Maria Adelaide of Austria

Maria Adelaide of Austria

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Adelaide of Austria was the first wife of Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, future King of Italy
King of Italy
King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers of the Italian peninsula after the fall of the Roman Empire...

. She was the mother of some eight children including the future Umberto I of Italy
Umberto I of Italy
Umberto I or Humbert I , nicknamed the Good , was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his death. He was deeply loathed in far-left circles, especially among anarchists, because of his conservatism and support of the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan...

. She was the Queen of Sardinia from 1849 until 1855 when she died as a result of childbirth.

Archduchess of Austria


She was born at the Royal Palace of Milan
Royal Palace of Milan
The Royal Palace of Milan was the seat of government of the Italian city of Milan for many centuries, but today is an important cultural centre, home to expositions and exhibitions....

 to Rainer Joseph of Austria and his wife Elisabeth of Savoy. Named Adelaide, or known as Adele in the family, she held the title of Archduchess of Austria. Her father was the Viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 of Lombardy-Venetia and was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II , born Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard, was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa...

 and Maria Luisa of Spain
Maria Luisa of Spain
Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.-Names:...

. Her mother was a member of the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy was formed in the early 11th century in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to eventually rule the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until the end of World War II, king of Croatia and King of Armenia...

 and a daughter of the Prince of Carignano, the head of the junior branch of the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy was formed in the early 11th century in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to eventually rule the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until the end of World War II, king of Croatia and King of Armenia...

 who ruled the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia consisted of the island of Sardinia first as a part of the Crown of Aragon and subsequently the Spanish Empire , and second as a part of the composite state of the House of Savoy . Its capital was originally Cagliari, in the south of the island, and later Turin, on the...

. Her younger brother Archduke Rainer Ferdinand
Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria was an Austrian prime minister. He was a son of Archduke Rainer Joseph....

 later acted as Minister President of Austria. Both of her brothers contracted morganatic marriage
Morganatic marriage
In the context of European royalty, a morganatic marriage is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage...

s.

Duchess of Savoy


On 12 April 1842, at the Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi, she married Victor Emmanuel of Savoy. The marriage was used to cement relations between the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy was formed in the early 11th century in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to eventually rule the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until the end of World War II, king of Croatia and King of Armenia...

 and that of the House of Habsburg but was viewed by many people of the time to increase Austrian power in Italy.

Victor Emmanuel was her first cousin and heir apparent
Heir apparent
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting, except by a change in the rules of succession....

 to the King of Sardinia
Charles Albert of Sardinia
Charles Albert was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. He succeeded his distant cousin Charles Felix, and his name is bound with the first Italian statute and the First War of Independence...

. He was styled the "Duke of Savoy" prior to succession. Adelaide thus took on the style of "Duchess of Savoy". She maintained her style of Imperial & Royal Highness till she became Queen.

Her husbands mother Maria Theresa of Austria retained great influence over her son throughout his life. Her mother-in-law was also her first cousin, both she and Adelaide being grandchildren of Emperor Leopold II. Adelaide and her husband of thirteen years had eight children. Four of these went on to have further progeny. Her husband had various extramarital affairs throughout the marriage. Adelaide was a quiet and pious woman and had had a strict upbringing. She was a loving wife and frequently would give to charity.

Queen of Sardinia


In March 1849 her father-in-law King Charles Albert
Charles Albert of Sardinia
Charles Albert was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. He succeeded his distant cousin Charles Felix, and his name is bound with the first Italian statute and the First War of Independence...

 abdicated after the events of the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It was the first Europe-wide collapse of traditional authority, but within a year reactionary...

. Her husband succeeded as Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. During her tenure as queen consort
Queen consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

 she had three further children all of which died in infancy. On 8 January 1855 she gave birth to a son who was styled the Count of Genevois. Days later Queen Maria Theresa died on 12 January 1855. Adelaide went to the late queens funeral on 16 January and returning to the palace caught a cold. She died four days later at the Royal Palace of Turin
Royal Palace of Turin
Royal Palace of Turin or Palazzo Reale, is a palace in Turin, northern Italy. It was the royal palace of the House of Savoy. It was modernised greatly by the French born Madama Reale Christine Marie of France in the seventeenth century. The palace was worked on by Filippo Juvarra...

 having had an acute attack of Gastroenteritis
Gastroenteritis
Gastroenteritis is marked by severe inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving both the stomach and small intestine resulting in acute diarrhea and vomiting. It can be transferred by contact with contaminated food and water...

. She was buried at the Royal Basilica of Superga
Basilica of Superga
The Basilica of Superga is a church in the vicinity of Turin.It was built from 1717 to 1731 for Victor Amadeus II of Savoy by Filippo Juvarra, at the top of the hill of Superga, to fulfill a vow the duke had made during the Battle of Turin...

. In 1861 her husband would become the first post-unification King of Italy
King of Italy
King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers of the Italian peninsula after the fall of the Roman Empire...

. Her husband wed again to Rosa Vercellana in a morganatic marriage
Morganatic marriage
In the context of European royalty, a morganatic marriage is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage...

. The present Italian pretender
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, formerly Crown Prince of Italy is the only son of the Umberto II, the last King of Italy. He is commonly known in Italy as Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia...

 is her direct great great grandson.

Issue

  • Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy
    Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy
    Maria Clotilde of Savoy was born in Turin to Vittorio Emanuele II, later King of Italy and his first wife Adelaide of Austria...

     (2 March 1843 – 25 June 1911) married Napoleon Joseph Bonaparte
    Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte
    Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, Prince Français, Count of Meudon, Count of Moncalieri ad personam, titular 3rd Prince of Montfort was the second son of Jérôme Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, by his wife Catherine, princess of Württemberg...

     and had issue.
  • Umberto I of Italy
    Umberto I of Italy
    Umberto I or Humbert I , nicknamed the Good , was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his death. He was deeply loathed in far-left circles, especially among anarchists, because of his conservatism and support of the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan...

     (14 March 1844 – 29 July 1900) married Princess Margherita of Savoy
    Margherita of Savoy
    Margherita of Savoy , was the Queen consort of the Kingdom of Italy during the reign of her husband, Umberto I.-Family:...

     and had issue.
  • Amadeo of Spain (30 May 1845 – 18 January 1890) married Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo and later Maria Letizia Bonaparte
    Maria Letizia Bonaparte
    Maria Letizia Bonaparte was one of three children born to Prince Napoléon and his wife Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy. She married Prince Amadeo, Duke of Aosta, the former king of Spain in 1888. Maria Letizia became the Duchess of Aosta, a title of Amadeus' he held before and after his kingship...

     and had issue.
  • Prince Oddone of Savoy (11 July 1846 – 22 January 1866) died unmarried.
  • Princess Maria Pia of Savoy
    Maria Pia of Savoy
    Maria Pia of Savoy was a Portuguese Queen consort, spouse of King Luís I of Portugal. On the day of her baptism, Pope Pius IX, her godfather, gave her a Golden Rose. Maria Pia was married to Luís on the 6 October 1862 in Lisbon...

     (14 February 1847 – 5 July 1911) married Luís I of Portugal
    Luís I of Portugal
    |-...

     and had issue.
  • Prince Carlo Alberto of Savoy (2 June 1851 – 22 June 1854) Duke of Chablais
    Duke of Chablais
    The title Duke of Chablais was a subsidiary title of the Duke of Savoy and later the King of Sardinia, both of the House of Savoy. The title is named after the province of Chablais, whose capital was Thonon-les-Bains.-Duke of Chablais, 1705:...

    , died in infancy.
  • Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy (6 July 1852) died at birth.
  • Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy (18 January 1855 – 17 May 1855) Count of Genevois, died in infancy.

Ancestry





Titles and styles

  • 3 June 1822 – 12 April 1842 Her Imperial and Royal Highness Archduchess Adelaide of Austria
  • 12 April 1842 – 23 March 1849 Her Imperial and Royal Highness The Duchess of Savoy
  • 23 March 1849 – 20 January 1855 Her Majesty The Queen of Sardinia

See also