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Mark 82 bomb

Mark 82 bomb

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The Mark 82 is an unguided, low-drag
Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag refers to forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the relative fluid flow velocity...

 general-purpose bomb
General-purpose bomb
A general-purpose bomb is an air-dropped bomb intended as a compromise between blast damage, penetration, and fragmentation in explosive effect.-Characteristics:...

, part of the U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Mark 80 series. The explosive filling is tritonal
Tritonal
Tritonal is a mixture of 80% TNT and 20% aluminium powder, used in several types of ordnance such as air-dropped bombs. The aluminium improves the total heat output and hence impulse of the TNT - the length of time during which the blast wave is positive...

.

Development and deployment


With a nominal weight of 500 lb (227 kg), it is the smallest of those bombs in current service, and one of the most common air-dropped weapons in the world. Although the Mk 82's nominal weight is 500 lb (227 kg), its actual weight varies considerably depending on its configuration, from 510 lb (232 kg) to 570 lb (259 kg). It is a streamlined steel casing containing 192 lb (89 kg) of Tritonal
Tritonal
Tritonal is a mixture of 80% TNT and 20% aluminium powder, used in several types of ordnance such as air-dropped bombs. The aluminium improves the total heat output and hence impulse of the TNT - the length of time during which the blast wave is positive...

 high explosive. The Mk 82 is offered with a variety of fin kits, fuze
Fuze
Fuze Beverage, commercially referred to as just Fuze , is a manufacturer of teas and non-carbonated fruit drinks enriched with vitamins. Currently the brand consists of five vitamin-infused lines: Slenderize, Refresh, Tea, Defensify, and Vitalize...

s, and retarders for different purposes.

The Mk 82 is the warhead for the GBU-12 laser-guided bomb
Laser-guided bomb
A laser-guided bomb is a guided bomb that uses semi-active laser homing to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than an unguided bomb. LGBs are one of the most common and widespread guided bombs, used by a large number of the world's air forces.- Overview :Laser-guided munitions use a...

s and for the GBU-38 JDAM.

Currently only the General Dynamics
General Dynamics
General Dynamics Corporation is a U.S. defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2008 it is the fifth largest defense contractor in the world. Its headquarters are in West Falls Church , unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, in the Falls Church area.The company has...

 plant in Garland, Texas
Garland, Texas
-Climate:* The average warmest month is July.* The highest recorded temperature was in 2000.* On average, the coolest month is January.* The lowest recorded temperature was in 1989.* The maximum average precipitation occurs in May....

 is DoD certified to manufacture bombs for the US Armed Forces.

The Mk 82 is currently undergoing a minor redesign to allow it to meet the insensitive munitions
Insensitive munitions
Insensitive munitions are munitions that are chemically stable enough to withstand mechanical shocks, fire, and impact by shrapnel, but that can still explode as intended to destroy their targets.-Description:...

 requirements set by Congress.

According to a test report conducted by the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

's Weapon System Explosives Safety Review Board
Weapon System Safety
The United States Navy formed the Weapon System Explosives Safety Review Board in 1968 as a result of the tragic fire on the USS Forrestal . The subsequent investigation recommended an independent review process be established...

 (WSESRB) established in the wake of the tragic 1967 USS Forrestal fire
1967 USS Forrestal fire
The 1967 USS Forrestal fire was a devastating fire and series of chain-reaction explosions on 29 July 1967 that killed 134 sailors and injured 161 on the aircraft carrier , after an unusual electrical anomaly discharged a Zuni rocket on the flight deck...

, the cooking off
Cooking off
Cooking off refers to ammunition exploding prematurely due to heat in the surrounding environment. It can also refer to a technique used when throwing grenades to achieve a controlled, predictable explosion....

 time for a Mk 82 is approximately 2 minutes 30 seconds.

More than 4,500 GBU-12/Mk 82 laser guided bombs were dropped on Iraq during the Persian Gulf War.

Low-level delivery


In low-level bombing, it is easy for the delivering aircraft to sustain damage from the blast and fragmentation effects of its own munitions because the aircraft and ordnance arrive at the target at the same time. To combat this, the standard Mk-82 General Purpose bomb can be fitted with a special high-drag tail fin unit. In this configuration, it is referred to as the Mk-82 Snakeye.

The tail unit has 4 folded fins which spring open into a cruciform shape when the bomb is released. The fins increase the drag of the bomb, slowing its forward progress and allowing the delivery aircraft to safely pass over the target before the bomb explodes.

Variants

  • BLU-111/B – Mk 82 loaded with PBXN-109 (vs H-6); item weighs 480 lbs. PBXN-109 is a less sensitive explosive filler. The BLU-111/B also is the warhead of the A-1 version of the Joint Stand-Off Weapon JSOW.

  • BLU-111A/B – Used by the U.S. Navy, this is the BLU-111/B with a thermal-protective coating added to reduce cook-off in (fuel-related) fires.

  • BLU-126/B – Designed following a U.S. Navy request to lower collateral damage in air strikes. Delivery of this type will start no later than March 2007. Also known as the Low Collateral Damage Bomb (LCDB), it is a BLU-111 with a smaller explosive charge. Non-explosive filler is added to retain the weight of the BLU-111 so as to give it the same trajectory when dropped.

  • Mark 62 Quickstrike mine – A naval mine
    Naval mine
    A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to destroy surface ships or submarines. Unlike depth charges, mines are deposited and left to wait until they are triggered by the approach of, or contact with, an enemy vessel...

    , which is a conversion of Mark 82 bomb.

See also

  • Mark 81 bomb
    Mark 81 bomb
    The Mark 81 250 lb general purpose bomb was the smallest of the Mark 80 series of low-drag general-purpose bombs.-Development & deployment:...

  • Mark 83 bomb
    Mark 83 bomb
    The Mark 83 is part of the Mark 80 series of low-drag general-purpose bombs in United States service.-Development & deployment:The nominal weight of the bomb is 1,000 lb , although its actual weight varies between 985 lb and 1,030 lb , depending on fuze options, and fin configuration...

  • Mark 84 bomb
    Mark 84 bomb
    The Mark 84 is an American general-purpose bomb, it is also the largest of the Mark 80 series of weapons. Entering service during the Vietnam War, it became a commonly used US heavy unguided bomb to be dropped, second only to the BLU-82 "Daisy Cutter" then in service and presently third only to...

  • Paveway IV
    Paveway IV
    The Raytheon Paveway IV is a dual mode GPS/INS and laser guided bomb for use by military aircraft. It is the latest iteration of Raytheon's Paveway series....

  • Status of Mk-82 bombs flown by Captain Craig Button

External links