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Mari El

Mari El

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Encyclopedia
The Mari El Republic is a federal subject
Federal subjects of Russia
Russia is a federation which, since March 1, 2008, consists of 83 federal subjects . In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed...

 of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (a republic
Republics of Russia
The Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects , 21 of which are republics. The republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity. The indigenous ethnic group of a republic that gives it its name is referred to as the "titular nationality"...

). Its capital is the city of Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola is the capital city of the Mari El Republic, Russia. Population: Yoshkar-Ola means red city in Mari. The current name is the third to have been given to the city. The city was known as Tsaryovokokshaysk before 1919 and as Krasnokokshaysk between 1919 and 1927...

. Population:

Geography


The republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain
East European Plain
The East European Plain is a plain comprising a series of river basins in Eastern Europe. Together with the Northern European Plain it constitutes the European Plain. It is the largest mountain-free part of the European landscape.The plain spans approximately and averages about in elevation...

 of Russia, along the Volga River
Volga River
The Volga is the largest river in Europe in terms of length, discharge, and watershed. It flows through central Russia, and is widely viewed as the national river of Russia. Out of the twenty largest cities of Russia, eleven, including the capital Moscow, are situated in the Volga's drainage...

. The swampy Mari Depression
Mari Depression
The Mari Depression is a depression at the left side of the Volga, from the western borders of the Mari El to the Bolshaya Kokshaga River. Elevation is from 50 to 100 meters, now is partly flooded with Cheboksary Reservoir. The dunes covered with forests are situated between the rivers.-References:...

 is located in the west of the republic. 57% of the republic's territory is covered by forests.
  • Area: 23200 square kilometres (8,957.6 sq mi)
  • Internal borders: Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
    Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
    Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod. Population: The oblast is crossed by the Volga River. Apart from Nizhny Novgorod's metropolitan area, the biggest city is Arzamas...

     (SW/W/NW/N), Kirov Oblast
    Kirov Oblast
    Kirov Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the city of Kirov. Population: -History:In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Vyatka remained a place of exile for opponents of the tsarist regime, including many prominent revolutionary figures.In 1920, a number of...

     (N/NE/E), Republic of Tatarstan (SE/S), Chuvash Republic (S)
  • Highest point: 278 m


Rivers


There are 476 rivers in the republic. Most of them are considered to be minor: 10–50 m wide and 0.5-1.4 m deep. They usually freeze from mid-November till mid-April. Major rivers include:
  • Bolshaya Kokshaga River
    Bolshaya Kokshaga River
    The Bolshaya Kokshaga is a river in Kirov Oblast and Mari El, Russian Federation. It is a left-bank tributary of the Volga. Its length is 297 km and its drainage basin is 6,330 km²...

  • Ilet River
    Ilet River
    Ilet is a river in Mari El, Russia. Major tributaries are Ashit, Yushut, Voncha and Petyalka. Minimum mineralization is 1000-1400 mg/l. Tourism and rafting are popular....

  • Kundysh River
  • Malaya Kokshaga River
    Malaya Kokshaga River
    The Malaya Kokshaga is a 194 km-long river in Mari El, a left tributary of the Volga. It originates in the northern part of the republic, passes through its capital, Yoshkar-Ola, and flows to the Kuybyshev Reservoir, Volga near Kokshaisk. The Malaya Kokshaga is mainly fed by snow. From November...

  • Maly Kundysh River
    Maly Kundysh River
    Maly Kundysh is a river in Mari El, Russia, a left tributary of the Malaya Kokshaga River. It is 107 km long, its drainage basin is 1310 km²....

  • Nemda River
  • Rutka River
    Rutka River
    The Rutka is a river in Kirov Oblast and Mari El, Russia. It is 153 km long. The Rutka origins in Kirov Oblast, passes the Mari Depression and flows to the Cheboksary Reservoir. The Rutka frezes up in November and stays under ice until April. The river is navigable....

  • Urzhumka River
  • Vetluga River
    Vetluga River
    Vetluga is a river in the Kirov Oblast, Kostroma Oblast, Mari El Republic and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast of Russia. It is a left tributary of Volga, confluence near Kozmodemyansk. The river is navigable....

     (navigable)
  • Volga River
    Volga River
    The Volga is the largest river in Europe in terms of length, discharge, and watershed. It flows through central Russia, and is widely viewed as the national river of Russia. Out of the twenty largest cities of Russia, eleven, including the capital Moscow, are situated in the Volga's drainage...

     (navigable)
  • Yushut River
    Yushut River
    Yushut is a river in Mari El, Russia, a right tributary of the Ilet River.The major inhabited localities are Mochalishche settlement and Oshutyaly village....


Lakes


There are over two hundred lakes in the republic, most of them with an area less than 1 km² and depth of 1–3 m. Many lakes are located among swamps. Swamps cover large areas (10–70 km², up to 100 km²), and usually freeze in December. Average depth of the swamps is .5-1.5 m (up to 3 m), but they are impassable in fall and spring due to flooding.

Major lakes include:
  • Karas Lake
    Karas Lake
    Karaś is a lake in the Masurian Lake District of north-eastern Poland, from the town of Iława in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.The lake is the site of a nature reserve, established in 1958 and covering an area of . Since 1984 it has been protected under the Ramsar convention as an important...

  • Kichiyer Lake
  • Yalchik Lake
    Yalchik Lake
    Lake Yalchik is the largest lake in Mari El, Russia, located in the Marii Chodra national park. Lake Yalchik plays a major role in tourism in region and several tourist centres are located here...

  • Tair Lake
  • Cheboksary Reservoir
    Cheboksary Reservoir
    Cheboksary Reservoir is an artificial lake in the central part of the Volga River and formed by the Cheboksary Dam in Novocheboksarsk....


Natural resources


There are virtually no natural resources of industrial significance in the republic. Other resources include peat
Peat
Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter or histosol. Peat forms in wetland bogs, moors, muskegs, pocosins, mires, and peat swamp forests. Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world...

, mineral water
Mineral water
Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value, generally obtained from a naturally occurring mineral spring or source. Dissolved substances in the water may include various salts and sulfur compounds...

s, and limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

.

Climate


Climate is moderately continental
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

. Winters are moderately cold and snowy. Summers are warm and often rainy.
  • Average January temperature: −13 C
  • Average July temperature: 19 °C (66.2 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation
    Precipitation (meteorology)
    In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

    : 450–500 mm

Demographics


  • Population:

  • Population:
    • Urban: 459,687 (63.1%)
    • Rural: 268,292 (36.9%)
    • Male: 338,485 (46.5%)
    • Female: 389,494 (53.5%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,151
  • Average age: 36.7 years
    • Urban: 36.7 years
    • Rural: 36.7 years
    • Male: 34.0 years
    • Female: 39.0 years
  • Number of households: 263,382 (with 717,938 people)
    • Urban: 173,246 (with 455,006 people)
    • Rural: 90,136 (with 262,932 people)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service

Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 10,505 6,364 15.3 9.3
1975 11,816 7,190 17.0 10.3
1980 13,169 8,091 18.5 11.4
1985 14,198 8,529 19.5 11.7
1990 11,953 7,775 15.8 10.3
1991 10,578 7,786 14.0 10.3
1992 9,227 8,330 12.2 11.0
1993 8,019 9,622 10.6 12.7
1994 7,851 10,788 10.4 14.2
1995 7,337 9,999 9.7 13.2
1996 6,952 9,495 9.2 12.6
1997 6,782 9,625 9.0 12.8
1998 6,657 9,623 8.9 12.8
1999 6,597 10,674 8.8 14.3
2000 6,784 11,040 9.1 14.9
2001 6,832 11,434 9.3 15.5
2002 7,300 12,105 10.0 16.6
2003 7,515 11,861 10.4 16.4
2004 7,715 12,098 10.7 16.8
2005 7,475 12,256 10.5 17.2
2006 7,550 11,286 10.6 15.9
2007 8,306 10,745 11.8 15.2
2008 8,620 10,699 12.3 15.2

  • Ethnic groups

Though the Mari people have lived in the area for millennia, they did not have a designated territory before the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917...

. According to the 2002 Census
Russian Census (2002)
Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics .-Resident population:...

 only 51.7% of the Mari within Russia live in the Mari El Republic, while 17.5% live in the Republic of Bashkortostan. During the last Soviet Census (1989), 4% of the Mari of the Soviet Union lived outside of Russia.

Since World War II, more ethnic Russians and Tatars have moved into the area. According to the 2002 Census
Russian Census (2002)
Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics .-Resident population:...

, Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

 make up 47.5% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Mari make up 42.3%. Other groups include Tatars
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

 (6.0%), Chuvash
Chuvash people
The Chuvash people are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia. Most of them live in Republic of Chuvashia and surrounding areas, although Chuvash communities may be found throughout all Russia.- Etymology :...

 (1.0%), Ukrainians
Ukrainians
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

 (5,097, or 0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. 2,911 people (0.4%) did not indicate their nationalities during the Census.
census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Mari 247,979 (51.4%) 273,332 (47.2%) 279,450 (43.1%) 299,179 (43.7%) 306,627 (43.5%) 324,349 (43.3%) 312,178 (42.9%)
Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

210,016 (43.6%) 266,951 (46.1%) 309,514 (47.8%) 320,825 (46.9%) 334,561 (47.5%) 355,973 (47.5%) 345,513 (47.5%)
Tatars
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

20,219 (4.2%) 27,149 (4.7%) 38,821 (6.0%) 40,279 (5.9%) 40,917 (5.8%) 43,850 (5.9%) 43,377 (6.0%)
Chuvash
Chuvash people
The Chuvash people are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia. Most of them live in Republic of Chuvashia and surrounding areas, although Chuvash communities may be found throughout all Russia.- Etymology :...

2,184 (0.5%) 5,504 (0.9%) 9,065 (1.4%) 9,032 (1.3%) 8,087 (1.1%) 8,993 (1.2%) 7,418 (1.0%)
Others 1,703 (0.4%) 6,674 (1.2%) 10,830 (1.7%) 15,433 (2.3%) 14,015 (2.0%) 16,167 (2.2%) 19,943 (2.7%)

History


Ancient Mari tribes were known since the 5th century, though archeologists suspect Mari culture to be much older in its roots. Later their area was a tributary of Volga Bulgaria
Volga Bulgaria
Volga Bulgaria, or Volga–Kama Bolghar, is a historic Bulgar state that existed between the seventh and thirteenth centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now Russia.-Origin:...

 and the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
The Golden Horde was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that formed the north-western sector of the Mongol Empire...

. In the 1440s it was incorporated into the Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
The Khanate of Kazan was a medieval Tatar state which occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552. Its khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. The khanate covered contemporary Tatarstan, Mari El,...

 and was occupied by the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 till Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 a year...

 (governed by Ivan the Terrible) after the fall of Kazan
Kazan
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,546 , it is the eighth most populous city in Russia. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the...

 in 1552.

After the Russian Revolution, under Bolshevik
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic , commonly referred to as Soviet Russia, Bolshevik Russia, or simply Russia, was the largest, most populous and economically developed republic in the former Soviet Union....

 regime, Mari Autonomous Oblast
Mari Autonomous Oblast
Mari Autonomous Oblast was created 1920-11-04,as a part of RSFSR. Later Mari ASSR was proclaimed, eventually developed to the modern Mari El Republic within Russian Federation.The early years: Povolzhye famine, 1921 Mari wildfires....

 was established on November 4, 1920. It was re-organized into Mari ASSR on December 5, 1936, same as the enactment of the 1936 Soviet Constitution
1936 Soviet Constitution
The 1936 Soviet constitution, adopted on December 5, 1936, and also known as the "Stalin" constitution, redesigned the government of the Soviet Union.- Basic provisions :...

, a.k.a. "Stalin Constitution". In its present form the Mari El Republic was formed on December 22, 1990.

Politics


The head of government in the Mari El Republic is the President. As of 2008, the president is Leonid Markelov
Leonid Markelov
Leonid Igorevich Markelov is a Russian politician and lawyer, who is serving as the president of the Mari El republic in Russia. He took office on January 14, 2001. Markelov was elected in December 2000 in one of the most contentious elections that occurred in the period between 1991 and 2005...

, who was elected in January 2001.

The ethnic Mari people are under heavy Russification and Leonid Markelov
Leonid Markelov
Leonid Igorevich Markelov is a Russian politician and lawyer, who is serving as the president of the Mari El republic in Russia. He took office on January 14, 2001. Markelov was elected in December 2000 in one of the most contentious elections that occurred in the period between 1991 and 2005...

 has ordered many Mari language
Mari language
The Mari language , spoken by more than 600,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family. It is spoken primarily in the Mari Republic of the Russian Federation as well as in the area along the Vyatka river basin and eastwards to the Urals...

 newspapers to close. Many ethnic Mari activists live under fear of violence. The Mari activist and chief editor Vladimir Kozlov was badly beaten after he published criticism toward Leonid Markelov's politics. Other Mari leaders have been the subjects of violence, legal persecution and intimidation

The Marla faith
Marla faith
The Mari Traditional Religion is a syncretic religion and the traditional faith of the Mari people of the republic of Mari El, Russia. The religion encompasses animist beliefs, Paganism, and elements of Christianity and Islam...

 of the Mari people has encountered hostility as well. Vitaly Tanakov was charged with inciting religious, national, social and linguistic hatred after publishing the book The Priest Speaks.

International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) and Moscow Helsinki Group (MHG) in an exhaustive 2006 report "Russian Federation: The Human Rights Situation of the Mari Minority of the Republic of Mari El," found widespread evidence of political and cultural persecution of Mari people, and of "a broader trend of repression of dissidents in the republic." They note that because of the relative obscurity of the Mari people and culture in the global context, no major NGOs have yet taken up the cause of protecting their rights.

Economy


The most developed industries are machine construction, metal working, timber, woodworking, and food industries. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the capital Yoshkar-Ola, as well as in the towns of Kozmodemyansk
Kozmodemyansk
Kozmodemyansk is a town in the Mari El Republic, Russia, located at the confluence of the Vetluga and the Volga Rivers. It serves as the administrative center of Gornomariysky District, although it is not administratively a part of it...

, Volzhsk
Volzhsk
Volzhsk is a town in the Mari El Republic, Russia. Population:...

, and Zvenigovo
Zvenigovo
Zvenigovo is a town and the administrative center of Zvenigovsky District of the Mari El Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Volga River, south of Yoshkar-Ola. Population:...


Transportation


Traveling cheaply and quickly to various towns and villages within the republic is made possible through a network of fifteen train stations, fifty-three bus stations, and numerous marshrutka
Marshrutka
Marshrutka , from marshrutnoye taksi is a share taxi in the CIS countries, the Baltic states, and Bulgaria. Marshrutnoye taksi literally means routed taxicab...

s
. The republic is connected to different regions throughout Russia by daily trains to and from Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 and Kazan
Kazan
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,546 , it is the eighth most populous city in Russia. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the...

, an airport located near Yoshkar-Ola, and a port on the Volga River in Kozmodemyansk. There are also four other minor river ports in the republic. Regional automobile code is 12.

Communication


Telephony
Telephony
In telecommunications, telephony encompasses the general use of equipment to provide communication over distances, specifically by connecting telephones to each other....

, Internet service
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is a company that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs directly connect customers to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and host other people servers...

, and cable television
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

 are provided by VolgaTelecom
VolgaTelecom
VolgaTelecom is one of the Russian telecommuncations companies that was formed after the Svyaz'invest Company in Moscow decided to reorganise 72 different regional service providers into 7 large interregional companies....

.

Culture


There are many museums located throughout the territory of the republic. The largest ones include the National Museum, the Museum of History, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Yoshkar-Ola; the Museum of Arts and History, the Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, and the Merchant Life Museum in Kozmodemyansk; and the Sheremetevo Castle Museum-reserve in Yurino. There are also museums dedicated to the poet Nikolay Mukhin and the composer Ivan Klyuchnikov-Palantay in Yoshkar-Ola and the house-museum of writer Sergei Chavayn in Chavaynur.

Five theaters are located in Yoshkar-Ola with performances in both the Russian and Mari languages, though it should be noted that the Mari National Theater, a major ethnic institution, was closed by the government. The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) and Moscow Helsinki Group (MHG) in their 2006 report "Russian Federation: The Human Rights Situation of the Mari Minority of the Republic of Mari El", reported "The closure of the Mari National Theater, which had been a key element of Mari cultural life ever since its foundation in 1919, was perceived as a direct attack on Mari culture."

Education


The most important facilities of higher education are Mari State Technical University
Mari State Technical University
Mari State Technical University , previously known as MarSTU , is first technical, and one of the first institution of higher education of the republic of Mari El, the largest educational and scientific center of the republic.- Names :...

 and Mari State University, both located in Yoshkar-Ola. There are also more than 900 primary and secondary schools located throughout the republic.

For the past few years, the Mari El Republic has been participating in the national project "Education" ("Oбразование"), which is designed to improve education throughout Russia by bringing new technology into the classroom, improving material conditions in schools, and providing financial awards to extraordinary students and teachers.

Despite the fact that Mari language is officially a state language, Mari educators and administrators have been forced from their positions in recent years and Mari-language education has been defunded, according to the U.S. State Department, the European Union and others.

Religion


The most common religions in the republic include Russian Orthodoxy
Russian Orthodox Church
The Russian Orthodox Church or, alternatively, the Moscow Patriarchate The ROC is often said to be the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world; including all the autocephalous churches under its umbrella, its adherents number over 150 million worldwide—about half of the 300 million...

 Old Believers
Old Believers
In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers separated after 1666 from the official Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon between 1652–66...

, and Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

. The traditional Mari religion - Chi Mari Yula (Animist) is still practiced to by many Mari people and is the main religion of the Mari of Bashkordistan,also practiced is the Marla faith
Marla faith
The Mari Traditional Religion is a syncretic religion and the traditional faith of the Mari people of the republic of Mari El, Russia. The religion encompasses animist beliefs, Paganism, and elements of Christianity and Islam...

, which is a combination of these traditional beliefs and modern Christianity.The Czars took drastic measures to force Christianity on the Mari,going so far as blowing up a holy mountain, the Soviets during WWII allowed Pagan prayer meetings. Mari gather at around 520 holy groves where they offer animal and vegetable sacrifices, there are about 20 festivals yearly. Even though traditional religion is one of Mari El's 3 officially recognised religions (along with Orthodoxy and Islam) Mari religious practices have come under increasing pressure, according to human rights groups.

Tourism


The territory of the republic is one of the more ecologically pure areas of the European part of Russia with numerous lakes, rivers, and forests. As a result, it is a popular destination for tourists looking to enjoy nature. One of the most popular destinations is Marii Chodra national park in the Ilet valley, where visitors can enjoy various activities such as boating, horseback riding, fishing, and mushrooming. Another is the Bolshaya Kokshaga National Reserve, where visitors can walk through virgin forests and observe local wildlife.

Mari El is also the site of several mineral springs, many of which are located in the Ilet valley. Many small resorts and children's camps are also located on the various lakes throughout the republic.

External links



Official website of the Mari El Republic Industry in the Mari El Republic Mari El Republic nature views and sceneries A short Meadow Mari-English dictionary at http://www.uta.fi/~km56049/mari/mariengvocab.html Meadow Mari-Russian-Japanese dictionary at http://www.kmatsum.info/mari/mardic/mar0Aa.html About nature in Mari EL republic http://turizmkazan.ru/article/%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9-%D1%8D%D0%BB-%D1%82%D1%83%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9-%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B9 Kimberli Mäkäräinen's Meadow Mari Grammar at http://www.uta.fi/~km56049/mari/indexmari.html Map of Mari El

Further reading

  • Daniel Kalder. Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist