Manuel Ceferino Oribe y Viana
(August 26, 1792 - November 12, 1857) was the fourth president of Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...
Manuel Oribe was the son of Captain Francisco Oribe and María Francisca Viana, a descendant of the first governor of Montevideo, José Joaquín de Viana. At the beginning of the revolution of independence in the Rio de la Plata he enlisted in the patriot ranks as a volunteer.
His baptism of fire took place in the battle of Cerrito
Battle of Cerrito , was a battle for the War of Independence of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, between the royalist forces who had control of the city of Montevideo and the rebel forces of the government of Buenos Aires.- Previous Situation :In the year 1811, the forces deployed by the...
, on December 31, 1812, during the second siege of Montevideo, feat of arms that ended in a victory for the Patriots. He took part alongside José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".-Early life:Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764...
's resistance against the Luso-Brazilian invasion in 1816.
In late 1817, with Montevideo already fallen into the hands of the Luso-Brazilians, Oribe moved to Buenos Aires along with his brother Ignacio and Colonel Rufino Bauza, taking with him the Freedmen Battalion and an artillery battalion.
Rivalry with Rivera
The historian Francisco Bauza, son of Rufino Bauza, in his "Historia de la dominación española en el Uruguay" (1880-1882), argued that given the almost obsessive insistence of Artigas to name his favorite, Fructuoso Rivera, as military commander and the south of Río Negro to face the invasion, Rufino Bauza and Manuel Oribe would have come out against a situation that led to a violent exchange of words with Artigas, whose military situation was going out of hand.
The personal rivalry between Rivera and Oribe, which apparently dates of such events, the young officer decided to abandon his boss. Carlos Federico Lecor, commander of the occupying forces, offered no hindrance to the passage of eastern officials in Buenos Aires, even though he could not attract them to your cause. Rivera and his people were in the service of the invader Lusitanians.
First stay in Buenos Aires
In Buenos Aires, known by the certifying of stationery at the time, since 1819, Oribe, along with other easterns as Santiago Vazquez and residents who were equally opposed to the Brazilian Portuguese occupation and Artigas, have built a secret Masonic society, called the Society of the Eastern Knights, who waited at least until 1821, Cisplatin Congress to undertake a return to the, since then, called Cisplatina Province and begin work to reverse the situation.
Meanwhile, following the defeat of Artigas (and even before it) another section of the eastern elite had acceded to the occupants, accepting and in fact closely collaborating with the Portuguese. This is the only sector to be represented in Congress Cisplatin, 1821.
The occupation of the Banda Oriental and its transformation into "Cisplatina Province" by the Portuguese and Brazilian troops had resulted in additional fracture of the leading sectors, which has since lined up in two groups separated by the acceptance or rejection of that military presence:
- The group that included Montevideo-Fructuoso Rivera, pro Portuguese, named Club of the Baron, for its proximity to the invading commander Carlos Federico Lecor (Baron de la Laguna)
- The exiles in Buenos Aires, where Oribe was located, a proponent of reintegration into the United Provinces of Río de la Plata as soon as possible.
Those groups would eventually become the Colorado and White party.
President of Uruguay
He served as President of Uruguay
between 1835 and 1838.
Oribe was a big supporter of Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas , was an argentine militar and politician, who was elected governor of the province of Buenos Aires in 1829 to 1835, and then of the Argentine Confederation from 1835 until 1852...
in Argentina, who in turn supported him.
In 1838 he was forced to resign by Fructuoso Rivera
José Fructuoso Rivera y Toscana was an Uruguayan general and patriot who assisted in the efforts to force Brazilians out of the Banda Oriental.-Founder of Colorado Party and President of Uruguay:...
but started a rebel army and began a long civil war
The Uruguayan Civil War, also known as "Guerra Grande", was a series of armed conflicts that took place between the Colorado Party and the National Party in Uruguay from 1839 to 1851...
which lasted until 1851.
After a siege of the capital Montevideo
Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento...
which lasted for 8 years, Oribe was defeated in 1851 with help from Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...
and Argentine rebels who were against Rosas.
Historical and political heritage
Oribe’s supporters became known as the Nationals
The National Party , also known as the White Party , is a major right-wing conservative political party in Uruguay, currently the major opposition party to the ruling Frente Amplio government....
or Blancos, while his opponents became the Colorados
The Colorado Party is a political party in Uruguay.- Aims :It unites Conservative, Moderate and Social democratic groups. It was the dominant party of government almost without exception during the stabilisation of the Uruguayan republic....
. These remained the main political factions until a third –the Frente Amplio
The Broad Front is a Uruguayan left-wing coalition of political parties. It is led by Jorge Brovetto. Frente Amplio has close ties with PIT-CNT trade union and the cooperative housing movement.-History:...
– emerged in the late 20th century.
- Columbia Encyclopedia article