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Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site

Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site

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Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site established on October 10, 1980, consists of several buildings surrounding Martin Luther King, Jr.'s
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for being an iconic figure in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the...

 boyhood home on Auburn Avenue in the Sweet Auburn
Sweet Auburn
The Sweet Auburn Historic District is a historic African-American neighborhood along Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, Georgia. The name Sweet Auburn was coined by John Wesley Dobbs, referring to the "richest Negro street in the world". The Sweet Auburn district includes:*the Martin Luther King, Jr...

 historic district
Historic district
A historic district or heritage district is a section of a city which contains older buildings considered valuable for historical or architectural reasons. In some countries, historic districts receive legal protection from development....

 of Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

. The original Ebenezer Baptist Church, the church where King and his father Martin Luther King, Sr.
Martin Luther King, Sr.
Martin Luther King, Sr., born Michael King was a Baptist missionary, an advocate for equal justice and an early civil rights leader. He was also the father of Martin Luther King, Jr.King, Sr...

 pastor
Pastor
The word pastor usually refers to an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, this role may be abbreviated to "Pr." or often "Ps"....

ed, is also part of the national historic site. These places are critical components in the interpretation of the life of Martin Luther King Jr. and his legacy as a leader of the American civil rights movement.

In total, the buildings included in the site make up 35 acres (0.14 km²). The visitor center
Visitor center
A visitor center or centre , visitor information center, tourist information center, is a physical location that provides tourist information to the visitors who tour the place or area locally...

 contains a museum
Museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

 that chronicles the American civil rights movement
African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)
The African-American Civil Rights Movement refers to the movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against African Americans and restoring voting rights to them. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1955 and 1968, particularly in the South...

 which follows the parallel paths of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. A firehouse
Fire station
A fire station is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus , personal protective equipment, fire hose, fire extinguishers, and other fire extinguishing equipment...

 (Fire Station No. 6), built in 1894, served the Sweet Auburn community until 1991, and now contains a gift shop
Gift shop
A gift shop is a store primarily selling souvenirs relating to a particular topic or theme. The items sold often include coffee mugs, stuffed animals, t-shirts, postcards, handmade collections and other souvenirs....

 and an exhibit
Exhibit
Exhibit may refer to:*Exhibit , evidence in physical form brought before the court.*Demonstrative evidence is a term used to describe exhibits and other physical forms of evidence used in court to demonstrate, show, depict, inform or teach relevant information to the viewer.*Exhibit , a lightweight...

 on desegregation
Desegregation
Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races. This is most commonly used in reference to the United States. Desegregation was long a focus of the American Civil Rights Movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in...

 in the Atlanta Fire Department. The “I Have a Dream
I Have a Dream
"I Have a Dream" is a 17-minute public speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered on August 28, 1963, in which he called for racial equality and an end to discrimination...

” International World Peace Rose Garden, and a memorial tribute to Mohandas K. Gandhi. Also of interest is the "International Civil Rights Walk of Fame" which gives recognition to those courageous pioneers who sacrificed and struggled to make equality a reality for all.

Preservation


As Martin Luther King, Jr., Historic District, an area bounded roughly by Irwin, Randolph, Edgewood, Jackson, and Auburn Avenues was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 on May 2, 1974. The district included Ebenezer Baptist Church, the MLK grave
Grave (burial)
A grave is a location where a dead body is buried. Graves are usually located in special areas set aside for the purpose of burial, such as graveyards or cemeteries....

 site, the MLK birthplace, shotgun
Shotgun house
The shotgun house is a narrow rectangular domestic residence, usually no more than 12 feet wide, with doors at each end. It was the most popular style of house in the Southern United States from the end of the American Civil War , through the 1920s. Alternate names include shotgun shack,...

 row houses, Victorian house
Victorian house
In the United Kingdom, and former British colonies, a Victorian house generally means any house built during the reign of Queen Victoria...

s, the Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton was a Founding Father, soldier, economist, political philosopher, one of America's first constitutional lawyers and the first United States Secretary of the Treasury...

 House, the Atlanta Baptist Preparatory Institute site, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Colored Mission, Fire Station No. 6, and the "Triangle Building" at the intersection of Old Wheat St. and Auburn Avenue.

Some or all of the area was designated a national historic landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

 district on May 5, 1977.

By U.S. Congressional legislation, the site became a national historic site
National Historical Park
National Historic Sites are protected areas of national historic significance in the United States. A National Historic Site usually contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject...

 on October 10, 1980 and is administered by the National Park Service
National Park Service
The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations...

 (NPS). A 22.4 acres (90,649.7 m²) area including 35 contributing properties was covered, including 22 previously included in the NRHP historic district.

The area covered in the NRHP designation was increased on June 12, 2001.

Annual events


Annual events surrounding Martin Luther King, Jr. Day in January typically draw large crowds. Speakers have included Presidents of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

, national and local politicians, and civil rights leaders. Remembrances are also held during Black History Month
Black History Month
Black History Month is an observance of the history of the African diaspora in a number of countries outside of Africa. Since 1976, it is observed annually in the United States and Canada in February, while in the United Kingdom it is observed in October...

 (February), and the anniversary of King's April 4, 1968, assassination.

King Birth Home


The King Birth Home is located at 501 Auburn Avenue. It was built in 1895, about one block east of Ebenezer Baptist Church in the National Historic Site. Martin’s maternal grandparents, Reverend Adam Daniel (A.D.) Williams and Jennie Williams, bought the house for $3,500 in 1909. Williams was pastor of the nearby Ebenezer Baptist Church. When King's father married Alberta Williams, the family moved into the house in 1926. It is the place where Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929. The King family lived in the house until 1941, and the house was then converted into a two-family dwelling. The Rev. A.D. Williams King, Dr. King's brother, lived on the second floor in the 1950s and early 1960s.

The first level includes the front porch, parlor, study, dining room, kitchen, laundry, bedroom and a bathroom. The second level includes four bedrooms and a bathroom. The visitor center offers free tours of the house led by National Park Service rangers, but with limited availability,

Gandhi Promenade


The statue of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was donated by The Indian Council for Cultural Relations
Indian Council for Cultural Relations
The Indian Council for Cultural Relations , is an autonomous organisation of the Government of India, involved in India’s external cultural relations, through cultural exchange with other countries and their peoples...

, India, in collaboration with The National Federation of Indian American Associations and The Embassy of India, USA.

The inscribed bronze plaque reads:
"Nonviolence, to be a potent force, must begin with the mind. Nonviolence of the mere body without the cooperation of the mind is nonviolence of the weak of the cowardly, and has, therefore, no potency. It is a degrading performance. If we bear malice and hatred in our bosoms and pretend not to retaliate, it must recoil upon us and lead to our destruction."--Gandhi

"Tribute to the Mahatma "Gandhi was inevitable. If humanity is to progress, Gandhi is inescapable. He lived, thought and acted, inspired by the vision of humanity evolving toward a world of peace and harmony. We may ignore him at our own risk"--Martin Luther King, Jr.

King Center



Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King
Coretta Scott King was an American author, activist, and civil rights leader. The widow of Martin Luther King, Jr., Coretta Scott King helped lead the African-American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.Mrs...

 started the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in the basement of the couple's home in the year following King's 1968 assassination. In 1981, the center was moved into a multimillion dollar facility on Auburn Avenue, near King's birth home and next to Ebenezer Baptist Church, where he preached from 1960 until his death.

In 1977, a memorial tomb was dedicated, and the remains of Martin Luther King Jr. were moved from South View Cemetery to the plaza that is nestled between the center and the church. Martin Luther King Jr.'s gravesite and a reflecting pool are also located next to Freedom Hall. Mrs. King was interred with her husband on February 7, 2006.

As of 2006, the King Center is a privately owned inholding
Inholding
An inholding is privately owned land inside the boundary of a national park, national forest, state park, or similar publicly owned, protected area...

 within the authorized boundaries of the national historic site. However, there is debate within the King family on whether it should remain so or be sold to the National Park Service.

International Civil Rights Walk of Fame


The "International Civil Rights Walk of Fame" was created in 2004. The walk along the Promenade, includes footsteps, marked in granite and bronze. According to the National Park Service, the Walk of Fame was created to "pay homage to the "brave warriors" of justice who sacrificed and struggled to make equality a reality for all." The new addition to the area is expected to enhance the historic value of the area, enrich cultural heritage, and augment tourist attractions.

The “Walk of Fame” is the brain child of Xernona Clayton, founder and executive producer of the renowned Trumpet Awards and a civil rights icon in her own right. Ms. Clayton said, “This is a lasting memorial to those whose contributions were testaments to the fact that human progress is neither automatic nor inevitable. This historic site will serve as a symbol of pride and a beacon of hope for all future generations. We are looking forward to building a monument to the civil struggle that depicts every step taken toward the goal of justice and the tireless exertions and passionate concern of these dedicated individuals.”

Inductees


2004
  • Ralph David Abernathy, Sr.
    Ralph Abernathy
    Ralph David Abernathy, Sr. was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement, a minister, and a close associate of Martin Luther King, Jr. in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Following King's assassination, Dr. Abernathy took up the leadership of the SCLC Poor People's Campaign and...

    , civil rights leader, close and enduring partnership with Dr. King.
  • Juanita J. Abernathy, civil rights activist.
  • Ivan Allen, Jr., former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

     during the turbulent civil rights era of the 1960s.
  • Julian Bond
    Julian Bond
    Horace Julian Bond , known as Julian Bond, is an American social activist and leader in the American civil rights movement, politician, professor, and writer. While a student at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, during the early 1960s, he helped found the Student Nonviolent Coordinating...

    , civil rights leader.
  • Jimmy Carter
    Jimmy Carter
    James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office...

    , 39th President of the United States.
  • Medgar Evers
    Medgar Evers
    Medgar Wiley Evers was an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi...

    , civil rights activist.
  • Dorothy Height
    Dorothy Height
    Dorothy Irene Height was an American administrator, educator, and social activist. She was the president of the National Council of Negro Women for forty years, and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994, and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.-Early life:Height was born in...

    , educator, social activist.
  • Jesse L. Jackson, Sr.
    Jesse Jackson
    Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. is an African-American civil rights activist and Baptist minister. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988 and served as shadow senator for the District of Columbia from 1991 to 1997. He was the founder of both entities that merged to...

    , minister, civil rights activist.
  • Judge Frank M. Johnson
    Frank Minis Johnson
    Frank Minis Johnson, Jr. was a United States Federal judge, made a number of landmark civil rights rulings that helped end segregation in the South...

    , United States Federal judge .
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the United States.
  • John Lewis
    John Lewis (politician)
    John Robert Lewis is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1987. He was a leader in the American Civil Rights Movement and chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee , playing a key role in the struggle to end segregation...

    , politician, civil right leader.
  • Joseph E. Lowery
    Joseph Lowery
    Joseph Echols Lowery is a minister in the United Methodist Church and leader in the American civil rights movement. He later became the third president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, after Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King and his immediate successor, Rev. Dr...

    , minister, civil right leader.
  • Evelyn G. Lowery
    Evelyn G. Lowery
    Evelyn Gibson Lowery is an American civil rights activist and leader.In 2004 Mrs. Lowery was honored at the "International Civil Rights Walk of Fame" at the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site, located in Atlanta, Georgia...

    , civil right leader.
  • Thurgood Marshall
    Thurgood Marshall
    Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991...

    , former Supreme Court Justice (1969–1991).
  • Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights", and "the mother of the freedom movement"....

    , civil rights activist.
  • Hosea Williams
    Hosea Williams
    Hosea Lorenzo Williams was a United States civil rights leader, ordained minister, businessman, philanthropist, scientist and politician...

    , civil rights leader.
  • Andrew Young
    Andrew Young
    Andrew Jackson Young is an American politician, diplomat, activist and pastor from Georgia. He has served as Mayor of Atlanta, a Congressman from the 5th district, and United States Ambassador to the United Nations...

    , civil rights activist, former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

    .


2005
  • Henry Aaron, baseball player, social activist.
  • Harry Belafonte
    Harry Belafonte
    Harold George "Harry" Belafonte, Jr. is an American singer, songwriter, actor and social activist. He was dubbed the "King of Calypso" for popularizing the Caribbean musical style with an international audience in the 1950s...

    , musician, actor, social activist.
  • John Conyers, Jr.
    John Conyers
    John Conyers, Jr. is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1965 . He is a member of the Democratic Party...

    , politician, social activist.
  • Dick Gregory
    Dick Gregory
    Richard Claxton "Dick" Gregory is an American comedian, social activist, social critic, writer, and entrepreneur....

    , comedian, social activist.
  • Maynard H. Jackson
    Maynard Jackson
    Maynard Holbrook Jackson, Jr. was an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and the first African American mayor of Atlanta, Georgia. He served three terms, two consecutive terms from 1974 until 1982 and a third term from 1990 to 1994...

    , former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

    .
  • Ralph E. McGill
    Ralph McGill
    Ralph Emerson McGill , American journalist, was best known as the anti-segregationist editor and publisher of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper. He won a Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing in 1959....

    , journalist, social activist.
  • Fred L. Shuttlesworth
    Fred Shuttlesworth
    Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth, born Freddie Lee Robinson, was a U.S. civil rights activist who led the fight against segregation and other forms of racism as a minister in Birmingham, Alabama...

    , social activist.
  • Ted Turner
    Ted Turner
    Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III is an American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the cable news network CNN, the first dedicated 24-hour cable news channel. In addition, he founded WTBS, which pioneered the superstation concept in cable television...

    , media mogul and philanthropist.
  • Judge Elbert P. Tuttle
    Elbert Tuttle
    Elbert Parr Tuttle , one of the "Fifth Circuit Four", and a liberal Republican from Georgia, was chief judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit from 1960 to 1967, when that court became known for a series of decisions crucial in advancing the civil rights of African-Americans...

    , former Chief Judge of U.S Court of Appeals (1960–1967).
  • Nancy Wilson
    Nancy Wilson (singer)
    Nancy Wilson is an American singer with more than 70 albums, and three Grammy Awards. She has been labeled a singer of blues, jazz, cabaret and pop; a "consummate actress"; and "the complete entertainer." The title she prefers, however, is song stylist...

    , singer, social activist.
  • Reverend Addie L. Wyatt
    Addie L. Wyatt
    Addie L. Wyatt is leader in the United States Labor movement, and a civil rights activist. Wyatt is known for being the first African-American woman elected international vice president of a major labor union, the Amalgamated Meat Cutters Union. Wyatt began her career in the union in the early...

    , Labor leader, civil rights pioneer, pastor.


2006
  • Reverend Joseph E. Boone
    Joseph E. Boone
    Rev. Joseph Everhart Boone was a civil rights activist and organizer who marched together with Martin Luther King Jr....

    , social activist.
  • Reverend William Holmes Borders, Sr.
  • Xernona Clayton
    Xernona Clayton
    Xernona Clayton , is a civil rights leader and broadcasting executive.During the Civil Rights Movement, Ms. Clayton was an active participant on the front lines. She organized events for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference , under the direction of Martin Luther King, and she developed a...

    , civil rights leader, broadcasting executive.
  • Lena Horne
    Lena Horne
    Lena Mary Calhoun Horne was an American singer, actress, civil rights activist and dancer.Horne joined the chorus of the Cotton Club at the age of sixteen and became a nightclub performer before moving to Hollywood, where she had small parts in numerous movies, and more substantial parts in the...

    , singer, actress, social activist.
  • John E. Jacob
    John Edward Jacob
    John Edward Jacob was a U.S. civil rights leader. He served as the president of the National Urban League between 1982 and 1994....

    , former president and CEO of the National Urban League
    National Urban League
    The National Urban League , formerly known as the National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes, is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. It is the oldest and largest...

    .
  • Reverend James Orange
    James Orange
    James Edward Orange, MLK March website biography. Accessed 2008-02-17. was a pastor and a leading civil rights activist in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in America.-Personal life:...

    , pastor, civil rights activist.
  • Bernard Parks
    Bernard C. Parks
    Bernard C. Parks is an American politician. He is a member of the Los Angeles City Council, representing the 8th District in South Los Angeles. He served as chief of the Los Angeles Police Department from August 1997 to May 2002...

    , politician, social activist.
  • Archbishop Desmond Tutu
    Desmond Tutu
    Desmond Mpilo Tutu is a South African activist and retired Anglican bishop who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid...

    , South African cleric, social activist.
  • William Clinton
    Bill Clinton
    William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

    , 42nd President of the United States.
  • Stevie Wonder
    Stevie Wonder
    Stevland Hardaway Morris , better known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer and activist...

    , singer, civil rights activist.


2007
  • Lerone Bennett, Jr.
    Lerone Bennett, Jr.
    Lerone Bennett, Jr. is an African-American scholar, author and social historian, known for his revisionist analysis of race relations in the United States. His works include "When the Wind Blows" and "History of Us".-Biography:...

    , scholar, author, historian, social activist.
  • Tony Bennett
    Tony Bennett
    Tony Bennett is an American singer of popular music, standards, show tunes, and jazz....

    , singer, social activist.
  • Marian Wright Edelman
    Marian Wright Edelman
    Marian Wright Edelman is an American activist for the rights of children. She is president and founder of the Children's Defense Fund.-Early years:...

    , social activist for the rights of children.
  • Shirley Franklin
    Shirley Franklin
    Shirley Clarke Franklin is an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and served as mayor of Atlanta, Georgia from 2002 to 2010...

    , 58th mayor of Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta, Georgia
    Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

    .
  • Frankie Muse Freeman, civil rights attorney.
  • Joe Louis
    Joe Louis
    Joseph Louis Barrow , better known as Joe Louis, was the world heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. He is considered to be one of the greatest heavyweights of all time...

    , boxer, social activist.
  • Sir Lynden Pindling
    Lynden Pindling
    Sir Lynden Oscar Pindling KCMG, OM, JP , is generally regarded as the "Father of the Nation" of the Bahamas, having led it to Majority Rule on 10 January 1967 and then to independence on 10 July 1973. He served as the first black premier of the Colony of the Bahama Islands from 1967 to 1969 and as...

    , former Premier of the Colony of the Bahama Island (1967–1973).
  • Sidney Poitier
    Sidney Poitier
    Sir Sidney Poitier, KBE is a Bahamian American actor, film director, author, and diplomat.In 1963, Poitier became the first black person to win an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Lilies of the Field...

    , actor, social activist.
  • Dr. Otis W. Smith, physician.
  • Maxine Waters
    Maxine Waters
    Maxine Waters is the U.S. Representative for , and previously the 29th district, serving since 1991. She is a member of the Democratic Party....

    , politician, social activist.
  • L. Douglas Wilder
    Douglas Wilder
    Lawrence Douglas "Doug" Wilder is an American politician, the first African American to be elected as governor of Virginia, and the second to serve as governor of a U.S. state. Wilder served as the 66th Governor of Virginia from 1990 to 1994. When earlier elected as Lieutenant Governor, he was...

    , former governor of Virginia.
  • Jean Childs Young, civil rights activist/educator.


2008
  • Dr. Maya Angelou
    Maya Angelou
    Maya Angelou is an American author and poet who has been called "America's most visible black female autobiographer" by scholar Joanne M. Braxton. She is best known for her series of six autobiographical volumes, which focus on her childhood and early adult experiences. The first and most highly...

    , poet, memoirist, actress.
  • Senator Edward W. Brooke, social activist, politician.
  • Tyrone L. Brooks, Sr., social activist, politician.
  • Sammy Davis, Jr.
    Sammy Davis, Jr.
    Samuel George "Sammy" Davis Jr. was an American entertainer and was also known for his impersonations of actors and other celebrities....

    , singer, dancer.
  • Jesse Hill, Jr.
    Jesse Hill Jr.
    Jesse Hill, Jr. is a civil rights leader, business executive, and actuary.Hill was the CEO of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company. He was also confidant of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. He is a black pioneer/activist that pushed several civil rights initiatives.Jesse Hill, Jr...

    , business executive.
  • Dr. Benjamin Hooks
    Benjamin Hooks
    Benjamin Lawson Hooks was an American civil rights leader. A Baptist minister and practicing attorney, he served as executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from 1977 to 1992, and throughout his career was a vocal campaigner for civil rights in the...

    , established Benjamin L. Hooks Institute for Social Change.
  • Clarence B. Jones
    Clarence Benjamin Jones
    Clarence B. Jones is the former personal counsel, advisor, draft speech writer and close friend of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He is a Scholar in Residence at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Institute at Stanford University...

    , Martin Luther King's attorney.
  • Tom Joyner
    Tom Joyner
    Thomas "Tom" Joyner is an American radio host, host of the nationally syndicated The Tom Joyner Morning Show, and also founder of REACH Media Inc., the Tom Joyner Foundation, and BlackAmericaWeb.com.-Early life:...

    , radio host.
  • The Right Honorable Prime Minister Michael Manley
    Michael Manley
    Michael Norman Manley ON OCC was the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica . Manley was a democratic socialist....

    , former Prime Minister of Jamaica.
  • Herman Russell, Sr., founder and CEO of H.J. Russell & Company.
  • Dr. Wyatt Tee Walker
    Wyatt Tee Walker
    Wyatt Tee Walker is a United States black pastor, national civil rights leader, theologian, and cultural historian. He was a Chief of Staff for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and in 1958 became an early board member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference . He helped found the Congress for...

    , Executive director of the SCLC
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr...

    1960-1964.

External links