Marinid

Marinid

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Marinid'
Start a new discussion about 'Marinid'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin which derives from the Berber Ayt Mrin.


The Marinid dynasty or Benemerine dynasty (Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

: مرينيون marîniyûn or بنو مرين banû marîn) was a Zenata
Zenata
Zenata were an ethnic group of North Africa, who were technically an Eastern Berber group and who are found in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco....

 Berber
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

 dynasty of Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

. The Marinid dynasty overtook the Almohads in controlling Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 in 1244. They controlled most of the Maghreb
Maghreb
The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

 from the mid-14th century to the 15th century and supported the Kingdom of Granada in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

 in the 13th and 14th centuries. The last Marinid fortress in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

 fell to Castile
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

 in They were replaced in turn by the Wattasids in 1465.

History


The Marinids were a nomadic Zenata
Zenata
Zenata were an ethnic group of North Africa, who were technically an Eastern Berber group and who are found in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco....

 Berber tribe from the area between Tlemcen
Tlemcen
Tlemcen is a town in Northwestern Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name. It is located inland in the center of a region known for its olive plantations and vineyards...

 and Tahert. They advanced through the Moulouya basin east of Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

. As early as 1145, the Marinids engaged in several battles with the Almohad
Almohad
The Almohad Dynasty , was a Moroccan Berber-Muslim dynasty founded in the 12th century that established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains in roughly 1120.The movement was started by Ibn Tumart in the Masmuda tribe, followed by Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi between 1130 and his...

s, the ruling dynasty at the time, who regularly defeated them until 1169. In that year, the Marinids began a dedicated pursuit to take Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 from the Almohads. Following their expulsion from the south, the Marinids moved northwards under the command of Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq
Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq
Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid ruler. He was the son of Abd al-Haqq I and the brother of both Uthman I and Muhammad I....

 and took Fes
Fes, Morocco
Fes or Fez is the second largest city of Morocco, after Casablanca, with a population of approximately 1 million . It is the capital of the Fès-Boulemane region....

 in 1244, making it their capital. This date marks the beginning of the Marinid dynasty.

The Marinid leadership installed in Fes
Fes, Morocco
Fes or Fez is the second largest city of Morocco, after Casablanca, with a population of approximately 1 million . It is the capital of the Fès-Boulemane region....

 declared war on the Almohads, fighting with the aid of Christian mercenaries
Mercenary
A mercenary, is a person who takes part in an armed conflict based on the promise of material compensation rather than having a direct interest in, or a legal obligation to, the conflict itself. A non-conscript professional member of a regular army is not considered to be a mercenary although he...

. Abu Yusuf Yaqub
Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq
Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. He was the fourth son of Marinid founder Abd al-Haqq, and succeeded his brother Abu Yahya in 1258. He died in 1286.-History:The Marinids had been fighting the Almohads for supremacy over Morocco since 1210s...

 (1259–1286) captured Marrakech
Marrakech
Marrakech or Marrakesh , known as the "Ochre city", is the most important former imperial city in Morocco's history...

 in 1269 and took control of most of the Maghreb
Maghreb
The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

 towards the end of 1268, including what is now Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

 and part of Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

. After the Nasrids ceded Algeciras
Algeciras
Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar . Port of Algeciras is one of the largest ports in Europe and in the world in three categories: container,...

 to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

 to support the ongoing struggle against the Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. It emerged as a political autonomous entity in the 9th century. It was called County of Castile and was held in vassalage from the Kingdom of León. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region...

.

The Marinid dynasty then tried to extend its control to include the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. The name comes from Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic Jebel Tariq , albeit the Arab name for the Strait is Bab el-Zakat or...

. To this end, they declared jihad
Jihad
Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

on the Christians and successively occupied the cities of Rota
Rota, Spain
-External references:*, official website * On-line since 1999! News, premiere information, pictures, weather, etc. Into Spanish, English... ****- External links :...

, Algiers
Algiers
' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

 and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

, surrounding Tarifa
Tarifa
Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of Spain. The town is located on the Costa de la Luz and across the Straits of Gibraltar facing Morocco. The municipality includes Punta de Tarifa, the southernmost point in continental Europe. There are five...

 for the first time in 1294.

Internal power struggles among the Marinids followed, but they did not prevent Abu Said Uthman II (1310–1331) from undertaking substantial construction work in Fez. Several madrassas for the education of public servants were founded as part of a drive to centralize public administration and to reduce the influence of the unreliable marabuts
Marabout
A marabout is a Muslim religious leader and teacher in West Africa, and in the Maghreb. The marabout is often a scholar of the Qur'an, or religious teacher. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms, Sufi Murshids , or leaders of religious communities...

 in his realm.

The Marinids also strongly influenced the policy of the Emirate of Granada
Emirate of Granada
The Emirate of Granada , also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada , was an emirate established in 1238 following the defeat of Muhammad an-Nasir of the Almohad dynasty by an alliance of Christian kingdoms at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212...

, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the 13th century, the Kingdom of Castile made several incursions into Morocco. In 1260, Castilian
Castilian
Castilian may refer to:* Alternative name for the Spanish language .* Something related to the Crown of Castile, a former state in present-day Spain...

 forces raided Salé
Salé
Salé is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town...

 and, in 1267, initiated a full-scale invasion of Morocco, but the Marinids repelled them.

Under Abu al-Hasan
Abu al-Hasan 'Ali
Abu Al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Othman was a sultan of the Marinid Dynasty who reigned in Morocco and Al-Andalus . The son of Marinid ruler Abu Sa'id Uthman II and an Abyssinian mother, Abu al-Hassan had a dark complexion, and was known as the 'Black Sultan' of Morocco.He succeeded his father Abu Sa'id...

 (1331–1348) another attempt was made to reunite the Maghreb
Maghreb
The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

. In 1337 the empire of the Abdalwadid
Abdalwadid
Zayyanids or Abd al-Wadids , or Banu Zayan, is the name of a Berber zenata dynasty in North Africa. The Zayyanids, whose capital was Tlemcen existed from 1235 to 1556...

s in (what is now) Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

 was conquered, followed in 1347 by the defeat of the Hafsidempire in Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. This area included what had been the Roman province of Africa, whose name it inherited....

. However in 1340 the Marinids suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition in the Battle of Río Salado
Battle of Rio Salado
The Battle of Río Salado was a battle of King Afonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile against sultan Abu al-Hasan 'Ali of the Marinid dynasty of Morocco and the Nasrid ruler Yusuf I of the Kingdom of Granada.-Campaign:...

, and finally had to withdraw from Andalusia. Abu l-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris
Abu Inan Faris
Abu Inan Faris was a Marinid ruler. He succeeded his father Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman as sultan of Morocco in 1348. He died strangled by his vizier in 1358.- History :...

 (1348–1358), who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite several successes, the dynasty began to decline after the murder of Abu Inan Faris, who was strangled by his own vizir in 1358.

Unruly Arab Bedouin
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

 tribes increasingly spread anarchy in Morocco, which accelerated the decline of the empire. The Marinids reduced their funding of the marabuts in the wake of a financial crisis in the 15th century, and the marabouts' political support for the Marnids waned. The empire fractured into multiple small kingdoms and city-states.

Marinid rulers after 1358 came under the control of the Wattasid
Wattasid
The Wattassids or Banû Watâs were a Berber dynasty of Morocco.Like the Marinids, they were of Berber Zenata descent. The two families were related, and the Marinids recruited many viziers from the Wattasids...

s, who as vizir
Vizier
A vizier or in Arabic script ; ; sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in a Muslim government....

s exercised the real power in the empire. They rotated Marinid sultans, who were often still children, in quick succession to ensure a strong viziership. The Wattasids were equally unable to consolidate the empire, so that in 1415 Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 was able to occupy the town of Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and by 1513 had gained control over all important harbours on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. After Abdalhaqq II (1421–1465) tried in vain to break the power of the Wattasids, he finally toppled the Marinid dynasty. The current head of the dynasty is Mark Tabili, who is descended from Sultan Abu Tabil.

Chronology of events


  • 1215: The Banu Marin (Marinids) attacks the Almohads when the 16 year old Almohad caliph Yusuf II Al-Mustansir
    Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph
    Yusuf II was Caliph of Morocco from 1213 until his death. Son of the previous caliph, Muhammad an-Nasir, Yusuf assumed the throne following his father's death, at the age of only sixteen years....

     comes to power in 1213. The battle takes place on the coast of the Rif
    Rif
    The Rif or Riff is a mainly mountainous region of northern Morocco, with some fertile plains, stretching from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Ras Kebdana and the Melwiyya River in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river of Wergha in the south.It is part of the...

    . In the reign of Yusuf II Al-Mustansir a great tower is erected to protect the royal palace in Seville.
  • 1217: Abd al-Haqq I
    Abd al-Haqq I
    Abd al-Haqq I was the first Marinid sheikh, leader and an eponym of the same dynasty.-History:Around 1215, the new Almohad caliph, Yusuf II Al-Mustansir was still young and the Almohad dynasty had just received a severe defeat against Christian kingdoms of Iberia on July 1212 in the battle of Las...

     dies during victorious combat against the Almohads. His son Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid leader and son of Abd al-Haqq I.After the death of his father, he went on chasing the Almohads. Uthman was killed by one of his Christian slaves....

     (Uthman I) succeeds to the throne. Marinids take possession of the Rif and seem to want to remain there. The Almohades counterattack in vain.
  • 1240: Uthman I
    Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid leader and son of Abd al-Haqq I.After the death of his father, he went on chasing the Almohads. Uthman was killed by one of his Christian slaves....

     is assassinated by one of his Christian slaves. His brother Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Haqq
    Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Haqq
    Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Haqq or Muhammad ben `Abd al-Haqq , was a Marinid ruler. He was the son of Abd al-Haqq I and the brother of Uthman I.He continued to fight the Almohads especially around the city of Meknes....

     (Muhammad I) succeeds him.
  • 1244: Muhammad I is killed by an officer of his own Christian mercenary militia. Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid ruler. He was the son of Abd al-Haqq I and the brother of both Uthman I and Muhammad I....

    , the third son of Abd Al-Haqq, succeeds him.
  • 1249: Severe repression of anti-Marinid forces in Fes
    Fes
    Fes or Fez is the second largest city of Morocco, after Casablanca, with a population of approximately 1 million . It is the capital of the Fès-Boulemane region....

    .
  • 1258: Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq dies of disease. His uncle, Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq
    Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq
    Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. He was the fourth son of Marinid founder Abd al-Haqq, and succeeded his brother Abu Yahya in 1258. He died in 1286.-History:The Marinids had been fighting the Almohads for supremacy over Morocco since 1210s...

    , fourth son of Abd Al-Haqq, succeeds to the throne.
  • 1260: The Castilians
    Kingdom of Castile
    Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. It emerged as a political autonomous entity in the 9th century. It was called County of Castile and was held in vassalage from the Kingdom of León. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region...

     raid Salé
    Salé
    Salé is a city in north-western Morocco, on the right bank of the Bou Regreg river, opposite the national capital Rabat, for which it serves as a commuter town...

    .
  • 1269: Seizure of Marrakesh and the end of Almohad domination of the western Maghreb
    Maghreb
    The Maghreb is the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. It includes five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania and the disputed territory of Western Sahara...

    .
  • 1274: The Marinids seize Sijilmassa.
  • 1276: Founding of Fes Jdid
    Fes Jdid
    Fes Jdid is one of the 3 parts of Fes, Morocco. It was founded by the Marinids in 1276 as an extension to Fes el Bali....

     ("New Fes"), a new city near Fes, which comes to be considered a new district of Fes, in contrast to Fes el Bali
    Fes el Bali
    Fes el Bali is the oldest and walled part of Fes, Morocco. Fes el Bali was originally founded as the capital of the Idrisid Dynasty in between 789 and 808 AD...

     ("Old Fes").
  • 1286: Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq dies of disease in Algeciras after a fourth expedition to the Iberian Peninsula
    Iberian Peninsula
    The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

    . His son Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr
    Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr
    Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. Son of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub, whom he succeeded in 1286. He was assassinated in 1307.- History :...

     replaces him.
  • 1286: Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr combats revolts in and around the Draa River
    Draa River
    The Draa is Morocco's longest river . It is formed by the confluence of the Dadès River and Imini River. It flows from the High Atlas mountains south-ward to Tagounit and from Tagounit mostly westwards to the Atlantic Ocean somewhat north of Tan-Tan...

     and the province of Marrakesh.
  • 1288: Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr receives in Fes the envoys of the king of Granada, to whom the town of Cadiz
    Cádiz
    Cadiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the homonymous province, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia....

     is returned.
  • 1291: Construction of the mosque of Taza
    Taza
    Taza is a city in northern Morocco, which occupies the corridor between the Rif mountians and Middle Atlas mountains, about 120 km east of Fez. It is located at 150 km from Nador, and 210 km from Oujda...

    , the earliest preserved Marinid building.
  • 1296: Construction of Sidi Boumediene mosque, or Sidi Belhasan, in Tlemcen.
  • 1299: Beginning of Tlemcen's siege by the Marinids, which will last nine years.
  • 1306: Conquest and destruction of Taroudant
    Taroudant
    Taroudant is a Moroccan city located in the Sous Valley in the southern part of the country. It is situated east of Agadir on the road to Ouarzazate and the Sahara desert and south of Marrakech. It is called the "Grandmother of Marrakech" because it looks like a smaller Marrakech with its...

    .
  • 1307: Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr is assassinated by a eunuch in connection with some obscure matter related to the harem. His son Abu Thabit Amir
    Abu Thabit Amir
    Abu Thabit Amir was a Marinid ruler of Morocco for around a year. Son or grandson of Abu Yaqub Yusuf, whom he succeeded in 1307.- History :...

     succeeds to the throne.
  • 1308: Abu Thabit dies of disease after only one year in power in Tetouan
    Tétouan
    Tetouan is a city in northern Morocco. The Berber name means literally "the eyes" and figuratively "the water springs". Tetouan is one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea. It lies a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 mi E.S.E. of Tangier...

    , a city which he has just founded. His brother, Abu al-Rabi Sulayman
    Abu al-Rabi Sulayman
    Abu al-Rabi Sulayman was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. Son or grandson of Abu Yaqub Yusuf and brother of Abu Thabit Amir, whom he succeeded in 1308, at the age of 19.- History :Abu al-Rabi Sulayman succeeded his brother Abu Thabit Amir as Marinid sultan in July 1308...

     succeeds him.
  • 1309: Abu al-Rabi Sulayman enters Ceuta.
  • 1310: Abu al-Rabi dies of disease after having repressed a revolt of army officials in Taza. Among them is Gonzalve, chief of the Christian militia. His brother Abu Said Uthman succeeds him to the throne.
  • 1323: Construction of the Attarin's madrassa in Fes.
  • 1325: Ibn Battuta
    Ibn Battuta
    Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...

     begins his 29-year journey across Africa and Eurasia.
  • 1329: The Marinids defeat the Castilians in Algeciras, establishing a foothold in the south of the Iberian peninsula with the hope of reversing the Reconquista
    Reconquista
    The Reconquista was a period of almost 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in retaking the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula broadly known as Al-Andalus...

    .
  • 1331: Abu Said Uthman dies. His son Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman
    Abu al-Hasan 'Ali
    Abu Al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Othman was a sultan of the Marinid Dynasty who reigned in Morocco and Al-Andalus . The son of Marinid ruler Abu Sa'id Uthman II and an Abyssinian mother, Abu al-Hassan had a dark complexion, and was known as the 'Black Sultan' of Morocco.He succeeded his father Abu Sa'id...

     succeeds him.
  • 1337: First occupation of Tlemcen.
  • 1340: A combined Portuguese–Castilian army defeats the Marinids in the battle of Rio Salado
    Battle of Rio Salado
    The Battle of Río Salado was a battle of King Afonso IV of Portugal and King Alfonso XI of Castile against sultan Abu al-Hasan 'Ali of the Marinid dynasty of Morocco and the Nasrid ruler Yusuf I of the Kingdom of Granada.-Campaign:...

    , close to Tarifa
    Tarifa
    Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of Spain. The town is located on the Costa de la Luz and across the Straits of Gibraltar facing Morocco. The municipality includes Punta de Tarifa, the southernmost point in continental Europe. There are five...

    , the southernmost town of the Iberian peninsula. The Marinids return to Africa.
  • 1344: The Castilians take over Algeciras. The Marinids are ejected from Iberia.
  • 1347: Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman destroys the Hafsid dynasty
    Hafsid dynasty
    The Hafsids were a Berber dynasty ruling Ifriqiya from 1229 to 1574. Their territories were stretched from east of modern Algeria to west of modern Libya during their zenith.-History:...

     of Tunis
    Tunis
    Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

     and restores his authority over all the Maghreb.
  • 1348: Abu al-Hasan dies, his son Abu Inan Faris
    Abu Inan Faris
    Abu Inan Faris was a Marinid ruler. He succeeded his father Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman as sultan of Morocco in 1348. He died strangled by his vizier in 1358.- History :...

     succeeds him as Marinid ruler.
  • 1348: The Black Death
    Black Death
    The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Of several competing theories, the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Thought to have...

     and the rebellions of Tlemcen and Tunis mark the beginning of the decline of the Marinids, who are unable to drive back the Portuguese and the Castilians.
  • 1350: Construction of Bou Inania's madrassa in Meknes
    Meknes
    Meknes is a city in northern Morocco, located from the capital Rabat and from Fes. It is served by the A2 expressway between those two cities and by the corresponding railway. Meknes was the capital of Morocco under the reign of Moulay Ismail , before it was relocated to Marrakech. The...

    .
  • 1351: Second seizure of Tlemcen.
  • 1357: Defeat of Abu Inan Faris in front of Tlemcen. Construction of another of Bou Inania's madrassas in Fes.
  • 1358 Abu Inan is assassinated by his vizir. A time of confusion starts. Each vizir tries to install weak candidates on the throne.
  • 1358: Abu Zian as-Said Muhammad ibn Faris is named sultan by the vizirs, just after the assassination of Abu Inan. His reign lasts only a few months. Abu Yahya abu Bakr ibn Faris comes to power, but also reigns only a few months.
  • 1359: Abu Salim Ibrahim is nominated sultan by the vizirs. He is one of the sons of Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman and is supported by the king of Castille, Pedro
    Pedro of Castile
    Peter , sometimes called "the Cruel" or "the Lawful" , was the king of Castile and León from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal, daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal...

    .
  • 1359: Resurgence of the Zianids of Tlemcen.
  • 1361: Abu Umar Tachfin is named the successor to Abu Salim Ibrahim by the vizirs, with the support of the Christian militia. He reigns only a few months.
  • 1361: The period called the "reign of the vizirs" ends.
  • 1362: Muhammad ibn Yaqub assumes power. He is a young son of Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman, who had taken refuge in Castile.
  • 1366: Muhammad ibn Yaqub is assassinated by his vizir. He is replaced by Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ali, one of the sons of Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman who until this time had been held locked up in the palace of Fes.
  • 1370: Third seizure of Tlemcen.
  • 1372: Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ali dies of disease leaving the throne to his very young son Muhammad as-Said, beginning a new period of instability. The vizirs try on several occasions to install a puppet sovereign
    Puppet state
    A puppet state is a nominal sovereign of a state who is de facto controlled by a foreign power. The term refers to a government controlled by the government of another country like a puppeteer controls the strings of a marionette...

    .
  • 1373: Muhammad as-Said is presented as the heir to his father, Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ali, but being only five years old cannot reign, and dies in the same year.
  • 1374: Abu al-Abbas Ahmad, supported by the Nasrid princes of Granada, takes power.
  • 1374: Partition of the empire into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Fes and the Kingdom of Marrakech.
  • 1384: Abu al-Abbas is temporarily removed by the Nasrids. The Nasrids replace him with Abu Faris Musa ibn Faris, a disabled son of Abu Inan Faris. This ensures a kind of interim during the reign of Abu al-Abbas Ahmad from 1384 to 1386.
  • 1384: Abu Zayd Abd ar-Rahman reigns over the Kingdom of Marrakech from 1384 to 1387 while the Marinid throne is still based in Fes.
  • 1386: Al-Wathiq ensures the second part of the interim in the reign of Abu al-Abbas from 1386 to 1387.
  • 1387: Abu Al-Abbas begins to give vizirs more power. Morocco knows six years of peace again, although Abu Al-Abbas benefits from this period to reconquer Tlemcen and Algiers
    Algiers
    ' is the capital and largest city of Algeria. According to the 1998 census, the population of the city proper was 1,519,570 and that of the urban agglomeration was 2,135,630. In 2009, the population was about 3,500,000...

    .
  • 1393: Abu Al-Abbas dies. Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ahmad is designated as the new sultan. The troubles which follow the sudden death of Abu Al-Abbas in Taza
    Taza
    Taza is a city in northern Morocco, which occupies the corridor between the Rif mountians and Middle Atlas mountains, about 120 km east of Fez. It is located at 150 km from Nador, and 210 km from Oujda...

     make it possible for the Christian sovereigns to carry the war into Morocco.
  • 1396: Abu Amir Abdallah succeeds to the throne.
  • 1398: Abu Amir dies. His brother, Abu Said Uthman ibn Ahmad, takes power.
  • 1399: Benefitting from the anarchy within the Marinid kingdom, king Henry III of Castile
    Henry III of Castile
    Henry III KG , sometimes known as Henry the Sufferer or Henry the Infirm , was the son of John I and Eleanor of Aragon, and succeeded him as King of the Castilian Crown in 1390....

     arrives in Morocco, seizes Tetouan
    Tétouan
    Tetouan is a city in northern Morocco. The Berber name means literally "the eyes" and figuratively "the water springs". Tetouan is one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea. It lies a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 mi E.S.E. of Tangier...

    , massacres half of the population and reduces the rest to slavery.
  • 1415: King John I of Portugal
    John I of Portugal
    John I KG , called the Good or of Happy Memory, more rarely and outside Portugal the Bastard, was the tenth King of Portugal and the Algarve and the first to use the title Lord of Ceuta...

     seizes Ceuta. This conquest marks the beginning of overseas European expansion.
  • 1420: Abu Said Uthman dies. He is replaced by his son, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq, who is only one year old.
  • 1437: Failure of a Portuguese expedition
    Battle of Tangier (1437)
    The 1437 Battle of Tangier, sometimes referred to as the Siege of Tangiers, refers to the attempt by a Portuguese expeditionary force to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier, and their subsequent defeat by the armies of the Marinid sultanate of Morocco....

     to Tangier
    Tangier
    Tangier, also Tangiers is a city in northern Morocco with a population of about 700,000 . It lies on the North African coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel...

    . Many prisoners are taken and the infant Fernando, the Saint Prince
    Fernando, the Saint Prince
    The Blessed Infante Fernando , commonly known as the Saint Prince was an infante of Portugal of the House of Aviz and a saint of the Roman Catholic Church....

     is kept as a hostage. A treaty is made with the Portuguese enabling them to embark if they return Ceuta. Fernando is kept as a hostage to guarantee the execution of this pact. Influenced by Pope Eugene IV
    Pope Eugene IV
    Pope Eugene IV , born Gabriele Condulmer, was pope from March 3, 1431, to his death.-Biography:He was born in Venice to a rich merchant family, a Correr on his mother's side. Condulmer entered the Order of Saint Augustine at the monastery of St. George in his native city...

    , Edward of Portugal sacrifices his brother for national trade interests.
  • 1458: King Afonso V of Portugal
    Afonso V of Portugal
    Afonso V KG , called the African , was the twelfth King of Portugal and the Algarves. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa.-Early life:...

     prepares an army for a crusade against the Ottomans in response to the call of Pope Pius II
    Pope Pius II
    Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini was Pope from August 19, 1458 until his death in 1464. Pius II was born at Corsignano in the Sienese territory of a noble but decayed family...

    , but he instead uses the army to attack a small port located between Tangier
    Tangier
    Tangier, also Tangiers is a city in northern Morocco with a population of about 700,000 . It lies on the North African coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel...

     and Ceuta
    Ceuta
    Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

    .
  • 1459: Abu Muhammad Abd Al-Haqq revolts against his own Wattasid vizirs. Only two brothers survive, who will become the first Wattasid sultans in 1472.
  • 1462: Ferdinand IV of Castile takes over Gibraltar
    Gibraltar
    Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

    .
  • 1465: Abu Muhammad Abd Al-Haqq appoints a Jewish vizir, Aaron ben Batash, provoking a popular revolt. The sultan dies in the revolt when his throat is cut. The Portuguese king Afonso V
    Afonso V of Portugal
    Afonso V KG , called the African , was the twelfth King of Portugal and the Algarves. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa.-Early life:...

     finally manages to take Tangier, benefitting from the troubles in Fes.
  • 1472: Abu Abdallah sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya, one of the two Wattasid vizirs surviving the 1459 massacre, installs himself in Fes, where he founds the Wattasid dynasty.

Marinid rulers


  • Abd al-Haqq I
    Abd al-Haqq I
    Abd al-Haqq I was the first Marinid sheikh, leader and an eponym of the same dynasty.-History:Around 1215, the new Almohad caliph, Yusuf II Al-Mustansir was still young and the Almohad dynasty had just received a severe defeat against Christian kingdoms of Iberia on July 1212 in the battle of Las...

     (1195–1217)
  • Uthman I
    Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid leader and son of Abd al-Haqq I.After the death of his father, he went on chasing the Almohads. Uthman was killed by one of his Christian slaves....

     (1217–1240)
  • Muhammad I
    Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Haqq
    Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Haqq or Muhammad ben `Abd al-Haqq , was a Marinid ruler. He was the son of Abd al-Haqq I and the brother of Uthman I.He continued to fight the Almohads especially around the city of Meknes....

     (1240–1244)
  • Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq
    Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid ruler. He was the son of Abd al-Haqq I and the brother of both Uthman I and Muhammad I....

     (1244–1258)
  • Umar (1258–1259)
  • Abu Yusuf Yaqub
    Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq
    Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd al-Haqq was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. He was the fourth son of Marinid founder Abd al-Haqq, and succeeded his brother Abu Yahya in 1258. He died in 1286.-History:The Marinids had been fighting the Almohads for supremacy over Morocco since 1210s...

     (1259–1286)
  • Abu Yaqub Yusuf
    Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr
    Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. Son of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub, whom he succeeded in 1286. He was assassinated in 1307.- History :...

     (1286–1306)
  • Abu Thabit Amir
    Abu Thabit Amir
    Abu Thabit Amir was a Marinid ruler of Morocco for around a year. Son or grandson of Abu Yaqub Yusuf, whom he succeeded in 1307.- History :...

     (1307–1308)
  • Abu al-Rabi Sulayman
    Abu al-Rabi Sulayman
    Abu al-Rabi Sulayman was a Marinid ruler of Morocco. Son or grandson of Abu Yaqub Yusuf and brother of Abu Thabit Amir, whom he succeeded in 1308, at the age of 19.- History :Abu al-Rabi Sulayman succeeded his brother Abu Thabit Amir as Marinid sultan in July 1308...

     (1308–1310)
  • Abu Said Uthman II
    Abu Sa'id Uthman II
    Abu Sa'id Uthman II was the 10th Marinid sultan...

     (1310–1331)
  • Abu al-Hasan 'Ali
    Abu al-Hasan 'Ali
    Abu Al-Hasan 'Ali ibn 'Othman was a sultan of the Marinid Dynasty who reigned in Morocco and Al-Andalus . The son of Marinid ruler Abu Sa'id Uthman II and an Abyssinian mother, Abu al-Hassan had a dark complexion, and was known as the 'Black Sultan' of Morocco.He succeeded his father Abu Sa'id...

     (1331–1348)
  • Abu Inan Faris
    Abu Inan Faris
    Abu Inan Faris was a Marinid ruler. He succeeded his father Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman as sultan of Morocco in 1348. He died strangled by his vizier in 1358.- History :...

     (1348–1358)
  • Muhammad II as Said (1359)
  • Abu Salim Ali II (1359–1361)
  • Abu Umar Tashfin (1361)
  • Abu Zayyan Muhammad III (1362–1366)
  • Abu l-Fariz Abdul Aziz I (1366–1372)
  • Abu l-Abbas Ahmad (1372–1374)
  • Abu Zayyan Muhammad IV (1384–1386)
  • Muhammad V (1386–1387)
  • Abu l-Abbas Ahmad (1387–1393)
  • Abdul Aziz II (1393–1398)
  • Abdullah (1398–1399)
  • Abu Said Uthman III (1399–1420)
  • Abdalhaqq II (1420–1465)

Marinid vizirs

  • 1344: Askar Ibn Tahabrit

Wattasid dynasty
  • 1420-1448 : Abu Zakariya Yahya
  • 1448-1458 : Ali ibn Yusuf
  • 1458-1459 : Yahya ibn Abi Zakariya Yahya

External links