Mardavij

Mardavij

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Mardavij'
Start a new discussion about 'Mardavij'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Mardāvīj was the founder of the Ziyarids dynasty, who successfully defeated the Abbasid's army firstly in Hamadan
Hamadan
-Culture:Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.Handicrafts: Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and beautiful carpets....

 (in the midwest of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

), and finally in Kashan
Kashan
Kashan is a city in and the capital of Kashan County, in the province of Isfahan, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 248,789, in 67,464 families....

 and Isfahan
Isfahan (city)
Isfahan , historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,583,609, Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad...

 (the central cities of the country). On December 2, 931, Mardāvīj arrived in Isfahan, declared himself Amir of Iran and made Isfahan the capital of his kingdom.

Life


Although the exact birth-date of Mardāvīj is unknown, it is speculated that he was born around 890 when Amr-i Laith Saffari and Nasr I of Samanid
Nasr I of Samanid
Nasr I was amir of the Samanids . He was the son of Ahmad.Upon his father's death, Nasr inherited Samarkand and a significant part of Transoxiana. He soon found his position isolated from the rest of the Caliphate by the expanding Saffarids...

 ruled in Seistan and Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

 respectively. Some reports say that his birthplace was in Daylaman (in northwestern Iran) or somewhere in Mazandaran (also known as Tabaristan at the time).

There is some evidence that indicates the Ziyarids belonged to the Arghich Clan (the "ivy" clan), who resided originally in Gilan. Mardavij was the son of Ziyar, and the grandson of Vardanshah Gili, a chief of the Arghich clan. Members of that clan were mostly known to be considered as warriors (in Persian: Dellavar) and the name of Mardavij which means 'A Man Who Fights Bravely' should have been popular. The religion of Ziyar and his family is not exactly known. Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil...

, including heterodox branches such as the Mazdakite, the Zurvanite and Gayomardian, was still popular at his time. However, Mardavij was known to harbour Zoroastrian sympathies and may have practiced that religion. He expressed his wishes to see a return to the Empire of the Persians and Zoroastrianism, after ousting the Arabs and Islam.

Battles


Around 913
913
Year 913 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.- Africa :* The Shiite Fatimid state in modern day Tunisia launches a failed military campaign against Egypt.- Religion :...

 AD, Mardavij joined the army of Asfar Shiruyeh (ASF). Asfar, a native of Larijan
Larijan
Larijan District is a district in Amol county, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Its administrative center is Rineh. At the 2006 census, its population was 8,089, in 2,406 families. The District has two cities: Rineh and Gazanak.- References :...

 and a devout Zoroastrian, claimed descent from Shiruyeh (also called as Kavadh II
Kavadh II
Kavadh II , twenty-third Sassanid King of Persia, son of Khosrau II , was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius...

), the patricidal son and successor of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

 or from Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz or Shahrwaraz was a general, with the rank of Eran Spahbod under Khosrau II . His name was Farrokhan, and Shahrbaraz was his title...

, a Sassanian general and the usurper of the Sassanid throne for a short time who was succeeded by Queen
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

, the daughter of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

 of Persia. His name, Asfar, was possibly derived from the Persian term of Asp-var, ("horseman" or "horse rider"). Asfar was a general in the service of Alavides who ruled Tabaristan at the time. During the Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 Caliphate
Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...

, Alavides lived in the mountainous areas of Daylam
Daylam
Daylam was a province of Persia, now part of Gīlān, Iran.The Daylam region corresponds to the modern region of Gīlān...

 and tried to resist the Abbasid Caliphs influence in Iran.

Later, Asfar took advantage of a rebellion in the Samanid
Samanid
The Samani dynasty , also known as the Samanid Empire, or simply Samanids was a Persian state and empire in Central Asia and Greater Iran, named after its founder Saman Khuda, who converted to Sunni Islam despite being from Zoroastrian theocratic nobility...

 army and seized power in Gurgan
Gürgan
Gürgan is a village in Baku, Azerbaijan. It forms part of the municipality of Gürgən-Pirallahı....

 (presently called Golestan
Golestan Province
Golestan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, located in the north-east of the country, south of the Caspian Sea. Its capital is Gorgan....

) in northern Iran. Asfar also took Amol
Amol
Amol is a city in and the capital of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 197,470, in 55,183 families.Amol and the old part of town is the first of the four towns that populate the world in which there is Nzamyh...

, Ghazvin, Zanjan
Zanjan
Zanjan may refer to:* Zanjan Province, Iran* Zanjan County, an area within Zanjan Province* Zanjan, Iran, the capital of Zanjan County and Zanjan Province* Zanjan University, located in the city of Zanjan* Senjan, a city in Markazi Province, Iran...

, and the city of Rey
Rey, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

 and appointed Mardavij as the governor of Zanjan. In 927, due to Asfar's increasingly erratic behavior, a powerful opposition emerged against him and the next year Mardavij joined this opposition, defeated Asfar, and took over Asfar's possessions. At this time, Mardavij officially founded the Ziyarid dynasty. Shortly after, Mardavij raised an army to encounter the Abbasid Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

 first in Hamadan
Hamadan
-Culture:Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.Handicrafts: Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and beautiful carpets....

 and Kashan
Kashan
Kashan is a city in and the capital of Kashan County, in the province of Isfahan, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 248,789, in 67,464 families....

, and finally in Isfahan
Isfahan (city)
Isfahan , historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,583,609, Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad...

.

Agenda


On December 2, 931, Mardāvīj arrived in Isfahan, named himself the Amir of Iran and made Isfahan his capital. From the advent of Islam until Mardāvīj's arrival, Isfahan had been under the jurisdiction of the Arabs, and was favored by Mansur
Mansur
Mansur is a male Arabic name that means "victorious", from the Arabic root naṣr , meaning "victory."The first known bearer of the name was Al-Mansur, second Abbasid caliph and the founder of Baghdad....

, one of the Abbassid Caliphs during his rule.

Once in Isfahan, Mardāvīj declared his ruling agenda and asked Iranians to help him to revive the Persian Empire and its Zoroastrian traditions.

The reliable evidence indicate that in February 932
932
Year 932 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.- Asia :* After an initial defeat, Mardavij took Tabaristan and Gurgan. Makan, whose attempts to recover his territories failed, entered the service of the Samanids.- Europe :* St...

, after about three centuries, Mardāvīj and his court celebrated Sadeh
Sadeh
Sadé or Sada Jashn-e Sada/Sadé , also transliterated as Sadeh, is an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated 50 days before Nowruz. Sadeh in Persian means "hundred" and refers to one hundred days and nights past the end of summer...

 in Isfahan and many Iranians observed Sadeh again.

Death


In 935, only four years after entering Isfahan, and shortly before Nowruz
Nowruz
Nowrūz is the name of the Iranian New Year in Iranian calendars and the corresponding traditional celebrations. Nowruz is also widely referred to as the Persian New Year....

 festivities, Mardavij was assassinated by his Turkish slaves, Tuzun and Bajkam who fled to Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

. After his assassination, the Buwayhid
Buwayhid
The Buyid dynasty, also known as the Buyid Empire or the Buyids , also known as Buwaihids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah Persian dynasty that originated from Daylaman in Gilan...

, a family of commanders in service of Mardavij, took over his possessions in central and southern Iran, while Mardvij's brother Vushmgir
Vushmgir
Vushmgir was a ruler of the Ziyarids from 935 until his death. He was a son of Ziyar. Vushmgir means "quail catcher" in the local Caspian Iranian dialects.-Rise to power:...

 succeeded him in northern Iran.

Mardavij dome


Mardaviz Dome (Persian: Gonbad-e-Mardaviz), where the remains of his tomb is supposed to be, is located in the north east of Amin Abbad Borough in the city of Rey
Rey, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

, south of Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

.

Mardavij Avenue


Mardavij Avenue and Mardavij District (Persian: Mahalleh-e-Mardavij) can be also found in the south of Farabi Street in Isfahan.

Original Reference

  • Manouchehr Saadat Noury,

External links


: An Article in Persian.
  • "The Warriors" (Persian: Daliraan-e-Jaanbaaz), edited by Dr. Zabihollah Safa
    Zabihollah Safa
    Zabihollahhh Safa was a scholar and professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at the University of Tehran....

    .