Mars Society

Mars Society

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The Mars Society is an international space advocacy
Space advocacy
Space advocacy can be described as the general position supporting, pleading or arguing for the idea or cause of space exploration and settlements...

 non-profit organization
Non-profit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

 dedicated to promoting the human exploration and settlement of the planet Mars
Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance...

. It was founded by Robert Zubrin
Robert Zubrin
Robert Zubrin is an American aerospace engineer and author, best known for his advocacy of the manned exploration of Mars. He was the driving force behind Mars Direct—a proposal intended to produce significant reductions in the cost and complexity of such a mission...

 and others in 1998 and attracted the support of notable science fiction
Science fiction
Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, and paranormal abilities...

 writers and filmmakers, including Kim Stanley Robinson
Kim Stanley Robinson
Kim Stanley Robinson is an American science fiction writer known for his award-winning Mars trilogy. His work delves into ecological and sociological themes regularly, and many of his novels appear to be the direct result of his own scientific fascinations, such as the fifteen years of research...

 and James Cameron
James Cameron
James Francis Cameron is a Canadian-American film director, film producer, screenwriter, editor, environmentalist and inventor...

. The organization works to educate the public, the media and government of the benefits of Mars exploration, networking the communities involved and exploring the possibilities of privately-funded missions to the red planet.

History


The Society was formally established in August 1998, when over 700 delegates – astronomers, scientists, engineers, astronauts, entrepreneurs, educators, students, and space enthusiasts – attended a weekend of talks and presentations from leading Mars exploration advocates.

Since then, the Society, guided by its International Steering Committee, has grown to over 4,000 members and some 6,000 associate supporters across more than 50 countries around the world. Members of the Society are from all walks of life, and all actively work to promote the ideals of space exploration and the opportunities for exploring Mars.

The Mars Society's goals aren't purely theoretical. Its aim is to show that Mars is an achievable goal through a practical series of technical and other projects, including these:
  • further development of the Mars Direct
    Mars Direct
    Mars Direct is a proposal for a manned mission to Mars. Proponents of the scheme have claimed it to be both cost-effective and that it can be conducted with current technology. It was originally detailed in a research paper by NASA engineers Robert Zubrin and David Baker in 1990, and later expanded...

     mission plan to send humans to Mars
  • the Mars Analog Research Station Program
    Mars Analogue Research Station Program
    The Mars Analog Research Station Program is an international effort spearheaded by The Mars Society to establish a network of prototype research centers where scientists and engineers can live and work as if they were on Mars, to develop the protocols and procedures that will be required for human...

     (MARS) – analogues of possible future Mars habitation units, located in Mars-like environments. Established stations include the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
    Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station is the first of two simulated Mars habitats established and maintained by the Mars Society.-Background:...

     (FMARS
    Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station is the first of two simulated Mars habitats established and maintained by the Mars Society.-Background:...

    ) and the Mars Desert Research Station
    Mars Desert Research Station
    The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

     (MDRS
    Mars Desert Research Station
    The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

    )
  • the Mars Society Analogue Pressurized Rover – a competition to design a pressurized rover vehicle that could be used on Mars that was won by the Michigan Mars Rover Team
    Michigan Mars Rover Team
    The Michigan Mars Rover Team was created in March 2000 with two main goals. The first was to design, build, and test prototypes of a pressurized Mars rover for a human mission to Mars. The second was to inspire and educate students about space and Mars exploration.-Team history:The creation of the...

    .
  • the Mars Gravity Biosatellite
    Mars Gravity Biosatellite
    The Mars Gravity Biosatellite was a project initiated in 2001 by the Mars Society and volunteer students and staff of MIT to build a spacecraft to study the effects of Mars-level gravity on mammals. On 24 June 2009, a status report was released declaring the end of this program, due to lack of...

     - a program to design, build, and launch a satellite rotated to artificially provide partial gravity of 0.38g, equivalent to that of Mars, and hosting a small population of mice, to study the health effects of partial gravity, as opposed to zero gravity; this originated as a Mars Society initiative and is now supported by the YourNameIntoSpace web portal
  • the Mars balloon mission ARCHIMEDES, due to launch in 2018 (conducted by the German Chapter of Mars Society)
  • Tempo3
    Tempo3
    The Tethered Experiment for Mars inter-Planetary Operations is a CubeSat-basedsatellite meant to demonstrate artificial gravity generation. After launch, the spacecraft will spin end over end to create gravity-like acceleration at both ends of a tether...

     The Tethered Experiment for Mars inter-Planetary Operations, a CubeSat
    CubeSat
    A CubeSat is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research that usually has a volume of exactly one liter , has a mass of no more than 1.33 kilograms, and typically uses commercial off-the-shelf electronics components...

     based satellite that will demonstrate artificial gravity generation using two tethered masses


In addition, the Society:
  • gives talks and presentations on Mars Direct to schools, colleges, universities, professional bodies and the general public
  • promotes the teaching of science, astronomy and spaceflight-related subjects in schools
  • campaigns for greater investment on the part of individual countries in space research and development
  • hosts the largest annual conferences on Mars exploration in the United States, Europe and Australia
  • actively supports NASA
    NASA
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

    , ESA and other space agencies in their on-going exploration of Mars


The current board of directors of the Mars Society includes Robert Zubrin
Robert Zubrin
Robert Zubrin is an American aerospace engineer and author, best known for his advocacy of the manned exploration of Mars. He was the driving force behind Mars Direct—a proposal intended to produce significant reductions in the cost and complexity of such a mission...

 (chairman), Scott Horowitz, James Heiser, and Declan O'Donnell
Declan O'Donnell
Declan O'Donnell, from Waikato, is a New Zealand international rugby sevens player who made his World Series debut in the 2010–11 season. He became an overnight sensation after he scored three tries for New Zealand during the final of the 2011 Wellington Sevens against England.-Biography:O'Donnell...

.

Notable members of its steering committee include Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin is an American mechanical engineer, retired United States Air Force pilot and astronaut who was the Lunar Module pilot on Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing in history...

 and Peter H. Smith
Peter Smith (scientist)
Peter H. Smith is a Senior Research Scientist at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory of the University of Arizona, where he holds the inaugural Thomas R. Brown Distinguished Chair in Integrative Science...

.

Notable former members of the board of directors or steering committee of the Mars Society include Kim Stanley Robinson
Kim Stanley Robinson
Kim Stanley Robinson is an American science fiction writer known for his award-winning Mars trilogy. His work delves into ecological and sociological themes regularly, and many of his novels appear to be the direct result of his own scientific fascinations, such as the fifteen years of research...

, Michael D. Griffin
Michael D. Griffin
Michael Douglas Griffin is an American physicist and aerospace engineer. From April 13, 2005 to January 20, 2009 he served as Administrator of NASA, the space agency of the United States...

, Christopher McKay, and Pascal Lee
Pascal Lee
Pascal Lee is co-founder and chairman of the Mars Institute, a planetary scientist at the SETI Institute, and the Principal Investigator of the Haughton-Mars Project at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California...

.

North American Chapters of the Mars Society


The Mars Society has chapters in countries around the world. Many of these chapters undertake scientific, engineering and political initiatives to further the Mars Society's goals. Some accomplishments of Mars Society chapters are listed below:

Northern California Chapter of the Mars Society:
  • hosted the Fourth International Mars Society Convention in 2001 (Stanford University
    Stanford University
    The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

    )
  • raised over $100,000 for the Mars Society hosting a fundraiser banquet with James Cameron
    James Cameron
    James Francis Cameron is a Canadian-American film director, film producer, screenwriter, editor, environmentalist and inventor...

    , May 5, 2001
  • provided Mission Support services for crews at the Mars Desert Research Station
    Mars Desert Research Station
    The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

     starting in 2002


Dallas Chapter of the Mars Society:
  • hosted the Mars Track of the National Space Society's International Space Development Conference in 2007
  • Planning Publicizing, and Politicking a vision of Mars colonization in the Dallas area and beyond.


Mars Society of Canada:
  • hosted the Third International Mars Society Convention in 2000 (Toronto)
  • organized a month-long multi-national research expedition (known as Expedition One) to the Mars Desert Research Station
    Mars Desert Research Station
    The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

     in the Utah desert in 2003
  • organized a second multi-national research expedition (known as Expedition Two) in the Australian outback in 2004
  • organized a series of training expeditions (beginning with Expedition Alpha, Beta etc.)


The Mars Society - San Diego:
http://www.marssandiego.org/
  • provides Crewmembers and Mission Support services for the Mars Desert Research Station
    Mars Desert Research Station
    The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

     (MDRS) and the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
    Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station is the first of two simulated Mars habitats established and maintained by the Mars Society.-Background:...

     (FMARS) since 2002
  • TMS-SD provides public outreach events to classrooms, libraries, museums and other organizations throughout the Southern California region with seven different multimedia programs: "Invasion from Earth - The Robotic Exploration of Mars"; "Mars Exploration Rovers - Year 4"; "Mars on Earth - The Adventures of Space Pioneers in the Utah Desert"; "Mars on Earth - The Adventures of Space Pioneers in the Canadian Arctic: "Humans to Mars - How We'll Get There"; "A Close Look at Mars"; and "Mars in the Movies"
  • TMS-SD offers a 1/4-scale radio controlled Mars Exploration Rover with wireless video that children (of all ages) can operate http://chapters.marssociety.org/sandiego/rover.html
  • holds monthly chapter meetings, as well as special program events throughout the year
  • hosts a monthly Mars Movie Night in conjunction with http://marsmovieguide.com

European Chapters of the Mars Society


Austria : ASF (Österreichisches Weltraum Forum, OeWF) http://www.oewf.org

The ASF (Österreichisches Weltraum Forum, OeWF) is a national network for aerospace and space enthusiasts, being the Austrian chapter of the Mars Society. The Forum serves as a communication platform between the space sector and the public; it is embedded in a global network of specialists from the space industry, research and policy. Hence, the OeWF facilitates a strengthening of the national space sector through enhancing the public visibility of space activities, technical workshops and conferences as well as Forum-related projects.

Their research focus is Mars Analogue Research, e.g. the AustroMars mission with roughly 130 volunteers supporting a mission simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station
Mars Desert Research Station
The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

 (MDRS) and the ongoing PolAres multi-year research program which encompass the development of a Mars analogue rover system ans a novel spacesuit prototype dubbed "Aouda.X", culminating in an arctic expedition in 2011.

The Forum has a small, but highly active pool of professional members contributing to space endeavours, mostly in cooperation with other national as well as international space organizations. The spectrum of their activities ranges from simple classroom presentation to 15.000-visitors space exhibitions, from expert reports for the Austrian Federal Ministry for Technology to space technology transfer activities for terrestrial applications.

Netherland : Stichting Mars Society Nederland http://www.marssociety.nl

The Dutch Chapter of the Mars Society (Mars Society Netherland) started with its successful website in 1999. The MS NL is registered in the Netherlands as a non profit organization ("stichting"). Registered members pay a yearly membership fee. The activities of the MS NL are focused on outreach through conferences (national ans European), exhibits, events, and media campaigns.

The main means of communication with members and the general public is still the MS NL Website with information on Mars and related space subjects. In cooperation with the Netherlands Society for Aerospace (NVR), MS NL strives to educate youth in 'kids for space', and the 'RuimteWijs' program, giving lectures about Mars all over Netherlands. Lectures on Mars are also given under auspices of the Dutch Astronomical Society. MS NL cooperates with The Planetary Society in mars events.

The MS NL has been involved with international projects of The Mars Society from the starts, it is a strong proponent of European cooperation in space endeavours.

Artemis Westenberg, president of MS NL, after having been involved with mission support for the Mars Society Habitats for several years, serves since 2008 as Mission Director, managing all aspects of the Mars Desert Research Station
Mars Desert Research Station
The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

 in Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

.

Germany : Mars Society Deutschland http://www.marssociety.de

The German Chapter of the Mars Society (Mars Society Deutschland e.V. | eingetragener Verein | - MSD) was founded in 2001 based on the Founding Declaration of the Mars Society of the USA from 1998 and has about 230 members. The MSD is registered in Germany as a non-profit association (gemeinnütziger Verein). Registered members pay a yearly membership fee of 60 Euro. However, students and firms pay a different fee. The activities of the MSD are focused on technical-scientific projects such as the Mars Balloon Probe ARCHIMEDES as well as on all Mars exploration and general manned space matters. The main means of communication with members and the general public is the MSD Website with information on the ARCHIMEDES project, publications on Mars and other space subjects, the regular news, which can be commented by visitors of the website, the Space Forum and informative meetings.

The MSD Board comprises five members. Since June 2009 its president is the Space Physicist Dr. Michael Danielides.
The development of ARCHIMEDES is led by Dipl.Ing. Hannes Griebel, who is also a member of the MSD Board and prepares his doctorate thesis on ARCHIMEDES.

ARCHIMEDES is presently under development and the major project of the MSD since 2001. Starting in 2006, flight tests have been undertaken for testing the innovative balloon system in low-gravity environment. Test carriers were so far the Airbus A300
Airbus A300
The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range widebody jet airliner. Launched in 1972 as the world's first twin-engined widebody, it was the first product of Airbus Industrie, a consortium of European aerospace companies, wholly owned today by EADS...

 for short duration parabolic flights and the sounding rocket test campaigns REXUS3-REGINA and REXUS4-MIRIAM for longer duration flight tests under free space conditions. Further flights tests are planned for the coming years (e.g. MIRIAM II) with the objective of qualifying ARCHIMEDES for its Mars mission by 2018. ARCHIMEDES will be carried to Mars on board an AMSAT
AMSAT
AMSAT is a name for amateur radio satellite organizations worldwide, but in particular the Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation with headquarters at Silver Spring, Maryland, near Washington DC. AMSAT organizations design, build, arrange launches for, and then operate satellites carrying amateur...

 Mars Probe or a similar satellite. ARCHIMEDES is developed by the MSD with the support of the Bundeswehr University Munich, of the IABG in Ottobrunn, the DLR-MORABA for rocket flight opportunities, other universities, and several industrial companies supporting specific technical areas.

France : Association Planète Mars http://www.planete-mars.com

The Mars Society French chapter was established in 1999 as "Association Planète Mars", a non-profit organization with its headquarters in Paris. Its founder and president is Richard Heidmann, a space propulsion engineer, who participated in the founding convention of the Mars Society in August 1998 and is a member of the Mars Society Steering Committee.

While fully supporting the ideas and actions of the Mars Society, it considers that those must be adapted to the specific cultural and political context of France and Europe.
The main activities of Association Planète Mars are devoted to public communication, through conferences, exhibits, events, media appearances (TV, radio, magazines...). It also acts occasionally as an adviser for journalists or film makers.

Whenever possible, it cooperates with other associations or science outreach organisms, which permits to reinforce its action and reach a wider public.

Association Planète Mars makes a special effort to drain youth interest. 25% of its paid members are under 25. It develops experiences of proposing and tutoring Mars related projects to engineering students. The association encourages the formation of working groups on miscellaneous topics. Today, three groups are active, respectively on Mission Safety,Martian Architecture and medical Aspects. It participated to several MDRS and FMARS missions, bringing a prototype of "Cliff Exploration Vehicle".

Another major field of action is the lobbying, both within the political and institutional personnel, in France and at the European level (European Council
European Council
The European Council is an institution of the European Union. It comprises the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council, currently Herman Van Rompuy...

, ESA
European Space Agency
The European Space Agency , established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 18 member states...

). In doing so, it relies on the networks established by some of its managers. On the occasion of most critical events, tis publishes political documents to support its views, which are distributed both to deciders and to the press. This has been the case in June 2004, in the wake of the US Space Exploration Initiative, and in September 2008 in preparation of the ESA ministerial counsel.

Italy : Italian Mars Society http://www.marssociety.it

The Mars Society Italian chapter (Italian Mars Society) was founded in 2005. Its headquarters are in Curno (Bergamo), near Milan, and its presidents is Antonio Del Mastro, entrepreneur and oner of an engineering consulting company.
The Italian Mars Society carries out scientific divulgation activities related to the Red Planet.It cooperates with the other European Mars Society chapters to build a knowledge network whose aim is to develop the interest of European people towards Mars exploration.

Belgium : Mars Society Belgium http://www.marssociety.be
(Please add information about the Belgian Chapter!)

Poland : Mars Society Polska (MSP) http://www.marssociety.pl

Mars Society Polska (MSP) is actively participating in the creation of the Polish space industry. Since this sector is still developing, the organization is taking the opportunity to provide a strong Mars-related element for the years to come. Poland was the last member state of the EU
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 to sign the cooperation agreement with ESA
European Space Agency
The European Space Agency , established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 18 member states...

. Most projects in Poland currently focus on satellite technology, so MSP is the only leading organization promoting exploration and manned spaceflight. Besides private sponsors, it relies on resources obtained from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education and local authorities, proposing projects to be undertaken with local communities and thus engaging with the general public.

MSP's first project was the Polish MPV (pressurized rover) design, for which some hardware was produced. This enabled development of the Polish Mars Society itself, together with a number of educational activities for Polish schools. This was followed by the joint organization of the Polish edition of the Red Rover Goes to Mars contest and organization of a Mars colonization negotiation game (Columbia Memorial Negotiations). In 2007 MSP organized the first Mars Festival, a two-day event which drew 600 visitors, with Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel is an American satellite and cable specialty channel , founded by John Hendricks and distributed by Discovery Communications. It is a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav...

 as the main sponsor. Mars Festival 2008 was smaller due to the efforts being made in other projects, particularly the Polish URC rover, named Skarabeusz.

The flagship MSP project is the Polish Martian habitat, based on a design by Janek Kozicki. It has three inflatable modules attached and a usable surface of 900 m². The habitat is to be located close to a large town, meaning that beyond its role as a test site, largely for materials and design, it will be accessible to the wider public and media.

MSP has established a constant presence in the mainstream Polish media and is working on a documentary about itself. It is also developing software projects, IT systems for the future martian habitat, with a Virtual Mars Base and remote access. Jan Kotlarz of MSP has created RODM software for the modeling of the Martian surface based on high resolution photographs from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is a NASA multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and Exploration of Mars from orbit...

. RODM is currently being tested by NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

 and ESA.

United Kingdom : Mars Society UK http://www.marssociety.org.uk

The Mars Society UK is the oldest Mars Society outside of the United States. It held its first public meeting on July 4, in London. Professor Colin Pillinger
Colin Pillinger
Colin Trevor Pillinger, CBE, is a planetary scientist at the Open University in the UK. He was the principal investigator for the British Beagle 2 Mars lander project, and has done much work studying a group of Martian meteorites.In May 2005 Pillinger was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis.-Early...

, head of the Beagle 2
Beagle 2
Beagle 2 was an unsuccessful British landing spacecraft that formed part of the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission. All contact with it was lost upon its separation from the Mars Express six days before its scheduled entry into the atmosphere...

 project, was the Guest Speaker, and the event marked the first time Beagle 2 had been presented to the general public in the UK. From 1998 through to 2003, the Mars society UK (MSUK) continued to support Beagle 2, providing numerous public events at which members of the Beagle 2 project team could speak, and the Beagle 2 model be displayed.

Highlights of the MSUK's history include:
  • It hosted the first Mars Society European Leaders Meeting, with representatives from France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the Netherlands.
  • The first UK Mars Day, attended by some 200 members of the public took place in 2002. It was covered by all the UK's leading television media (BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

    , ITN, Sky News
    Sky News
    Sky News is a 24-hour British and international satellite television news broadcaster with an emphasis on UK and international news stories.The service places emphasis on rolling news, including the latest breaking news. Sky News also hosts localised versions of the channel in Australia and in New...

    ).
  • In 2003, it had white papers accepted and published by the UK government as a part of a review of UK Space Policy. It also actively lobbied for UK involvement in human space flight endeavours.
  • Since 2006 it helped establish the Sir Arthur Clarke Award
    Sir Arthur Clarke Award
    The Sir Arthur Clarke Award is a British award given in recognition of notable contributions to space exploration, particularly British achievements. It is owned by the Space Education Trust and is independent of and separate from . Founded in 2005, the awards are an annual event. They take place...

    ,the most prodigious award given in the United Kingdom for contribution in all field of space research and exploration. it also continued to provided consultation and white papers on the UK's changing space policy and helped determine the UK government's decision to actively engage in human space flight activities from 2010.
  • It is currently engaged in a further UK space policy review aimed at determining whether the UK requires a dedicated space agency.


More recently, the MSUK had been allied with attempts to initiate a formally-recognized and fully founded UK Space Conference (UKSC) with the first such event being held in April 2009.

Spain : Mars Society España http://www.marssociety.org.es
(Please add information about the Spanish Chapter!)

Switzerland: Mars Society Switzerland http://www.planete-mars-suisse.com

The Mars Society Switzerland ("MSS") was founded in February 2010. It covers the French and German speaking parts of Switzerland. It keeps close links with the French branch ("association planète Mars", see above).
Its aim is to convince the Swiss public of the interest and feasibility of the Martian exploration with inhabited flights through the Mars direct concept such as described by Robert Zubrin. It wants to gather around the scientists working on Mars in Switzerland, all people who share their interest on the matter.

In November 2010 MSS participated to the 8th Swiss Geoscience Meeting which was the opportunity to discuss the main topics related to Mars geology, the making of the planet, the role of water and the atmosphere.

In 2011 (September 30 till October 2) it held the 11th European Mars Convention ("EMC11") in the frame of the University of Neuchâtel. Throughout 24 presentations and two debates with major Swiss media, this convention covered all subjects related to Mars exploration, from astronautics to architecture, not forgetting geology, the study of which remains its key objective.

Another Mars Society Chapter is also in creation in Luxembourg.

See also

  • Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
    Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station
    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station is the first of two simulated Mars habitats established and maintained by the Mars Society.-Background:...

  • Mars Desert Research Station
    Mars Desert Research Station
    The Mars Desert Research Station is the second of four planned simulated Mars surface exploration habitats owned and operated by the Mars Society.-Background:...

  • Colonization of Mars
    Colonization of Mars
    The colonization of Mars by humans is the focus of speculation and serious study because the surface conditions and availability of water on Mars make it arguably the most hospitable planet in the solar system other than Earth...

  • Flag of Mars
  • Geoengineering
    Geoengineering
    The concept of Geoengineering refers to the deliberate large-scale engineering and manipulation of the planetary environment to combat or counteract anthropogenic changes in atmospheric chemistry The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded in 2007 that geoengineering options, such...

  • Mars to Stay
    Mars to Stay
    Mars to Stay missions propose astronauts sent to Mars for the first time should stay there indefinitely, both to reduce cost and to ensure permanent settlement of Mars. Among many notable Mars to Stay advocates, former Apollo astronaut Buzz Aldrin has been particularly outspoken, suggesting in...

  • MARS-500
    MARS-500
    Mars-500 was an international multi-part isolation experiment simulating a manned flight to Mars. The experiment's facility was located at the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. A total of 640 experiment days were scheduled between 2007 and 2011,...

  • Terraforming of Mars
    Terraforming of Mars
    The terraforming of Mars is the hypothetical process by which the climate, surface, and known properties of Mars would be deliberately changed with the goal of making it habitable by humans and other terrestrial life, thus providing the possibility of safe and sustainable colonization of large...


External links



Region-specific Mars Society websites

Other related links