.A.J.A. and all trains are operated by R.A.I., Rah-Ahan Iran, the national railway company.

Colleges and universities


Universities

Colleges

Major sport teams

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
FC Aboomoslem
Azadegan League
soccer Samen Stadium
Samen Stadium
The Samen Stadium is a sport venue in the outskirts of Mashhad, Iran. It is used by F.C. Aboomoslem and Payam Mashhad F.C., two Iranian football clubs from Mashhad playing in Iran's Premier Football League. It is also used for track and field events, concerts and other local football teams...

1970
0
Siah Jamegan Khorasan F.C.
Siah Jamegan Khorasan F.C.
Siah Jamegan Khorasan Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Mashhad, Iran. They currently compete in the 2011–12 Iran Football's 2nd Division.In August, 2011 the club bought the license of Golchin Robat Karim in Iran Football's 2nd Division....

2nd Division
soccer Samen Stadium
Samen Stadium
The Samen Stadium is a sport venue in the outskirts of Mashhad, Iran. It is used by F.C. Aboomoslem and Payam Mashhad F.C., two Iranian football clubs from Mashhad playing in Iran's Premier Football League. It is also used for track and field events, concerts and other local football teams...

 and Takhti Stadium (Mashhad)
Takhti Stadium (Mashhad)
The Takhti Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Mashhad, Iran. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of Payam Mashhad F.C.. The stadium holds 15,000 people. Prior to 2004, it was also the home ground of F.C. Aboomoslem....

2011
0
Elmo Adab Mashhad FSC
Elmo Adab Mashhad FSC
Elmo Adab Saipa Mashhad Futsal Club is an Iranian Futsal club based in Mashhad, Iran.- Season-by-season :The table below chronicles the achievements of the Club in various competitions.- First-team squad :...

Iranian Futsal Super League
Futsal
Futsal
Futsal is a variant of association football that is played on a smaller pitch and mainly played indoors. Its name is a portmanteau of the Portuguese futebol de salão and the Spanish fútbol de salón , which can be translated as "hall football" or "indoor football"...

Rahahan Khorasan W.C.
Iranian Premier Wrestling League
Iranian Premier Wrestling League
The Iranian Premier Wrestling League is a professional Wrestling league in Iran.-2008/09 Teams:* Gerad Tehran Club* Gaz Mazandaran Club* Rah Ahan Khorasan* Sadra Zirab Club-League champions:-External links:* *...

freestyle wrestling
Freestyle wrestling
Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practised throughout the world. Along with Greco-Roman, it is one of the two styles of wrestling contested in the Olympic games. It is, along with track and field, one of the oldest organized sports in history...

Mohammad Ali Sahraei Hall
Ferdowsi Club
Ferdowsi Club
Ferdowsi Club was an Iranian football club based in Mashhad, Iran. It was the first football club that was established in Khorasan. It was founded by Hossein Sadaghiani who played for the club for one season 1924-1925...

beach soccer
Beach soccer
Beach soccer, also known as beach football or beasal, is a variant of association football played on a beach or some form of sand. The game emphasises skill, agility and shooting at goal....

Mojhaye Abi
swimming
Swimming (sport)
Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

Takhti Stadium (Mashhad)
Takhti Stadium (Mashhad)
The Takhti Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Mashhad, Iran. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of Payam Mashhad F.C.. The stadium holds 15,000 people. Prior to 2004, it was also the home ground of F.C. Aboomoslem....

Persepolis Khorasan
Iranian Volleyball Super League
Iranian Volleyball Super League
The Iranian Super League is a professional volleyball league in Iran.- 2011/12 teams :* Aluminium Almahdi Bandar Abbas* Barij Esans Kashan* Havosh Gonbad* Giti Pasand Isfahan* Gostaresh Novin Keshavarzi Tehran* Heyat Volleyball Kerman...

volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex
Basketball Khorasan Razavi
Iranian Basketball Super League
Iranian Basketball Super League
The Iranian Basketball Super League is a professional basketball league in Iran founded in 1998.-2011–12 teams:*Azad University Tehran*Bank Saman Tehran*Foolad Mahan Isfahan*Hamyari Shahrdari Zanjan*Jahesh Tarabar Qom*Louleh a.s Shiraz*Mahram Tehran...

basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

Mehran Hall

Mashhad as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan



The following Shahanshahs had Mashhad as their capital:

Kianid Dynasty
  • Malek Mahmoud Sistani 1722–1726

Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
The Afsharids were members of an Iranian dynasty of Turkmen origin from Khorasan who ruled Persia in the 18th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. During Nader's reign,...

  • Nadir Shah
  • Adil Shah
    Adil Shah
    Adil or Adel Shah Afshar or Ali Qoli was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748.Subsequent to the assassination of Nader Shah in Fathabad , his nephew Ali Qoli declared himself Adil Shah , and shah of Persia...

  • Ebrahim Afshar
    Ebrahim Afshar
    Ibrahim or Ebrahim Shah Afshar was the Shah of Persia during the Afsharid Empire from July to September of 1748. He was Adil Shah's brother and Nader Shah's nephew. He toppled his brother in order to seize the power, and he blinded him on July 6 1748. However, two months later his own troops...

  • Shah Rukh of Persia
    Shah Rukh of Persia
    Shahrukh Shah Afshar, also spelled Shahrokh was a king of the Afsharid dynasty and a contemporary of the Zand kings. He reigned until 1796....

  • Nadir Mirza of Khorasan
    Nadir Mirza of Khorasan
    Nadir Mirza Afshar was great-grandson of Nader Shah the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia. He was the fourth son of Shah Rukh emperor of Khorasan....


Safavid Dynasty
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

  • Soleyman II
    Soleyman III
    Soleyman II, was the ruler of Persia from 1749 until 1750. His real name was Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi and he was in charge of Holy Shrines in Qom and Mashhad...


Autonomous Government of Khorasan
Autonomous Government of Khorasan
The Autonomous Government of Khorasan was a military state set up in modern day Iran. It was formally established on the April 2, 1921 however the state collapsed just a few months later, on October 6, 1921...

  • Colonel Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessyan
    Colonel Pesian
    Colonel Mohammad Taqi-Khan Pessian , born into an aristocratic family in Tabriz, was a popular military leader of Iran and became a national hero after his assassination...


Notable Executions


Mahmoud Asgari, 16[citation needed], (Persian: محمود عسگري) and Ayaz Marhoni, 18[citation needed], (Persian: عياض مرهوني) were Iranian teenagers from the province of Khorasan who were publicly hanged in Edalat (Justice) Square in Mashhad, northeast Iran, on July 19, 2005. They were executed after being convicted by the court of having raped a 13-year old boy. The case attracted international media attention. A British group alleged that the teenagers were executed for consensual homosexual acts and not rape.

Famous people from Mashhad and Tus


Religious and political figures
  • Shaykh Tusi
    Shaykh Tusi
    Shaykh Tusi , full name: Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi , known as Shaykh al-Taʾifah was a prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief.-Birth:...

    , 385–460 A.H.; prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
    Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
    Khawaja Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan Ṭūsī , better known as Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī , was a Persian polymath and prolific writer: an astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed...

    , born February 1201 in Tūs, Khorasan – 26 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah near Baghdad; Persian of the Ismaili and subsequently Twelver Shī‘ah Islamic belief
  • Seyyed Ali Khamenei, born 17 July 1939; former president and current supreme leader of Iran
  • Sheikh Ali Tehrani, brother-in-law of Seyyed Ali Khamenei, currently living in Iran Iraq. He is one of the oppositions of current Iranian government.
  • Nizam al-Mulk
    Nizam al-Mulk
    Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk, better known as Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk Tusi ; born in 1018 – 14 October 1092) was a Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire...

    , 1018 – 14 October 1092; celebrated Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire
  • Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Shia scholar and muhaddith
  • Al-Ghazali
    Al-Ghazali
    Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī , known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia was a Persian Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic....

    , 1058–1111; Islamic theologian, jurist, philosopher, cosmologist, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin
  • Timur Shah Durrani
    Timur Shah Durrani
    Timur Shah Durrani , was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire from October 16, 1772, until his death in 1793. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the second and eldest son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.- Early life :...

    , Emir of Afghanistan 1772-1793
  • Ali al-Sistani, born approximately August 4, 1930; Twelver Shi'a marja residing in Iraq since 1951
  • Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani, 1839–1911; Twelver Shi'a Marja, Persian (Iranian) politician, philosopher, reformer
  • Hossein Vahid Khorasani
    Hossein Vahid Khorasani
    Grand Ayatollah Hossein Vahid Khorasani is an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja. He was born in Nishapur, Iran and moved to Najaf, Iraq in 1960 and studied in seminaries of Grand Ayatollah Khoei until he moved back to Iran in 1972 and currently resides and teaches in the Seminary of Qom, Iran. He is...

    , born in 1924; Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja
  • Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, born January 27, 1958; former Vice President of Iran and a close associate of former reformist President Mohammad Khatami
  • Abu Muslim Khorasani, c. 700–755; Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani, Abbasid general of Persian origin
  • Manouchehr Eghbal
    Manouchehr Eghbal
    Dr. Manuchehr Eqbal was a Prime Minister of Iran. He was born October 14, 1909, in Mashhad,Iran.-Family:...

    , October 14, 1909 – November 25, 1977, a Prime Minister of Iran
  • Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty)
    Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty)
    Shāhrukh Mīrzā was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur - the founder of the Timurid dynasty - governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447...

    , August 20, 1377 – March 12, 1447; ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur (Tamerlane)
  • Goharshad
    Goharshad
    Goharshād was a wife of Shāh Rukh, the emperor of the Timurid Dynasty of Herāt. She was the daughter of Giāth ud-Din Tarkhān, an important and influential noble during Tīmur's reign...

    , Persian noble and wife of Shāh Rukh, the emperor of the Timurid Dynasty of Herāt
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
    Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
    Mohammad-Bagher Ghalibaf is the current Mayor of Tehran, Iran.-Early life and military career:Ghalibaf was born to a Khorasani Kurdish father and a Persian mother. At the age of nineteen, he was one of the commanders of the defense forces during the Iran–Iraq War...

    , born August 23, 1961 in Torghabeh, near Mashhad; the current Mayor of Tehran, Iran
  • Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, Conservative political strategist and popular television personality in the Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Hadi Khamenei
    Hadi Khamenei
    Hojatoleslam Hadi Khamenei is an influential Iranian reformist politician, mojtahed and linguist. He is a key member of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics, and a former deputy of the Majlis of Iran representing a district in Tehran....

    , b. 1947; mid-ranking cleric who is a member of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics
  • Seyed Hassan Firuzabadi
    Seyed Hassan Firuzabadi
    Major General Seyed Hassan Firuzabadi is the Chief of Staff of the Iranian Armed Forces. He was appointed as Chief of Staff by Ali Khamenei in 2 November 2002...

    , current major general, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Saeed Jalili
    Saeed Jalili
    Saeed Jalili, is an Iranian politician and the present secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council. On October 20, 2007, he replaced Ali Larijani as the secretary of the council and hence chief nuclear negotiator of Iran...

    , born 1965 in Mashhad; Iranian politician and the present secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council


Writers and scientists
  • Ferdowsi
    Ferdowsi
    Ferdowsi was a highly revered Persian poet. He was the author of the Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran and related societies.The Shahnameh was originally composed by Ferdowsi for the princes of the Samanid dynasty, who were responsible for a revival of Persian cultural traditions after the...

    , 935–1020 in Tus; a Persian poet
  • Abu-Mansur Daqiqi, 935/942–976/980
  • Abolfazl Beyhaqi, 995–1077; a Persian historian and author
  • Nasir Khusraw
    Nasir Khusraw
    Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī [also spelled as Nasir Khusrow and Naser Khosrow] Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī [also spelled as Nasir Khusrow and Naser Khosrow] Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn...

    , 1004–1088; Persian poet, philosopher, Isma'ili scholar and traveler
  • Abusa'id Abolkhayr, December 7, 967 – January 12, 1049 / Muharram ul Haram 1, 357 – Sha'aban 4, 440 AH; famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition
  • Anvari
    Anvari
    Anvari , full name Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mohammad Khavarani or Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mahmud was one of the greatest Persian poets....

    , 1126–1189, one of the greatest Persian poets
  • Mehdi Akhavan-Sales
    Mehdi Akhavan-Sales
    Mehdi Akhavān-Sāles , or Akhavān-Sāless , pen name M. Omid was a prominent Iranian poet. He is one of the pioneers of Free Verse in Persian language.-Life:Akhavan Sales was born in 1928 in Mashhad, Iran. He gave up an interest in music to appease his father...

    , 1928, Mashhad, Iran – 1990, Tehran, Iran; a Persian poet
  • Mohammad-Taghi Bahar, November 6, 1884, Mashhad, Iran – April 22, 1951; Tehran, Iran
  • Asadi Tusi
    Asadi Tusi
    Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi is arguably the second most important Persian poet of the Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. He was a poet, a linguist and copyist of ancient manuscripts.- Life :The information on Asadi's lifetime is scant...

    , born in Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan, died 1072 Tabriz, Iran; Persian poet of Iranian national epics
  • Emad Khorasani
  • Gholam Hosein Yousefi
  • Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin, 900–971; Persian astronomer and mathematician from Khorasan
  • Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer
  • Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī, 1135–1213; Persian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age (during the Middle Ages)
  • Jābir ibn Hayyān, c. 721 in Tus–c. 815 in Kufa; prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician


Artists
  • Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, born September 23, 1940 in Mashhad, Iran; internationally and critically acclaimed Persian traditional singer, composer and Master (Ostad) of Persian music
  • Homayoun Shajarian
    Homayoun Shajarian
    Homayoun Shajarian is a renowned Persian classical music vocalist, as well as a Tombak and Kamancheh player.- Biography :...

    , Mohammad-Reza Shajarian's son, born May 21, 1975; renowned Persian classical music vocalist, as well as a Tombak and Kamancheh player
  • Kayvan Saket, born in 1960 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian composer, Radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and excellent Tar and Setar instrumentalist and improvisor
  • Noureddin Zarrinkelk
    Noureddin Zarrinkelk
    Noureddin Zarrinkelk is a renowned Iranian animator, concept artist, editor, graphic designer, illustrator, layout artist, photographer, script writer and sculptor....

    , born 1937 in Mashhad, Iran; renowned Iranian animator, concept artist, editor, graphic designer, illustrator, layout artist, photographer, script writer and sculptor
  • Reza Kianian
    Reza Kianian
    Reza Kianian is an Iranian actor. In an early age he and his family moved to Mashhad; he,however, moved back to Tehran later to study fine arts at the University of Tehran.-Selected filmography:*Smell of Camphor, Fragrance of Jasmine, 2000...

    , born July 17, 1951 in Mashhad, Iran, Iranian actor
  • Hamid Motebassem
    Hamid Motebassem
    Hamid Motebassem is a renowned Iranian musician and tar and setar player.His first teacher was his father. Later he started to study with musicians like Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Hossein Alizadeh and Hushang Zarif. In 1991 Motebassem founded Dastan ensemble which is one of the outstanding ensembles...

    , born 1958 in Mashhad, Iranian musician and tar and setar player
  • Reza Attaran
    Reza Attaran
    Reza Attaran is an Iranian actor and director. He has played in both films and television shows. Attaran won the Best Actor award at the 2008 Gol Aga Comedy Film Festival.-TV Shows:-Films:-External links:...

    , born 31 March 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian actor and director
  • Hamed Behdad
    Hamed Behdad
    Hamed Behdad is an Iranian actor. His first appearance in a movie was in The End of the Game .Behdad finished his high school in Sadjad school in his hometown. Later in the year 2002 he graduated from Islamic Azad University in Tehran with a bachelor's degree in Art and Theatre...

    , born 17 November 1973 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian actor
  • Mahdi Bemani Naeini
    Mahdi Bemani Naeini
    Mahdi Bemani Naeini is an Iranian film director, cinematographer, TV news producer and photographer.-Early life:...

    , born November 3, 1968; Iranian film director, cinematographer, TV cameraman and photographer
  • Rafi Pitts
    Rafi Pitts
    Rafi Pitts is an internationally acclaimed Iranian film director.Rafi spent his childhood in Tehran, where he lived in a basement flat underneath a post-production studio. He describes himself as having been a 'very bad' child actor, starting in films at the age of eight. He came to England in...

    , born 1967 in Mashhad, Iran; internationally acclaimed Iranian film director
  • Iran Darroudi
    Iran Darroudi
    -Education:Darroudi studied at Ecole Superier des Beaux-Arts in Paris, history of art at the École du Louvre in Paris, stained glass at the Royal Academy of Brussels, and television direction and production at the R.C.A. Institute in New York.-Career:...

    , born September 2, 1936 in Mashhad; Iranian artist
  • Mohsen Namjoo
    Mohsen Namjoo
    Mohsen Namjoo, , is an Iranian musician, singer-songwriter. born in 1976 in Torbat-e Jam, a small town in northeastern Iran. The New York Times called Namjoo "Iran's Bob Dylan".-Career:...

    , born 1976 in Torbat-e-Jaam; Iranian singer-songwriter, author, musician, and setar player
  • Mitra Hajjar, born February 4, 1977; Iranian actress
  • Ovanes Ohanian
    Ovanes Ohanian
    Ovanes Ohanian was an Armenian-Iranian father of Helen Ohaniance, Orod Ohanians and Paul Ohanians. Grandfather of Jasmine Facchetti. Was a filmmaker, inventor, founder, doctor, scientist with PHD in medicine, film, science and languages. He established the first film school in the history of Iran...

    , ?–1961 Tehran; Armenian-Iranian filmmaker who established the first film school in Iran
  • Valy, Afghan Singer


Scientists
  • Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer
  • Anousheh Ansari
    Anousheh Ansari
    Anousheh Ansari is an engineer and the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems. Her previous business accomplishments include serving as co-founder and CEO of Telecom Technologies, Inc. . The Ansari family is also the title sponsor of the Ansari X Prize. On September 18, 2006,...

    , born 12 September 1966; the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems, Inc and a spaceflight participant with the Russian space program


Sports figures
  • Heshmat Mohajerani, born January, 1936 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian football coach, manager, and former player
  • Khodadad Azizi
    Khodadad Azizi
    Khodadad Azizi is an Iranian retired professional football striker and a current coach.-International career:Azizi represented Iran at the 1996 Asian cup, 1998 FIFA World Cup, and the 2000 Asian Cup...

    , born June 22, 1971 in Mashhad, Iran; retired professional football striker
  • Alireza Vahedi Nikbakht
    Alireza Vahedi Nikbakht
    Alireza Vahedi Nikbakht is an Iranian professional football player.-Club career:Starting out in F.C. Aboomoslem and then being transferred to Esteghlal F.C., he improved in a short period of time...

    , born June 30, 1980 in Mashhad; Iranian professional football player
  • Hossein Badamaki
    Hossein Badamaki
    Hossein Badamaki is an Iranian Footballer who currently plays for Persepolis in the Iran Pro League.- Club career :He was influential in the IPL 2005/06 season, scoring 10 goals for Aboomoslem...

    , Iranian professional football player
  • Mohammad Mansouri, Iranian professional football player
  • Reza Enayati
    Reza Enayati
    Gholamreza Enayati is an Iranian football player who currently plays for Saba Qom in Iran Pro League and former member of Iran national football team. He usually plays the striker position.-Club career:...

    , Iranian professional football player
  • Reza Ghoochannejhad, Iranian-Dutch professional football player
  • Mohsen Ghahramani, Iranain football refree
  • Mohsen Torki, Iranian football refree
  • Seyed Ali Akbarian, known as "father of Iran's mountaineering
    Mountaineering
    Mountaineering or mountain climbing is the sport, hobby or profession of hiking, skiing, and climbing mountains. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed mountains it has branched into specialisations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists...

    ". Notorious for having ate human flesh while stranded on a hike in Zagros Mountains
    Zagros Mountains
    The Zagros Mountains are the largest mountain range in Iran and Iraq. With a total length of 1,500 km , from northwestern Iran, and roughly correlating with Iran's western border, the Zagros range spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau and ends at the Strait of...

    . Currently owns a Kabob restaurant in Westwood
    Westwood
    - Canada :*Westwood, Asphodel-Norwood, Ontario*Westwood, Edmonton, a neighbourhood in Edmonton, Alberta*Westwood Plateau, an area of Coquitlam, British Columbia*Westwood Motorsport Park, a race track in Coquitlam, British Columbia...

  • Amir Reza Khadem
    Amir Reza Khadem
    Amir Reza Khadem Azghadi is an Iranian wrestler who won Olympic bronze medals in 1992 and 1996. He finished fourth at the 2000 Summer Olympics, and he won the 1991 World Championships, And one bronze medal from 1990 World Championships and the 1992 and 1993 Asian Championships and one silver medal...

    , born February 10, 1970 in Mashhad
  • Rasoul Khadem
    Rasoul Khadem
    Rasul Khadem Azghadi is an Iranian wrestler who has won a Bronze medal in the 1992 Summer Olympics and a gold medal in the 1996 Summer Olympics. He is also the 1994 and 1995 world champion and the 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996 Asian champion...

    , born February 17, 1972 in Mashhad
  • Mohammad Khadem
    Mohammad Khadem
    Mohammad Khadem Azghadi is an Iranian Freestyle wrestler. He is the father of world and olympic champion Rasoul Khadem and Amir Reza Khadem who is also an olympic champion.-References:* *...

  • Amir Tavakkolian
    Amir Tavakkolian
    Amir Tavakkolian is an Iranian wrestler.-References:*...

  • Abbas Golmakani, World's wrestling champion during the 1950s

Others
  • Ayaz Marhoni, Ahwazi Arab youth (18) legally lynched on partially falsified charges of homosexuality and rape
  • Mahmoud Asgari, Ahwazi Arab youth (16) legally lynched on partially falsified charges of homosexuality and rape
  • Ali Akbar Fayyaz, a renowned historian of early Islam and literary critic, founder of the School of Letters and Humanities at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
  • Mahmoud Khayami
    Mahmoud Khayami
    Mahmoud Khayami, CBE, KSS, GCFO is an Iranian industrialist and philanthropist, of French nationality.-Life:Khayami had an active role in the company Iran National or IKCO) , automobile manufacturing and the introduction of the Paykan car to Iran in a...

    , born 1930 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian born industrialist and philanthropist, of French nationality
  • Hossein Sabet
    Hossein Sabet
    Hossein Sabet Baktash is an Iranian businessman and Persian carpet dealer who owns Sabet International Trading Co.. Sabet has a BSc in engineering and resides in Berlin, Germany.In 1981 Sabet bought the Berlin newspaper Der Abend....

    , Iranian businessman and Persian carpet dealer who owns Sabet International Trading Co.
  • Hesam Kolahan, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

Sister cities

Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, Malaysia (October 2006) Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 Fresno
Fresno
Fresno is the fifth largest city in California.Fresno may also refer to:-Places:Colombia* Fresno, TolimaSpain* Fresno, a ghost village in Nidáliga, Valle de Sedano, Burgos* Aldea del Fresno, Madrid* Fresno de la Vega, Ribera del Esla, León...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...


Former

: British Consulate-General (1889–1947): Russian Consulate-General (1889–1917): Soviet Consulate-General (1917–1979?)

See also

  • The National Library of Astan Quds Razavi
    Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi
    The Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi is a large library in Mashad, Iran. Established before 1457, it holds over 1.1 million volumes. It is an international center for Islamic research, containing numerous manuscripts and rare works of antiquity of Islamic history.The library has 35 branches:*...

  • Mashadi Jewish Community
    Mashadi Jewish Community
    The Mashadi Jewish Community is a Jewish community whose history goes back more than two hundred years in Iran. This group of Jews started off by living in Mashhad, which is the second largest city in Iran. Life in Iran was very difficult for these Jews. They were constantly oppressed by dominating...


External links